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History Of 

Prince Edward 
County, Virginia 





Minister, First Baptist Church, Farmville, Va. 

A History of 

Prince Edward County 


CompUed mainly from 

Original Records and Personally 

Contributed Articles. 

With a Brief Sketch of the Beginnings of Virginia^ 

A Summary of tjie History of the County Seat^ 

And a Special Chapter on the Churches of the County 

By Charles Edward Burrell, LL. B., D. D. 


Copyright^ 1922 


Chakles Edward Burrell, LL. B., D. D. 


Printed and Bound in the United States of America^ 1922, 

To The 

Good people of Prince Edward County^ Virginia; 

the nolle offspring of a splendid ancestry; 

this work is most humbly dedicated. 


Historians ought to be precise, faithful, and unprej- 
udiced; and neither interest nor fear, hatred nor affection, 
should make them swerve from the way of truth, whose 
mother is history, the rival of time, the depositary of great 
actions, witness of the past, example to the present, and 
monitor to the future. — Cervantes. 

praecipuum munus annalium reor, ne virtutes 

sileantur, utque pravis dictis factisque ex posteritate et in- 
famia metus sit. — Tactitus, Annales III. 65. 

History of Prince Edward County 


Prince Edward county is not a large county. The pos- 
sible constituency for such a work as this is, therefore, de- 
cidedly limited. Hence, in order that it shall have an ade- 
quate circulation; a circulation worthy of the county; it 
will be necessary that its natural appeal shall be supple- 
mented by county pride. The urge of possible profit will 
not be sufficient to secure for it any large reading under 
the circumstances. The author entertains no expectation of 
monetary remuneration. The task has, with him, been a 
real work of love. Prince Edward county has never had 
a "History" published. It will be too bad if there is not 
discovered sufficient pride of county to secure for this be- 
lated effort a fitting response. 

The author believes that such county pride does 
exist in such measure as will make welcome this effort to 
make permanent some of the splendid history of the county. 
Few counties of Virginia are richer in historical material 
than is Prince Edward. It ought to have been published 
long ere this. This is at least an honest effort to supply the 
deficiency. It will provide a real starting point to some 
future more serious attempt to do justice to a great subject. 
This is the sincere desire of the present writer. 

History of Prince Edward County 


This unpretentious volume is put forth in the sincere 
hope that it may prove of some value to the student of his- 
tory, as well as to the present life of the Old Dominion, as 
it is contributed to by Prince Edward county. 

Of necessity, the record must be fragmentary and faulty 
in many respects, but in the more vital things, the author 
ventures the hope that reasonable accuracy has been attained. 
He is a pioneer in-so-far as this county is concerned. 

An effort has been made to link up the present with the 
past in a real way, hence the work is something more than 
a mere recital of past events. Much of present events and 
conditions, together with the life story of many now living, 
contributors to the sturdy progress of affairs in this part of 
the State, is included. The encyclopaedic method has been 
deliberately and purposely adopted. The orthodox historian 
will doubtless be shocked at this. The net result will doubt- 
less be, however, that the lay reader will find it all the more 
readable and interesting. That is one objective aimed at. 
A serious attempt has been made to bring the study down 
to even date, and this could be the more easily accomplished 
by the adoption of this method. "Ancient" history usually 
finds but the "faithful few" really interested. 

No history of the county having been previously pub- 
lished, the present worker found himself beset by a bewilder- 
ing mass of material. Out of this he was forced to make se- 
lection in a most arbitrary fashion. A previously mapped 
out course has been more or less rigidly adhered to, in spite 
of the many resulting inequalities. Doubtless much that 
is worthy of inclusion will be found to have been sacrificed, 
and much about which a question might very legitimately 

History of Prince Edward County 

be raised will be found included. This is, perhaps, inevit- 
able. All could not be used. 

Particular attention is directed to the chapter on "The 
Churches of Prince Edward." A fine history of the county 
might very easily be erected out of the story of her Churches. 
This is, perhaps, the first time in Virginia that a serious at- 
tempt has been made, in a county history, to give due credit 
to the Churches as history-making mediums. 

And the attention of the reader is also directed to the 
chapter on "Prince Edward county in the World War," 
where the most complete roster and record of all Prince 
Edward county soldiers and sailors who served in that ter- 
rible conflict, ever compiled by any county, after any war, 
is to be found. It is extremely desirable that such a record 
shall be preserved and we have ventured to include it here. 

That so much space has been given to the affairs of war 
requires, perhaps, some word of explanation. The late World 
War cost, in terms of human life, 10,000,000 soldiers and 
sailors; and 30,000,000 civilians, who but for that sangui- 
nary event might be living today, were sacrificed. In terms 
of money, as related directly to the objects of the war, it 
cost one hundred and eighty-six billions of dollars ! 

What "War" means to the United States will, perhaps, 
best be understood, if we can apprehend what it is claim- 
ing as its proportion of our national revenues It is per- 
haps but little realized by the average layman, that ninety 
per cent, of our revenues go to pay our bills to "War." Of 
this alarming proportion, sixty-eight per cent, goes for past 
wars, and twenty-two per cent, for the maintenance of our 
present Army and Navy. Of the small balance remaining, 
education receives one per cent, and labor, commerce, and 
the general public are expected to divide the balance amongst 
them ! 

And all this, in this good day of Our Lord, the Prince 

8 History of Prince Edward County 

of Peace! From these considerations it will readily be seen 
that "War" has not been given undue notice in this volume, 
for Prince Edward county has shared in due proportion in 
all that pertains to that phase of national life. Humanity 
is mortgaged to the hilt that "War" may be fed. 

America simply micst lead the war- weary nations of the 
earth to a better day. The author breathes a fervent prayer 
that a future hi^orian may have the happy privilege to 
record the death of "War." The responsibility of leader- 
ship in that direction is upon us. We must not falter in 
leading the way to universal disarmament, and to ultimate 

I submit the book to the public in the satisfying con- 
viction that I have not been remiss in the effort to ascertain 
and to record the truth as it pertains to the history of this 
part of the Old Dominion : the bare and simple truth, with- 
out fear or favor. That there has been much of diligent 
research will be made manifest by a reading of the chapter 
on "Bibliography." And I have done my best to make the 
record easily readable. It is enough for the servant that he 
be found faithful and, in this my humble effort, I have 
striven to merit that conmiendation. 


History of Prince Edward County 


Perhaps a brief note respecting some archaic terms, 
unavoidably employed, is here in order, so that the reader 
may readily possess the definitions necessary to a proper 
understanding of some passages in this work. 

"Tithes." "Titharle." For many years, from the begin- 
ning of the Colony, taxes were levied, not on property, but 
on persons as such, so that a "Tithable," generally speaking, 
was such a person thus subject to taxation; usually all males 
above sixteen years of age and servants of both sexes above 
that age. The "Tithe," therefore, was the tax thus imposed 
upon such taxable persons. 

"Pounds, Shillings, etc." It must be borne in mind 
that the pound was not the pound sterling. The pound 
here spoken of, amounted to but twenty shillings, i. e., the 
equivalent to $3. 331/^. The shilling, too, was not the modern 
shilling; it was the equivalent to 16 2-3 cents. 

"The Test." In Colonial times an Oath was adminis- 
tered in which the affiant declared it to be his belief that 
there is not the "real presence" in the elements of the Com- 
munion of the Lord's Supper; an echo of Old World con- 
flicts. This was the "Test" so-called. 

"Prison Bounds." This was an area, which was not 
in any case to exceed ten acres, about the jail, or place of 
confinement, where prisoners, not committed for treason or 
felony, had liberty, on giving proper security that they would 
not break "bounds" but would continue therein until dis- 
charged. This provision was, for the most part, for the bene- 
fit of persons imprisoned for debt. This privilege was to 
last for only one year. 


Chapter One 
A Short Account of the State 13 

Chapter Two 
The Genesis of Prince Edward Countj „ 21 

Chapier Three 
The Organization of Prince Edward County 27 

Chapter Four 
The Court House 37 

Chapier Five 
Farmville : The County Seat 45 

Chapter Six 
Prince Edward County in the Revolutionary Period 53 

Chapter Seven 
Prince Edward County in the War of 1812-14 61 

Chapter Eight 
Prince Edward County in the War Between the States 87 

Chapter Nine 
Prince Edward County in the Re-construction Period 189 

Chapter Ten 
Prince Edward County in the World War 195 

Chapter Eleven 
The Churches of Prince Edward 211 

Chapter Twelve 
The Schools of Prince Edward „ 291 

Chapter Thirteen 
Prince Edward County Biography 311 

Chapter Fourteen 
"Who's Who" in Prince Edward _ 345 

Chapter Fifteen 
The Judiciary of Prince Edward „ 363 

Chapter Sixteen 
Agriculture in Prince Edward 371 

Chapter Seventeen 
Prince Edward County Statistics „ 375 

Chapter Eighteen 
Miscellaneous _ 383 

Chapter Nineteen 
Bibliography ~ 403 

A dlfort ArwMttt of tift »tait 

History of Prince Edward County 15 


A proper history of Prince Edward County requires that 
there shall precede it, a brief sketch of the beginnings of the 
State of which it forms an honorable part. For it ought al- 
ways to be remembered that Prince Edward County is a part 
of what was once a mighty Principality of vast dimensions. 

All of North America between Nova Scotia, or New 
Scotland, on the north ; and Florida, Land of Flowers, on the 
south; was once known as "Virginia." Queen Elizabeth of 
England, to which crown the country then belonged, was so 
charmed by the accounts given by the sea captains under 
Sir Walter Raleigh, of the wonders of the coasts of the Caro- 
linas in 1585, that she named the whole country "Virginia," 
in honor of herself, the "Virgin Queen," of which designa- 
tion she was particularly proud. 

All of Raleigh's efforts to found a colony on those shores 
were doomed to failure. The fate of one attempted colony 
on Roanoke Island, North Carolina, remains a pathetic mys- 
tery to this day. 

However, in the reign of James I, a successful settle- 
ment was made in what is now Virginia proper. A Royal 
Charter, granted to the "Virginia Company of London," in 
1606, gave to that body the right to found a colony one hun- 
dred miles square, anywhere between the thirty-fourth and 
the forty-first degrees of north latitude; that would be be- 
tween the mouth of Cape Fear river in North Carolina, and 
the mouth of the Hudson river in New York; and to the 
"Virginia Company of Plymouth," a similar right between 
the thirty-eighth and forty-fifth degrees, which would be 
between the Potomac river and Nova Scotia; both of course, 
in "Virginia" as then constituted. Either Company might 
occupy in the overlapping territory, but were proscribed from 

16 History of Prince Edward County 

making a settlement within one hundred miles of each other. 
Operating under this charter, the "Virginia Company of 
London" founded the settlement of Jamestown, named for 
James I, under which monarch the Charter was granted, 
on May 13, 1607. This Settlement thus ante-dated the Ply- 
mouth Colony, founded under the Mayflower Compact by 13 
years, though what glory may attach to being the first Ameri- 
can Colony, is most frequently iascribed to the "Pilgrim 
Fathers," who made their landing at Plymouth Rock, from 
the Mayflower, in 1620. This mistake has arisen from a 
confused interpretation of the records, and that in turn, from 
a failure to appreciate the fact that the Virginia of that 
period extended far north of the New England states of the 
present day and, of course, embraced Massachusetts and Ply- 
mouth Rock. Both the Jamestown Settlement, and the 
Plymouth Settlement were therefore, in 'Virginia' ; the Ja'mes- 
town Settlement being prior to that at Plymouth Rock, as 
we have seen, and in what is today, Virginia proper. The 
Jamestown Colony was conveyed from England in three 
small vessels, the combined tonnage of which, was less than 
that of the "Mayflower." Indeed the Mayflower herself was 
partly owned by men then living at Jamestown ! These three 
were the Sarah Constant, 100 tons; the Goodspeed, 40 tons; 
the Discovery, 20 tons. 

The "Virginia Company of London" was granted a second 
Charter in 1609, under the terms of which the boundaries 
of the Jamestown colony were extended along the coast for 
some two hundred miles, north and south, from Point Com- 
fort, and further, "up into the land throughout frolm sea to 
sea, west and north-west, and also, all the land lying within 
one hundred miles along the coasts of both seas." Naturally, 
these bounds were never attained. The term "from sea to 
sea" could have had but one construction and meant from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean, and, with the line projected 
"west and north-west," embraced practically all the states 

History of Prince Edward Gowfity 17 

of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, with a part 
of Minnesota, as well as nearly all the Great Lakes. This 
territory, with that already granted under the former 
Charter, meant that this Company was given control of an 
immense Principality. As things then were, with the primi- 
tive methods of travel, etc., it was a practical impossibility 
for them to cover such vast territories or to come into actual 
possession of them. As a simple iniatter of fact, they did not 
succeed in doing so. 

To the latter part of this territory, subsequently known 
as the "Northwest Territory," Virginia did actually claim 
title under the Charter granted the "Virginia Company of 
London." Moreover, she later got actual title by conquest 
of her own soldiers under George Rogers Clark, who oper- 
ated under orders from the famous Patrick Henry, the then 
Governor of the State, during the Revolutionary War. 
However, in order to quiet dissension, she, in 1784 ceded it 
to the Federal Government, reserving only so much land 
therein as was necessary to enable her to fulfill her promise 
of land grants, made to her own soldiers who served in the 
Revolutionary and Indian Wars. 

The Settlement at Jamestown languished, and made 
little or no progress, till about 1620, but soon after that 
time it began to grow and had some prosperity. In 1622 
the population is said to have numbered about 4,000 persons. 
Previous to this time there had been a period known as the 
"Starving Time," when there was much suffering through 
the failure of agriculture, so that many of the people were 
forced to eke out a precarious existence on roots, acorns, 
berries, nuts, herbs, and even on skins and snakes. In 1620 
however, and from then on, a change took place. There 
was a great abundance of fruits, vegetables, and grains. Wine 
and silk were made in considerable quantities. Some 60,000 
pounds of tobacco were produced each year. Cattle increased 

18 History of Prince Edward County 

greatly in numbers. The Settlement was now, at last, in a 
prosperous condition. 

At about this time, women were imported, white women 
of course, and were sold to the colonists ! By reason of com- 
petition, the price of a wife rose from one hundred and 
twenty pounds of tobacco, to one hundred and fifty pounds ! 

Thus far the settlers had succeeded in living in some 
measure of amity with the Indians, some religious work 
being done amongst them. Pocahontas, daughter of King 
Powhatan, whose real name was Matoax, rescuer of Captain 
John Smith, was the first convert gained from amongst these 
savage peoples. In 1613 she was married to John Rolph, an 
Englishman. Her baptismal name was Rebecca. In 1616 
she went with her husband to England, where her eldest son 
was born, and where, at Gravesend, she died. 

But on Friday, March 22, 1622, occurred the great and 
terrible massacre incited by Opeckankanough, in which three 
hundred and fifty men, women, and children were ruthlessly 
slain, and the cattle driven off, so that the renmant of the 
Settlement were left sorely distressed. The wily and savage 
Opeckankanough, pretending a desire to become a Christian, 
so beguiled the pious head of the College, Mr. Thorpe, that 
he took much pains in instructing him and was led to place 
considerable confidence in his sincerity, but on that fatal Fri- 
day, that good man, with the rest, was cruelly massacred ac- 
cording to the secret plans of the treacherous savage, who, 
under the mask of religion, had plotted the sudden and entire 
overthrow of the English. He was the implacable enemy of 
the white man, harboring no illusions as to the ultimate fate 
of the Indian if the white man were suffered to gain a firm 
foothold on what he considered to be his soil. He died as 
he lived, a brave, implacable savage. 

The progress of the Settlement was seriously retarded 
by this awful event, so that the extension of the frontiers 

History of Prince Edward County 19 

was very greatly delayed. The general and continued hostility 
of the Indians, which succeeded the massacre, and which seri- 
ously threatened the very life of the Settlement, also hin- 
dered development and growth. However, with true Anglo- 
Saxon courage, the colonists ultimately recovered themselves 
and development began in real earnest, never again to be 
seriously threatened. 

Shortly before the massacre of 1622 (1619), a Dutch ves- 
sel, probably a camouflage for the "Treasurer," brought into 
Jamestown, the first cargo of negro slaves that were ever 
introduced into America, and here was sown the seed that 
resulted in the horrors of the War Between the States, of 

®I(f (6ema\s at l^fmte E»»arli ffinuntg 

History of Prince Edward County 23 


The original division of the Old Dominion into "Shires," 
after the English fashion; as performed by the Assembly of 
1624, at which time the State was divided into eight such 
"Shires," as follows: James City; Henrico; Charles City; 
Elizabeth City ; Warrick Rivter ; Warrosquyoake ; Char*les 
River; and Accawmack, and the later, and more intensive 
divisions of the same territory, give much aid in tracing the 
development of the various counties of the State as at pres- 
ent constituted. 

Prince Edward county, named for Edward Augustus, a 
son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, followed the division of 
the old "Shire" called Charles City. 

In 1703 Prince George was erected out of Charles City, 
and from Prince George was later carved, Brunswick in 
1732 ; Amelia in 1735 ; and Dinwiddle in 1754. 

In 1753 an Act was introduced to separate the present 
Prince Edward county from Amelia and the separation took 
place accordingly in 1754. Nottoway was a further division 
of Amelia county by an Act of 1789. 

A further division of the ancient "Shire" of Charles 
City, produced Lunenburg county from Brunswick, in 1746; 
Halifax, in 1752; Bedford, in 1754; Charlotte, in 1765; Meck- 
lenburg, in 1765; Greenville, 1781. Pittsylvania was separ- 
ated from Halifax in 1767; and Henry in 1777. In 1791 
Patrick was taken from Henry. In 1782 Campbell county 
was separated from Bedford and, in 1786, a part of the 
present Franklin county was erected out of Campbell county. 

A general pedigree sheet of Charles City Shire would 
look something like the chart on the following page: 

24 History of Prince Edward County 




1732 1735 1754 





1781 1789 


1752 1754 1765 1765 


1767 1782 


1777 1786 



This County is situated in the south-central part of Vir- 
ginia, its nearest border-line being some sixty miles south- 
east from the City of Richmond. 

It is about twenty-five miles long and about twelve miles 
wide. It contains an area of 345 square miles, over one-third 
of which is in a state of cultivation. The population of the 
county is (1921), 14,767. 

The Appomattox River runs on the northern border of 
the county, and, with its many branches, waters the surround- 
ing lands. Farmville is the head of the old Batteau naviga- 
tion, now discontinued, although the stream is navigable 
much higher up. Small fish are found in some abundance in 
the stream. 

History of Prince Edward County 25 

The Appomattox Kiver is capable of furnishing con- 
siderable water power at this point, which is, as yet, practi- 
cally unutilized. 

Transportation within the county, and with the outside 
world, is furnished by the Norfolk & Western; the Southern; 
and Virginian railways, in addition to the fine system of pub- 
lic roads. 

Road building within the county is in a state of great 
activity, several stretches of State and National highways 
being either already completed, or under construction. For 
the most part, the roads of the county compare very favor- 
ably with those in other parts of the State. Farmville is the 
*^ub'' of the sj'stem of roads being built under the direction 
of the State Highway Commission in this part of the State. 

With her splendid schools, fine churches, clear water, rich 
soil, equable climate, good roads, and central location. Prince 
ipdward county lis one of the Very best countiesj in the 
Commonwealth in which to make happy aAd prosperous 

®lff ®rga«t2atuin of l^tiatt lEhmutb (Hamt^ 

History of Prince Edward County 29 


As stated elsewhere, Prince Edward county was formed 
in 1753, from a part of Amelia county. The first minutes of 
the new county, recorded in the "County Court Orders, 1754- 
1758," says: "The Commission of Peace being first read, 
and the Commission of Dedimus Potestatom, David Flournoy 
and John Nash, Jr., administered the Oath of Chancery to 
John Nash the elder, George Walker, Joseph Morton and 
James Wimbish, Gentlemen, who also read and subscribed 
the Test; whereupon John Nash the elder administered in 
like manner, the aforesaid Oaths, to David Flournoy and 
John Nash, Jr., Gentlemen, who also read and subscribed the 

The Court being thus Constituted." 

And thus Prince Edward county came into active heing. 
These, and many succeeding minutes, were laboriously tran- 
scribed in quaint old English characters, by John Nash, the 
elder. Clerk of the Court. 

At a succeeding Court, held February 12, of the same 
year, John Nash, Jr., duly appointed Sheriff of the County, 
and John Nash, Sr., were appointed a Commission to solicit 
the Court of Amelia to appoint a Commission to act with 
them in running the county lines. 

At the same Court, George Walker, James Wimbish, and 
David Flournoy were "appointed to review the proposals of 
the people for building a Court House, and to report the 
several proposals to the next Court." One Charles Cuppler, 
was at this time recognized as an Attorney at Law; the first 
in the new county. At the June Court of the same year, 
Arthur Neal was appointed Constable and took the Oath. 

The findings of the Committee appointed to ascertain the 

History of Prince Edward County 

proposals for the building of the Court House and report^ 
and the results following therefrom, will be found set out in 
Chapter Four of this work. 

The county was divided into Six Magisterial Districts, 
as follows: Buffalo District; Farmville District: Hampden 
District; Leigh District; Lockett District; and Prospect Dis- 

The county is in the Fourth Congressional District, and 
in the Fifth Judicial District. For further matter respecting 
the Judiciary of the county, see Chapter Fifteen of this 

The Honorable E. T. Bondurant is the present represen- 
tative of the county in the House of Delegates. 

The Honorable Louis E. Epes is the present representa- 
tive of the county in the State Senate. 

The present Board of Supervisors of the county are : 

Buffalo District : W. W. Swan. 

Farmville District: J. Ashby Armistead. 

Hampden District: W. A. McCraw. 

Leigh District: F. H. Kauffman. 

Lockett District: W. B. Bruce. 

Prospect District : R. W. Fuqua. 

Samuel W. Watkins is the Treasurer of the county: E. 
L. Dupuy, ConMnissioner of Revenue; and Judge Asa D. 
Watkins, Commonwealth's Attorney. 

Representatives in the House of Delegates and Senate 

Allen, James, 1782. 

Anderson, Samuel C, 1828-29, 1842-43, 1843-44, 1844-45, 


History of Prince Edward County 31 

Bibb, Richard, 1783, 1784-85, 1785-86, 1786-87. 

Bibb, William, 1779, 1780-81, 1784-85. 

Booker, Edward, 1813-14, 1814-15, 1815-16, 1816-17, 

Booker, John, 1803-04, 1804-05. 

Booker, Richard A., 1861 (Jan.). 

Booker, William, Convention 1776; House 1776-77. 

Branch, Tazewell, 1874 (Jan.), 1874-75, 1875-76, 1876-77. 

Burke, Samuel D., 1840-41. 

Burton, R. M., 1891-92. 

Carter, Samuel, 1805-06. 

Champlin, N. H., 1881-82. 

Clarke, John, 1784-85, 1785-86, 1786-87. 

Clarke, John, 1817-18, 1818-19, 1821-22. 

Dickinson, Asa D., 1857-58, 1859-60. 

Dillon, James, 1829-30. 

Dupuy, Asa, 1820-21, 1821-22, 1822-23, 1823-24, 1824-25, 
1825-26, 1826-27, 1827-28, 1828-29, 1829-30, 1831-32. 1833-34, 

Dupuy, W. P., 1885-86, 1887 (March), 1887-88, 1889-90. 

Evans, W. D., 1877-78, 1879-80. 

Ewing, W. H., 1910, 1912. 

Farrar, Stephen C, 1827-28. 

Flournoy, John J., 1817-18, 1818-19. 

Flournoy, Thomas, 1777, 1779, 1781-82. 

Flournoy, William C, 1850-51, 1852 (Jan.). 

Griggs, N. M., 1883-84, 1884 (Aug.). 

Henry, Patrick, Convention 1788; House 1787-88, 1788, 
1789, 1790. 

32 History of Prince Edward County 

Holcombe, John, 1782. 

Jackson, Thomas P., 1869-70, 1870-71. 

Johnston, Peter, 1792, 1793, 1798-99, 1799-1800. 1800-01. 
1801-02, 1802-03, 1803-04, 1804-05, 1805-06, 1806-07, 1807-08, 

Jorgenson, Joseph, 1871-72, 1872-73. 

Lawson, Kobert, Convention 1788; House 1778, 1780-81, 
1782, 1783, 1787-88. 

Lindsay, William, 1813-14, 1814-15, 1815-16, 1816-17. 

M'Dearmon, Samuel D., 1845-46. 

Mcllwaine, Eichard, Convention 1901-02. 

Madison, James, 1835-36. 

Molloy, Thomas, 1795. 

Moore, Joseph, 1781-82. 

Morton, John, 1777. 

Nash, John, 1778. 

Owen, John, J., 1899-1900, 1901-02, 1904, 1906, 1908. 

Purnall, (Purnell), John, 1791, 1792, 1793, 1794, 1795, 
1796, 1798-99, 1806-07, 1807-08, 1808-09, 1809-10, 1810-11, 
1811-12, 1812-13. 

Scott, Charles, 1797-98, 1799-1800. 

Southall, Stephen, O., 1852, 1853-54. 

Stokes, Colin, 1893-94, 1895-96. 

Thornton, John T., Convention 1861. 

Tredway, Thomas T., 1855-56, 1861-62, 1862, (April), 1862, 
(Sept.), 1863 (Jan.), 1863-64, 1864-65. 

Venable, Abraham, B., 1800-01, 1801-02, 1802-03, 1803-04. 

Venable, Nathaniel E., 1836-37, 1838 (Jan), 1839 (Jan.), 

History of Prince Edward County 33 

Venable, Richard N., Convention, 1829-30; House 1797- 
98, 1820-21, 1830-31. 

Wade, James, 1795, 1796. 

Watkins, Asa D., 1897-98. 

Watkins, Henry E., 1812-13, 1819-20, 1820-21, 1822-23, 
1823-24, 1824-25, 1825-26, 1826-27, 1832-33. 

Watts, William, Convention 1775; House 1776. 

Wilson, James H., 1841-42, 1852 (Jan.). 

Winston, Peter, 1914, 1916, 1918. 

Womack, Archer, 1809-10. 

Womack, Benjamin W., 1847-48. 

Woodson, Charles, 1811-12. 

Woodson, Tarlton, 1788, 1789, 1790, 1791, 1794, 1808-09. 

Wootton, William T., 1848-49, 1849-50. 

Bondurant, E. T., 1920. 

Prince Edward and Appomattox 
Watkins, F. N., 1865-66, 1866-67. 

Paul Carrington, 1776, 1777-78, 1791, 1792, 1793, 1794. 
Walter Coles, 1778, 1779, 1780-81. 
Nathaniel Yenable, 1781, 1781-82, 1782. 
William Hubard, 1783, 1784-85, 1785-86, 1786-87. 
John Coleman, 1787-88, 1788-89, 1789, 1790. 
David Clarke, 1795, 1796, 1797-98. 
George Carrington, 1798-99. 
Gideon Spencer, 1799-00, 1800-01, 1801-02, 1802-03. 

34 History of Prince Edward County 

Isaac H. Coles, 1803-04, 1804-05, 1805-06, 1806-07, 1807- 
08, 1808-09, 1809-10, 1810-11. 

Joseph Wiatt (Wyatt), 1811-12, 1812-13, 1813-14, 1823- " 
24, 1824-25, 1825-26, 1826-27, 1827-28, 1828-29, 1829-30, 1830- 

31, 1831-32, 1832-33. 

William Eice, 1813-14, 1814-15. 

John Hill, 1815-16, 1816-17, 1817-18, 1818-19. 

Howson Clark, 1819-20, 1820-21, 1821-22, 1822-23. 

Henry E. Watkins, 1833-34, 1834-35. 

Archibald A. Campbell, 1835-36, 1836-37. 

Louis C. Bouldin, 1838, 1839, 1839-40, 1840-41, 1841-42, 

William H. Dennis, 1843-44, 1844-45, 1845-46, 1846-47. 
1847-48, 1848-49, 1849-50, 1850-51. 

Thomas H. Campbell, 1852-53, 1853-54, 1855-56, 1857-58. 
William C. Knight, 1859-61. 
Asa D. Dickinson, 1859-61, 1861-63, 1863-65. 
Christopher C. McRae, 1865-67. 
James D. Bland, 1869-71 (Negro). 
John T. Hamlett, 1869-71. 
John Robinson, 1871-73 (Negro). 
Edgar Allan, 1874-75, 1875-77. 

Calvin H. Bliss, 1877-79, 1879-80, 1881-82, 1883-84, 1885- 

N. M. Griggs, 1887-88, 1889-90 (Negro). 

Joseph W. Southall, 1891-92, 1893-94, 1895-96, 1897-98. 

Asa D. Watkins, 1899-00, 1901-04. 

Wiliam Hodges Mann, 1904, 1906, 1908, 1910. 

History of Pmnce Edward County 35 

Robert K. Brock, 1912, 1914-15. 

George E. Allen, 1916, 1918. 

Louis E. Eppes, 1920. 

Prince Edward County Senatorial representatives have 
served two or more counties, changing with various re-dis- 

History of Prince Edward County 39 


The site of the first Court House of Prince Edward coun- 
ty, was at the village of Worsham, near to the location of 
Hampden- Sidney College. The first courts (ivere held in 
private residences in that immediate vicinity. A Public 
Square was purchased and suitable buildings erected thereon 
in due course. This place was named for the Worsham fam- 
ily, the most conspicuous of them, in the affairs of the coun- 
ty being Branch G. Worsham, who became County Clerk in 
1825 and continued till after the Civil War. 

At the February Court, February 12, 1754, Charles An- 
derson offered the use of his kitchen as a temporary lockup 
until such time as a suitable prison could be erected, which 
offer was declined, doubtless with thanks. 

At the next court, the same Anderson was awarded the 
contract for the building of a Court House, Stocks, Pillory, 
and Whipping Post, at or near his house in the county, the 
jail building to be of logs, twelve feet by sixteen feet in 
the clear, and to bring in his account at the laying of the 
next levy. He was later, at the May Court, 1755, paid fifty- 
two pounds and fifteen shillings for the same. 

At the October Court of the same year, arrangements 
were made for the painting of the Court House, the tarring 
of the roof, and for changing the character and the place of 
the windows. 

Many entries are to be found in the minute books of the 
Court respecting the Court buildings, providing for their 
upkeep, renewal, etc., in the century and a quarter, or there- 
abouts that the Court House remained at Worsham. High 
hopes had been entertained as to the prospective growth of 
the little village, but they remained unfulfilled; the place 
did not grow. 

40 History of Prince Edward County 

A persistent agitation had grown up for the removal of 
the county seat to the larger and more convenient neighbor- 
ing town of Farmville, which would not down. This agita- 
tion culminated in a decision of the people in favor of such 
a removal. The following order apears in "County Court 
Orders,^ under date of April 18, 1871 : "The Council of the 
Town of Farmville having represented to the Court that 
the Corporation had contracted with James B. Eley, for the 
purchase of a lot of land containing not less than one-half 
acre, situated in the Town of Farmville, on the East side 
of the Main Street of said Town, between the Baptist and 
the African Baptist Churches, and desiring the Court to 
enter on record, its approval of said land as a location for a 
Court House, Clerk's Office, and Jail, it is ordered that the 
said location be hereby approved," etc. 

This order was signed by the Hon. F. N. Watkins, then 
serving as County Judge. 

The following entry of the 'County Court Orders,' on 
page 282, under date of February 12, 1872, shows progress : 

"It being suggested to the Court that the Council of the 
Town of Farmville will, in a short time, tender to the Court 
a Court House, Jail, and Clerk's Office, built in Farmville in 
pursuance of the provisions of the Act of General Assembly, 
Approved 4th November 1870, and of March 4th, 1871, in 
relation thereto, it is ordered that R. B. Berkeley, H. R. 
Hooper, and E. Wiltse be Commissioners on the part of the 
Court to confer with the Corporation of Farmville, and re- 
port to the Court whether said buildings are suitable for the 
use of the county, what stoves and other furniture will be 
necessary therefor, and the probable cost thereof, together 
with any otlier matter concerning the same, deemed perti- 
nent thereto." 

The final consummation of all these plans for removal to 
Farmville are attested in an Order of the Court, under date 

History of Prince Edward County 41 

of March 19, 1872, and appearing on Page 287, 'County 
Court Orders' as follows: 

"A Deed, bearing date of February 1872, from the Town 
of Farmville to the County of Prince Edward, with certifi- 
cate of acknowledgment annexed, was presented in Court and 
ordered to be recorded. And, it appearing to the Court that 
the deed conveyed according to law, the lot in Farmville on 
which the Court House, and other Public Buildings are 
erected, it is ordered that the said Deed be accepted and ap- 

Commissioners Berkeley, Wiltse, and Hooper, appointed 
at the February Term to examine the new Court House, made 
a report, which was Ordered Filed. 

The Court doth Order that it be certified on the records 
of the Court as follows, to wit: 

That the General Assembly of Virginia did (by an Act 
entitled, 'An Act to Authorize the Qualified Voters of the 
County of Prince Edward to vote on the Question of remov- 
ing the County Court House to the Town of Farmville' Ap- 
proved, 2nd November, 1870, and by an Act Amending the 
third section thereof. Approved 4th March, 1871) provide 
for the vote indicated in the Tables of said Acts. That said 
vote has been taken; that from the returns and abstracts of 
the votes so cast upon the Question of the removal of the 
Court House of Prince Edward, it appeared that a majority 
of the Votes were "For the Town of Farmville." That the 
Council of the Town of Farmville have caused to be erected 
a Court House, Jail, and Clerk's Office, in the corporate 
limits of said Town, on a lot of land not less than one-half 
or more than two, acres, and have tendered the same this day 
to the Court by an Order of the Council of the Town of 
Farmville, and have agreed to complete unfinished parts of 
buildings by Orders of the Council, herewith filed. That the 
fee simple title thereto has been made to the County of 


History of Prince Edward County 

Prince Edward by a conveyance of General Warranty, which 
conveyance has been this day approved by this Court, and en- 
tered of record (See sep Acts, 69, 70. pa 550, and of 70, 71 
pa 150) it is thereupon Ordered : — 

FIRST : That the conveyance and Buildings herein men- 

tioned be accepted and approved. 

SECOND: That as soon as practicable the Clerk of this 
Court remove the Books, Papers, and Furni- 
ture in the Clerk's Office, and in the existing 
Court House, and Jail, to the Clerk's Office, 
and Court House, and Jail, in Farmville, and 
thereafter the Court shall be held in Farmville. 

THIRD: That the real estate and other corporate prop- 

erty of the County of Prince Edward, be, and 
the same is hereby delivered to the Supervis- 
ors of Prince Edward, to be used for public 
purposes, and managed and controlled by 
them according to law. This Court neither 
abandoning or compromising any right of, or 
title to the said property, or any part there- 
of, at any time held by the County. 
That R. S. Hines, the present keeper of the 
old Court House and Jail, hold and take care 
of, according to law, the Public Property at, 
or near the old Court House, subject to the 
Orders of the Court or Supervisors; that he 
receive, hold, and deliver the keys of the 
Court House, Jail, and Clerk's Office to said 
Supervisors, and that the Clerk, without de- 
lay, certify this Third Section to the Super- 

FOURTH : That a 'Superintendent of Public Buildings and 
Grounds' be appointed, who shall, till other- 

History of Prince Edward County 




wise Ordered, keep the keys and take care of 
the Public Buildings and Grounds under the 
Orders of the Court, who shall cause fires to be 
made, and other conveniences provided for 
the Courts, who shall cause the Court and Jury 
rooms to be swept and kept clean. He shall 
prevent all pasting of advertisements on the 
walls of the buildings and enclosures, and shall 
give information of all violations of "The Act 
to Prevent Certain Offenses Against Public 
Property" passed 21st January, 1867. Pro- 
vided, however, that this Order shall not apply 
to that portion of the Court House in which 
is situated the Clerk's Office and public room 
adjoining thereto, which rooms shall be under 
the care of the Clerk of the Courts. 

In-as-much as the Council of Farmville hav- 
ing, without expense to the County, erected the 
Public Buildings and conveyed the lot to this 
County, and have added a large room adjoin- 
ing the Clerk's Office, for the use of the Coun- 
ty, the Corporate Authorities of Farmville 
may, till further orders, use the said room for 
meetings of the Council, and for the Mayor's 
Court free of charge for rent, provided, how- 
ever, that the cost of furnishing and keeping 
said room and supplying it with fires and at- 
tending the same, shall be supplied by the 
Town of Farmville. 

That Henry J. Crute be appointed Superin- 
tendent of Public Grounds and Buildings. 

SEVENTH : That the Clerk cause brief notice of the change 
in the County Seat to be printed, and that he 
deliver 50 copies to the Sheriff, who is directed 

44 History of Prince Edward County 

to post not less than 4 copies thereof in each 
ToAvnship, and that he append thereto, notice 
of the Post Office addresses of the Officers of 
the County, and that a copy of the same be 
published weekly for four weeks in the "New 

The Hon. iF. N. Watkins, was Judge, and F. H. Armi- 
stead Deputy Clerk, at the time of this change of the County 

The first sitting of the Court at the new County Seat 
was held on "Tuesday, the 26 day of March, 1872, in the 
96th year of the Commonwealth," the Hon. F. N. Watldns, 
Judge, presiding. 

Wiltshire Cardwell qualified as the first jailor of the new 
Jail, March 26, 1872^ and the following served as the Grand 
Jury at that first term: R. H. Carter, foreman; N. H. Champ- 
lin; J. B. Dupuy; C. C. Taliaferro; R. H. Walker; and Rich- 
ard Burton. 

And the Court House has remained at Farmville to the 
present day. 

History of Prince Edward County 47 


Faemvilke, the principal town of Prince Edward Coun- 
ty, and the County seat, is a thriving place of some 5,000 
population, inclusive of suburbs. It occupies a position of 
considerable importance as a tobacco manufacturing center, 
being the fifth largest in the State. 

The State Female Normal School, with an average en- 
rollment of over six hundred students, is located here. A 
splendid Training School, and an excellent High School are 
also located within the corporate limits of the municipality, 
while a good colored school is situated just outside the town 
on the Hampden- Sidney Road. Hampden- Sidney College, a 
Presbyterian institution, founded in 1775, is about seven miles 
distant, and is reached by a fine cement and macadam road. 

The famous Farmville Lithia Springs are situated just 
outside the corporate limits, on the Cumberland County side 
of the Appomattox river. This water is noted for its cura- 
tive properties, and is shipped to all points of this, and other 
countries. "The analysis of these waters is essentially the 
same as that of the celebrated Carlsbad Springs of Germany, 
but the Farmville Lithia contains more different kinds of 
salts, and is superior in consequence. The Farmville Lithia 
Springs, strictly speaking, is only a part of a straggling 
cluster of mineral springs which constitute one of Nature's 
greatest phenomena, some explored and some unexplored." 
Those springs explored outside of the Lithia are : Magnesia, 
for dyspepsia; Iodine, for blood troubles; Sulphur and Iron, 
for bony formations between the joints; Iodine, Iron and 
Sulphur, for complicated blood troubles; Alum, for chronic 
intestinal troubles, and internal piles; and Arsenous Chaly- 
beate, for the nervous system. These wonderful Springs were 
known to the Eed Man, as is evidenced by unearthing relics of 

48 History of Prince Edward County 

the Stone-age and charcoal from their fires, in the work of 
excavation; also, living land-marks of the Indian Trail in 
the shape of large trees arranged to form an arrow pointing 
to a ford across the Appomattox river. To the White Man 
they have only been known for about half a century. Un- 
fortunately, these wonderful Springs have never been intelli- 
gently and energetically developed and exploited. In their 
financial, as well as in their curative properties, they present 
a most alluring prospect. 

To the south of the municipality, on the Hampden-Sid- 
ney Road, is to be found the almost equally celebrated Pickett 
Springs of almost pure water, used as a specific for various 
form of Kidney Disease. This water possesses radio-activity 
to approximately the following amount: 240 x 10-11 grams 
Radium per U. S. gallon. It is sodic and calcic bicarbonated 
alkaline (silicious) water of value, according to an analysis 
made by Mr. O. E. Sheppard of the University of Missouri. 

In Farmville, where a majority of the homes are supplied 
with these waters, not a single case of Typhoid has occurred 
for years, except by foreign contraction. 

Farmville is situated about seventy miles south-westerly 
from the City of Richmond. It was established in 1798, on 
the property of Judith Randolph. Charles Scott, Peter John- 
ston, John Randolph, Jr., Philip Holcomb, Jr., Martin Smith, 
Blake B. W. Woodson and Creed Taylor, were appointed 
Trustees to Jay off the town in half -acre lots, on which the 
purchaser was required to build within seven years. The 
new town prospered from the very beginning and, in 1872, be- 
came the County-seat. 

The community boasts two newspaper printing offices ; 
the "Herald" and the "Leader"; three banks, one Baptist, one 
Episcopal, one Methodist P^piscopal, and one Presbyterian 
Church, for white people, and two Baptist, and one Methodist 
Episcopal Church, for colored people; one Conservatory of 
Music: a fine Motion Picture Treatre; and the educational 

History of Prirwe Edward County 49 

institutions above noted. It possesses two fine grist mills. 
The "Farmville Mill," established in 1838, is the oldest in the 
county. It has a fine re-inforced cement elevator, with a 
capacity of 50,000 bushels, erected in 1921 at a cost of $30,- 
000, which compares most favorably with any of its kind in 
the State. 

The "Prince Edward Mill," operated by the Prince Ed- 
ward Milling Company, composed of Thomas Asbury Gray, 
William S. Gray, and Leland H. Green, began operations in 
1914. This mill has a capacity of 50 barrels of flour, 500 
bushels of meal, 5,000 pounds of chop, and 2,000 pounds of 
mill feed, per day. In connection with the mill, the same 
company, operating under the name of the Prince Edward 
Ice Company, conducts an up-to-date ice plant and cold stor- 
age warehouse, with a capacity of 15 tons of ice per day, 
and separate storage facilities for eggs, poultry, apples, ice 
cream, and ice. This entire plant has a valuation of $60,000. 

The Farmville Ice Plant, owned and managed by Wil- 
liam C. Newman, was opened for business in 1909. The plant 
has a capacity of forty tons of ice per day, but specializes 
in ice cream, and, besides enjoying a large local patronage, 
ships its product to many outside points. The plant, with its 
equipment, represents an investment of about $50,000. 

Four automobile concerns minister to the automotive 
necessities of the people. 

In the matter of hotel accommodation^ the traveling pub- 
lic is well cared for: The historic "Prince Edward Hotel" 
is owned and managed by Mr. Charles T. Chick. The "Con- 
tinental Hotel," managed by Mr. J. O. Hardaway, is also 
owned by Mr. Chick. The third hotel, the "Ingersoll," is 
presided over by the Ingersoll Brothers. 

Two large lumber concerns are located here; the Taylor 
Manufacturing Company, organized to succeed the Buffalo 
Mills Company, in 1919, and specializing in building mate- 
rials; and the Farmville Manufacturing Company, organized 

50 History of Prince Edward County 

in 1878 in succession to a concern originally located in Amelia 
county, and specializing in plow handles and building mate- 
rials. The officers of the Farmville Manufacturing Company 
are, George M. Robeson, President ; Floyd B. Gilbert, Vice- 
President, and Erna L. Perrow, Secy.-Treas. The officers of 
the Taylor Manufacturing Company are, Bennett T. Taylor, 
Prospect, Va., President; Edward S. Taylor, Prospect, Va., 
Vice-President, and H. Carl Holesapple, Farmville, Secty.- 

The Post Office, completed in 1920, is modern in all its 
appointment and is an adornment to the town. 

Farmville is the center of the tobacco business for the 
county. Four tobacco factories are in regular operation, 
while five other factories are used for the hanging of tobacco. 
There are in addition, three warehouses and four storage 
houses. The property investment is well over the quarter 
million mark. An average of over 7,000,000 pounds of the 
weed are handled annually, for which approximately $1,000,- 
000 is paid out every year. 

A strong and flourishing Chamber of Commerce, of 
which Mr. W. Clyde Duvall is President; Mr. E. Waller 
Sanford, Secretary, and Mr. J. Barrye Wall, Treasurer, is 
in operation, and doing good work. 

The officers of the municipality are: 

James A. Davidson, Mayor. 

N. B. Davidson; Dr. R. L. Hudgins; E. Lee Morris; E. 
Scott Martin; W. Clyde Duvall; W. C. Newman; H. A. 
Barrow; R. B. Cralle; E. Southall Shields, Councilors. 

C. Booker Cunningham, Clerk. 

Horace B. Warriner, Treasurer. 

Leslie Fogus, Supt. of Public Utilities. 

E. D. Lipscomb, Chief of Police. 

J. W. Crute; T. S. Whitlock, and J. L. Sublett. police 

Dr. William E. Anderson, Public Health Officer. 

History of Prince Edward County 51 

Dr. William E. Anderson; Dr. J. H. Cocks, and Mrs. 
Koberta Large are the members of the Public School Board. 

On March 1, 1912, an election of qualified voters was held 
in order to ascertain their will respecting the issue of school 
bonds for $25,000 to be used for the erection and furnishing 
of a new school house. The proposed issue was approved 
and, in process of time the present splendid school building 
was erected and put in use. The grounds cost $3,300. The 
present valuation of the entire property and equipment is 
in the neighborhood of S60,000. 

The present teaching staff is as follows: 

M. Blair Dickinson, A. B., M. A., Principal. 

Herman Levy, A. B., B. S., Assistant Principal. 

Miss Hannah Crawley, Danville College and University 
of Virginia. 

Mrs. L. P. Davidson, L. I., Peabody College. 

Miss Grace Beard, B. S., Farmville. 

Mrs. Brazeal Hobson, State Normal, Farmville. 

Mrs. John Lancaster, State Normal, Farmville. 

Miss Ruth Woodruff, Averett College, Danville, Va. 

Miss Virgie Bugg, State Normal, Farmville; Cornell 
and Columbia. 

Oritur? Ciittiar2> (dountQ in tife Ketialutixtnarg feriah 

History of Prince Edward County 55 


Owing to the rather remarkable absence of data rela- 
tive to this period as affecting the part that Prince Edward 
county had in that stormy controversy, but little by way of 
connected narrative can be given. 

The Royalist Governor, Lord Dunmore, because of the 
antagonistic spirit shown by them against the Crown, often 
dissolved the Council of the Burgesses of Virginia, during 
the period from 1773 to 1776. After these successive dissolu- 
tions, instead of going to their homes as directed by the 
Governor, the Burgesses began, in 1774 to assemble at the 
Raleigh Tavern, at Williamsburg, the then Capital of the 
Colony, and resolved themselves into Revolutionary Con- 
ventions. One of these Conventions was convened in 1774, 
two in 1775, and finally into the famous Convention of 
1776. Thus the very end that he strove to avert was really 
hastened by the ill-starred course of the Governor. 

So odious indeed, did the name of Dunmore become, 
that a county that had been named in his honor, was re- 
christened "Shenandoah." 

While these Conventions were being held the people gen- 
rally bcame greatly aroused, and began to organize for the 
conflict that was more or less generally expected. They 
chose Committees of Safety, and put the militia on a war 
footing. Prince Edward county was quite as active as any 
in the Commonwealth in pressing forward these precaution- 
ary measures. 

By an ordinance of one of the Conventions of 1775, the 
Colony was divided into eighteen districts for convenience 
in organizing. 

The Committees of Safety in these various dJstricts 
were A^ery great factors in the war, being in reality a sort 

56 History of Prince Edward County 

of military executive in each county. That of Prince 
Edward county was not less active than others. Membership 
in any of these Committees was a distinct badge of honoi; 
so that descent from a Committeeman constitutes a clear 
title to membership in those later societies called, "The Sons" 
and '''^Fhe Dauirhters of the Revolution." 

Virginia declared her independence of the British 
Crown on the 29th of June, 1776, five days before the gen- 
eral declaration of Independence, on the 4th of July in 
th'at year. 

In all these activities Prince Edward county took a fore- 
most and honorable part. 

The great Patrick Henry, who was subsequently a resi- 
dent of Prince Edward county, was the first Governor of the 
new "Commonwealth." To him the county, on the 19th of 
June, 1775. voted resolutions of gratitude and confidence 
on the occasion of the "rape of the gunpowder," which was 
actually the first active stroke in the Revolutionary War, 
for it stirred the Colonists to such unbounded enthusiasm 
that the success of the Revolution was practically assured. 

History of Prince Edward County 


Virginia Militia in the Revolution : 


Prince Edward 

The list herein given is from a list which was contrib- 
uted by Alfred J. Morrison, in the "Virginia Magazine 
of History," April, 1913, taken by him from the records. 

Officers appointed and commissioned in May, June, and 
July, 1T77. 

Josiah Chambers. 
John Bibb. 

Charles Allen. 
Jacob Woodson. 

Benjamin Allen. 
James Carter. 

Robert Goode. 


David Walker. 
Andrew Baker. 


John Dabney. 
Sharpe Spencer. 


Richard Holland. 
William Rice. 

Second Lieutenants 

William Wooton. 
Henry Young. 

It appeared from an order made July, 1777, that the fol- 
lowing were then Captains of Militia Companies. 


. Ligon. 


Thomas Flournoy. 


William Bibb. 

58 History of Prince Edward County 

In 1778 the following Captains were appointed: John 
Bibb; George Carrington. 

In the same year the following Lieutenants were ap- 
pointed: John Dupiiy; Thomas Lawson. 

Also in the same year the following two Ensigns were 
appointed: Yancey Bailey; Bigger, Jr. 

In 1779 the following Captains were appointed: Wil- 
liamson Bird (in place of Charles Venable, resigned) ; Rich- 
ard Holland; Sharpe Spencer; Thomas Moore. 

And reference is made to the following: as being, or as 
having been Captains of Companies : George Booker ; Samuel 
Venable; Henry Walker; David Walker. 

In 1779 the following Lieutenants were appointed: 
Nicolas Davis; Robert Venable; George Booker; Jesse Wat- 
son; William McGehee; Ambrose Nelson; John Langhorn. 

In the same year the following Ensigns were appointed : 
James Parks; Drury Watson; Thomas Watkins. 

In 1779 Thomas Haskins was recommended as Colonel 
of the Militia of the county, and George Walker as Lieuten- 

In 1780 the following were recommended, or appointed 
as Captains: Thomas Lawton; Dick Holland; Jacob Wood- 

And the following as Lieutenants: Jesse Watson; 
Drury Watson; William Price, Jr.; James Clark; James 
Wright; Joseph Parks. 

And the following as Ensigns: Stephen Pettus; William 
Booker; John Bell. 

In 1781 the following nominations were made and rati- 
fied: John Nash, County Lieutenant; George Walker, 
Colonel; Thomas Flournoy, Lieutenant-Colonel; John Clark. 

History of Prince Edward County 59 

In the same year the following were appointed as Cap- 
tains: Stephen Neal; James Clark; Ambrose Nelson (in the 
stead of John Bibb). 

The following were appointed Lieutenants in the same 
year? Natihanieil, Allen; John Eichards; Geoiitge Foster; 
George Pulliam; William Wooten; James Parks; John 
Clarke, Jr.; John Bell. 

And the following were appointed as Ensigns: William 
Galespie; Pejrton Glenn; Robert Walton; Philip Mathew. 



MILITIA, JUNE 28, 1781 : 


Captain, John Morton, (Morton had eight sons in the 

First Lieutenant, John Holcomb. 
, Second Lieutenant, Obadiah Woodson. 
Ensign, Edward Wood. 
Sergeant, James Morton. 

Sergeant, Samuel Anderson. < 

Sergeant, Charles Stogg. 
Sergeant, Charles Anderson. 
Corporal, Robert Lawton. 
Corporal, Thomas Hastie. 
Corporal, William Wright. 
Corporal, William Chambers. 


Anderson, Parsons; Ascul, William; Baldwin, Thoma-: 
Bigger, William; Boas, Meshack; Bird, William; Boas. 
Michael; Brown, Isham; Byrk, Thomas; Casey, William: 

60 History of Prince Edward County 

Chaffin, Isham; Chaffin, Christopher; Cocke, Anderson; Cun- 
ningham, Nathaniel; Cunningham, John; Daniel, George; 
Davidson, Edward; Davidson, William; Davidson, David; 
Davis, Charles; Durham, Nathaniel; Edmunds, Jacob; Fore, 
Francis; Foster, Joshua; Eraser, John; Eraser, Thomas; 
Fugue, William; Garratt, Alexander; Gillespie, William; 
Hales, Peter; Hampton, Nathan; Hoi man, Alexander; Hord, 
William; Howerton, James; Jennings, Isham; Jennings, 
James; Johnson, William; King, Thomas; Lee, John; Lee, 
Archibald; Leigh, Charles; Martin, Samuel; McGehee, Wil- 
liam; Morton, Thomas; Newcomb, Julius; Parker, Glover; 
Peak, Aaron; Pierce, Thomas; Pillon, Jasper; Rain, 
Nathaniel; Robertson, David; Rutledge, Dudley; Sharp, 
Moses; Smith, Robert. P.; Smith, John; Smith, Alexander; 
Spaulding, John; Sutherland, Philemon; Southerland, Wil- 
liam; Taylor, George; Thompson, John; Tuggle, Benjamin; 
Tuggle, Thomas; Walker, Thomas; Walker, William, 1; 
Walker, William, 2; Watkins, Abner; Webster, John; Whit- 
lock, Josiah; Wilburn, Thomas; Woodson, Anderson; Wood- 
son, John; Wright, Archibald. 

Much further interesting information regarding Prince 
Edward county soldiers, serving in the Virginia Militia dur- 
ing the Revolutionary War may be found in McAllister's 
"Virginia Militia in the Revolutionary War." 

f rtwtt tamart (ttnmilg In tljr liar of iai2-lB14 

History of Prince Edward County 63 



The Manifesto of John Randolph, of Roanoke 

The following copy of the pamphlet, issued by John 
Raldoph of Roanoke, on May 30th, 1812, is given in full, 
with introduction, and adenda, because it expresses, as per- 
haps nothing can so well do, the actual predilection of the 
people of Prince Edward county, respecting that unfortunate 
struggle between the government of the United States and 
the British crown. The people had no "stomach" for that 
war and Randolph rightly gauged public opinion, as found 
in this county, at any rate. 

"^(? the freeholders of Charlotte^ Buckingham^ Prince 
Edward and Cumberland. 

Fellow Citizens: 

I dedicate you the following fragment. That it appears 
in its present mutilated shape is to be ascribed to the success- 
ful usurpation which has reduced freedom of speech in one 
branch of the American Congress to an empty name. It is 
now established for the first time^ and in the person of your 
representative., that the House may, and will, refuse to hear 
a member in his place, or even to receive a motion from him, 
upon the most momentous subject that can be presented 
for legislative decision. — A similar motion was brought 
forward by the Republican minority in the year 1798, (this 
motion was drawn, it is believed, by Mr. Gallatin, but movecj 
by Mr. Sprigg, declaring it to be inexpedient at that time 
to resort to war against the French Republic) before these 
modem inventions for stifling freedom of debate had been 
discovered. It was discussed as a matter of right until it 
was abandoned by the mover in consequence of additional 

64 History of Prince Edward County 

information (by the correspondence of our Envoys at Paris) 
laid before Congress by the President. In "the reign of ter- 
ror" the father of the sedition law had not the hardihood 
to proscribe liberty of speech, much less the right of free de- 
bate on the floor of Congress. This invasion of the public 
liberties was reserved for self-styled Republicans, who hold 
your understandings in such contempt as to flatter them- 
selves that you will overlook their every outrage upon the 
first great principles of free government, in consideration 
of their profession of tender regard for the privileges of the 
people. It is for you to decide whether they have under-val- 
ued your intelligence and spirit, or whether they have formed 
a just estimate of your character. You do not require to be 
told that the violation of the rights of him whom you have 
deputed to represent you, is an invasion of the rights of every 
man among you, of every individual in society. — If this abuse 
be suffered to pass unredressed; — and the people alone are 
competent to apply the remedy; — we must bid adieu to a 
free form of government, forever. 

Having learned from various sources that a declaration 
of war would be attempted on Monday next, with closed 
doors, I deemed it my duty to endeavour, by any exercise of 
my constitutional functions, to arrest this heaviest of all pos- 
sible calamities, and avert it from our happy country, I ac- 
cordingly made the effort of which I now give you the re- 
sult, and of the success of which you will have already been 
informed, before these pages can reach you. I pretend only 
to give you the substance of my unfinished argument. The 
glowing words; — the language of the heart; — have passed 
away with the occasion that called them forth. They are no 
longer under my control. My design is simply to submit to 
you the views which have induced me to consider a war with 
England, under existing circumstances, as comporting neither 
with the INTEREST nor with the HONOUR of the Ameri- 
can people, but as an IDOLATROUS sacrifice of both, on the 
altar of French rapacity, perfidy, and ambition. 

History of Prince Edward County 65 

France has for years past offered us terms of undefined 
commercial arrangement, at the price of a war with England, 
which hitherto we have not wanted firmness and virtue to 
reject. The price is now to be paid. We are tired of holding 
out; — and, following the example of the nations of 
continental Europe; entangled in the artifices, or awed by 
the power of the destroyer of mankind; we are prepared to 
become instrumental to his projects of universal dominion. 
Before these pages meet your eye, the last Republick of the 
earth will have enlisted under the banners of the tyrant and 
become a party to his cause. The blood of American free- 
men must flow to cement his power, to aid in stifling the 
last struggles of afflicted and persecuted man; to deliver into 
his hands the patriots of Spain and Portugal, to establish 
his Empire over the ocean and over the land that gave our 
fathers birth; to forge our own chains! — And yet, my 
friends, we were told in the days of the mad ambition of 
TO WAR." Yes, the finger of Heaven does point to war. 
It points to war, it points to the mansions of eternal misery 
and torture; as to a flaming beacon warning us of that vortex 
which we may not approach but with certain destruction. It 
points to desolated Europe and warns us of the chastisement 
of those nations who have offended against the justice and 
almost beyond the mercy of Heaven. It announces the wrath 
to come, upon those who, ungrateful for the bounty of provi- 
dence, not satisfied with peace, liberty, security, plenty at 
home, fly, as it were, into the face of the Most High and 
tejnpt His forbearance. 

To you, ijtt this pldce^ I can speak with freedom, and it 
becomes me to do so; nor shall I be deterred by the cavils 
and the sneers of those who hold as "'Foolishness" all that 
savours not of worldly wisdom, from expressing fully and 
freely those sentiments which it has pleased God, in His 
Mercy, to engrave upon my heart. 

66 History of Prince Edward County 

. These are no ordinary times. The state of the world is 
unexampled. The war of the present day is not like that of 
our revolution, or any which preceded it, at least in modern 
t'mes. It is a war against the liberty and happiness of man- 
Idnd. It is war of which the whole human race are the vic- 
tims, to gratify the pride and lust of power, of a single in- 
dividual. I beseech you, put it to your own bosoms, how far 
it becomes you as freemen, as Christians, to give your aid 
and sanction to this impious and bloody w^arfare against your 
brethren of the human family. To such among you, if any 
there be, who are insensible to motives not more dignified 
and manly than they are intrinsically wise, I would make a 
different appeal. I adjure you by the regard which you 
have for your own security and property, for the liberties 
antl inheritance of your children, by all that you hold dear 
and sacred, to interpose your constitutional powers to save 
your country and yourselves from a calamity, the issues of 
which, it is not given to human foresight to divine. 

Ask yourselves if you are willing to become the virtual 
allies of Bonaparte? Are you willing, for Ithe sake of 
annexing Canada to the northern States, to submit to the 
ever-growing system of taxation, which sends the European 
laborer supperless to bed ? To maintain by the sweat of your 
brow, armies at whose hands you are to receive a future 
master? Suppose Canada ours. Is there any one among you 
who would ever be the better for it? — the Hcher — the 
freer — the happier — the more secure? And is it for a boon 
like this, that you would join in a warfare against the liber- 
ties of man in the other hemisphere, and put your own in 
jeopardy ? or is it for the fwminul privilege of a licensed trade 
with France, that you would abandon your lucrative com- 
merce with Great Britain, Spain, Portugal, and their Asiatic 
African, and American dependencies— in a word, with every 
region of those vast continents? That commerce which gives 

History of Prince Edioard County 67 

a vent to tobacco, grain, flour, cotton; in short to all your 
native products; which are denied a market in France. 

There are not wanting men so weak, as to suppose that 
their approbation of war-like measures is a proof of per- 
sonal gallantry, and that opposition to them indicates a 
want of that spirit which becomes a friend to his country; 
as if it requires more courage and patriotism to join the 
acclamation of the day, than steadily to oppose one's self to 
the mad infatuation to which every pepole and all govern- 
ments have, at some time or other, given way. Let the his- 
tory of Phocion, of Agis, and of the DeWitts, answer this 
question. My friends, do jow expect to find those who are 
now loudest in the clamour for war, foremost in the ranks 
of battle? or is the honour of this nation indissolubly con- 
nected with the political reputation of a few individuals, 
who tell you they have gone too far to recede, and that you 
must pay, with your ruin the price of their consistency. My 
friends, I have discharged my duty towards you lamely and 
inadequately I know, but to the best of my poor ability. — 
The destiny of the American people is in their hands. The 
net is spread for their destruction. You are enveloped in 
the toils of French duplicity; and if, which may heaven in 
its mercy forbid, you and your posterity are to become hewers 
of wood and drawers of water to the modern Pharaoh, it 
shall not be for the want of my best exertions to rescue you 
from the cruel and abject bondage. This sin, at least, shall 
not rest upon my soul. 

JOHN RANDOLPH, of Roanoke. 

May 30th, 1812. 

House of Representatives of the United States. 

May 30th, 1812. 

Soon after the House met, Mr. Fisk moved that "when 
the House adjourn, it adjourn to meet on Monday next." 
Which having been carried, he then immediately moved that 

68 History of Prince Edward County 

the House do now adjourn. Negatived by a small majority. 

Mr. Randolph said that rumors to which he could not 
shut his ears (of an intended declaration of war on Monday 
next, with closed doors) and the circumstances which had 
just passed under the eye of the House (alluding to the mo- 
tion to adjourn) impelled him to make a last effort to rescue 
the country from the calamities, which, he feared, were im- 
pending over it. He had a proposition to submit, the decis- 
ion of which would affect vitally, the best interests of the na- 
tion. He conceived himself bound to bring it forward. He 
did not feel himself a free agent in the transaction. He would 
endeavour to state as succinctly as he could, the grounds of 
his motion, and he humbly asked the attention of every man 
whose mind was at all open to conviction; of every man 
devoted to the cause of his country; not only in that House, 
but in every rank and condition of life throughout the state. 

The motion which he was about to offer grew out of cer- 
tain propositions, which he pledged himself to prove; nay, 
without an abuse of the term, to demonstrate. 

The first of these propositions was, that the Berlin and 
Milan Decrees were, not only, not repealed^ but that our 
government had furnished to the House and to the world, un- 
equivocal evidence of the fact. The difficulty in demon- 
strating this proposition arose rather from his embarrass- 
ment in selecting from the vast mass of evidence before him, 
than in any deficiency of proof; for if he were to use all the 
testimony that might be adduced, he feared his discourse 
would grow to a bulk not inferior to the volume which he 
held in his hand. He would refer the House to the corre- 
spondence, generally, of Mr. Russell, our agent at Paris, ac- 
companying the President's message of the present session, — 
He referred to the schedule of American vessels taken by 
French privateers since the first of November 1810, (the 
period of the alleged repeal of the French Decrees) : of 
these, it was worthy of remark, that "the Robinsonova, from 

History of PHnce Edward County 69 

Norfolk to London, with tobacco, cotton and staves ; the Mary 
Ann from Charleston to London,, with cotton and rice; the 
General Eaton, from London to Charleston, in ballast; the 
Clio from London to Philadelphia, with English manufac- 
tures; the Zebra from Boston to Tarragona, {then in fos- 
session of the Spaniards) with staves; all coming under the 
operation of the French Decrees and seized since the ^nd of 
November^ 1810, had ndt been restored, on the 14th of July 
last;" and that the only two vessels named in that schedule, 
which had been restored; viz, the Two Brothers from Boston 
to St. Malo, and the Star, from Salem to Naples (the one 
a port in France, the other virtually a French port) did 
not come within the scope of the Berlin and Milan Decrees. 
Indeed, the only cases relied upon by Mr. Monroe to prove 
the repeal of the French Decrees are those of the Grace 
Ann , Green of the New Orleans Packet. On the first of these 
no great stress is laid because, having been captured by an 
English cruizer, she was retaken by her own crew and car- 
ried into Marseilles, where consequently her captors became 

French prisoners of war (See note A.) (mutilation) it 

was to be expected, that in the case of war between the United 
States and England, our privateers carrying their prizes into 
French ports should be proceeded against under those decrees. 
It was, therefore, on the case of the New Orleans Packet 
that the principal reliance was placed, to show the repeal 
of the obnoxious decrees. But even this case established, 
beyond the possibility of doubt, that the Milan Decrees of 
the 23rd November and 17th December, 1807, were in force 
subsequently to the period of their alleged repeal. This ves- 
sel hearing at Gibraltar, where she had disposed of part of 
her cargo, of the letter of the Duke of Cadore of the 5th of 
August, 1810, suspended her sales, and the supercargo, after 
having consulted with Mr. Hackley, the American consul at 
Cadiz, determined on the faith of that insidious letter, to 
proceed with the remainder of his cargo to Bordeaux. He 

70 History of Prince Edward County 

took the precaution however, to delay his voyage, so that he 
might not arrive in France before the 1st of November; the 
day on which the Berlin and Milan Decrees were to cease 
to operate. 

(Here Mr. Randolph was called to order by Mr. 
"Wright, who said there was no motion before the House. 
The Speaker overruled Mr. Wright's objection, as the gen- 
tleman from Virginia had declared his intention to make a 
motion and it had been usual to admit prefatory remarks). 

Mr. Randolph said he would proceed in his argument 
without deviating to the right or to the left, and he would 
endeavour to suppress every feeling which the question was 
so well calculated to excite. "The vessel accordingly ar- 
rived in the Garonne on the 14th of November, but did not 
reach Bordeaux until the 3rd of December 1807, expressly 
9et forth, for having come from an English port and having 
been visited by a British vessel of war." Thus this vessel 
having voluntarily entered a French port on the faith of the 
repeal of the decrees, was seized under them. "These facts, 
continues Mr. Russell, having been stated to me by the super- 
cargo, or the American vice-consul at Bordeaux, and the 
principal one, that of the seizure under the Milan Decm^ees 
being established by the process-verb al, pu6 into my hands by 
one of the consignees of the cargo, I conceived it to be 'my 
duty not to suffer the transaction to pass unnoticed." 
This process-verbal is neither more nor less than the l^bel of 
the Admiralty court drawn by the law officer of the French 
Government, agreeably to the laws of the Empire. What 
should we say to the libel of a vessel by the District At- 
torney of the United States, or her seizure by the custom 
house officers, under an act of Congress which had been re- 
pealed? The whole of this correspondence proves un-» 
equivocally that neither the Custom House Officers, the Courts 
of Law, nor the French cruizers, not even the puhlick ships 
of war had ever received notice from their government of 

History of Prince Edward County 71 

the repeal of the Berlin and Milan Decrees. This last fact 
is further substantiated by the remonstrance of Mr. Barlow 
to the Duke of Bassano of the 12th of March, 1812, in the 
case of the "vessels captured and burnt by his Imperial and 
Royal Majesty's ships Medusa and Nymph." It should be 
recollected that all the decrees of the French Emperor are 
given strictly in charge to certain public functionaries, who 
are directed to put them in force. The only authorities to 
whom the repeal of these decrees was to be a rule of action; 
the Cruizers, Courts and Officers of the Customs; remained 
profoundly ignorant of the fact. It is to be found no where 
but in the proclamation of the President of the United States, 
of the 2nd of November, 1810. "To have waited for the re- 
ceipt of this proclamation (says Mr. Russell) in order to 
make use of it for the liberation of the New Orleans Packet,' 
appeared to me a preposterous and unworthy course of pro 
ceeding, and to be nothing better than absurdly and homely 
employing the declaration of the President, that the Berlin 
and Milan Decrees had been revoked, as the means of ob- 
taining their revocation." They were then not revoked, or 
surely our minister would not stand in need of any means 
for obtaining their revocation. Proofs multiplying on proofs ! 

"The Custom House Officers of Bordeaux commenced un- 
lading the New Orleans Packet on the 10th December and 
completed that work on the 20th, as appears by their process- 
verbal of those dates. That of the 20th expressly declares that 
the property was to be pui'sued before the Imperial Council 
of Prizes, (the Court of Admiralty,) at Paris, according to 
the decrees of the 23rd November, and 17th December, 1806, 
or in other words, under the decrees of Milan.'''' Mr. Russell's 
remonstrance was submitted to the Council of commerce^ and 
further proceedings against the New Orleans Packet sus- 
pended. ^''The papers were not transmitted to the Council 
of PHzes^ nor a prosecution instituted before that tribunal; 
which proves only that the prosecution at law was suspended, 

72 History of Prince Edward County 

not that the laws were repealed — "and the vessel and cargo 
on the 9th of January were placed at the disposition of the 
consignees, on giving hond to pay the estimated amount, 
should it be definitely decided that a confiscation should take 

Recollect that this vessel voluntarily entered a French 
port on the faith of the repeal of those decrees. She is 
seized and libelled under them, but after great exertion on 
the part of the American minister, he obtains from the 
French government — ^What? Proof of the bona fide revoca- 
tion of the decrees? Nothing like it. A discharge of the 
vessel? Not at all, — the bond represents her — she stands 
pledged in her full value in case she should be found to 
come within the scope of the law; and yet we must believe 
the law to be repealed! What sort of a release is this? Mr. 
Russell makies a merit of having "rescued this property 
from the seizures with which it had been visited" — that is 
rescued it from a court of justice; and of "having placed it 
in a situation more favorable than that of many other ves- 
sels and cargoes which continued in a kind of mortemain^ 
by the suspension of all proceedings in regard to them." And 
this letter and this case is adduced as a proof of the repeal 
of the Berlin and Milan Decrees, on the 1st of November, 

It is true that in a postscript dated the fifth of July, (a 
month subsequent to the date of the letter to which it is 
appended, and seven months after his remonstrance to the 
French government) Mr. Russell states that orders had been 
given to cancel the bond in question. But surely this is no 
proof of the revocation of the decrees. Let us see what he 

says on the 15th of that month. "Although I was fully 
impressed with the importance of an early decision in favor 
of the captured vessels, none of which had been included in 
the list above mentioned" — ("of the 16 vessels whose cargoes 

had been admitted by order of the Emperor" — probably un- 

History of Prince Edward County 73 

der license) yet I deemed it proper to wait for a few dajrs, 
before I made an application on the subject. On the 11th 
however, having learnt, at tlie council of prizes, that no iiew 
order had been received there" — (that on the 11th of July 
1811, the French Admiralty Court had no notice of the re- 
peal of the decrees) "adjudged it to be my duty no longer to 
remain silent. I therefore, on that day addressed to the Duke 
of Bassano, my note with a list of American Vessels captured 
since the -first of November. On the 15th I learnt that he 
had laid this note, with a general report, before the Emperor, 
but that his majesty declined taking any decision with re- 
gard to it, before it had been submitted to the council of 

The House will take into consideration the distinction 
between the council of prizes^ and admiralty court bound to 
decide according to the laws of the empire; and the coun- 
cil of commerce ; which was of the nature of a board of trade x 
charged with the general superintendence of the concerns of 
commerce; occupied in devising regulations, not in expound- 
ing them; an institution altogether political; by no means 
judicial. His majesty then determined to consult his coun- 
cil of commerce, whether from motives of policy he should, 
or should not, grant a special exemption from the operation 
of his laws. In the same letter, learning from the Duke of 
Bassano that "the case of the brig Grood Intent, must be car- 
ried before the Council of Prizes," Mr. Russell wishes to 
secure this case from this '''inauspicuous mode of proceed- 
ing:" that is, from the operation of the law. Why? if the 
law, so dreaded, was repealed? 

"I had from time to time (he continues) informed my- 
self of the proceedings in regard to the captured vessels, and 
ascertained the fact that the Duke of Bassano had made a 
report in relation to them. The Emperor it appears, how- 
ever, still wished for the decision of his Council of Com- 
merce.^^ What! to know if his decrees of Berlin and Milan 

74 History of Prince Edward County 

were revoked? was his majesty ignorant of the fact? Can 
stronger evidence be adduced that they were in force, or can 
the release (not by courts of law, but by special executive 
interference) under peculiar circumstances, and after a long 
detention for violating those decrees, of a single vessel, es- 
tablish the fact of their repeal. On the contrary ought not 
the solitary exception (granting it to be one) to fortify the 
general rule? 

In passing, it is worthy of remark that the French min- 
ister, being interrogated by Mr. Russell on the subject of our 
future commercial intercourse with France, "replied that no 
such communication would be made at Paris, but that Mr. 
Serrurier would be fully instructed on this head." The 
House would recollect how much had been expected of Mr. 
Serrurier on his arrival, and how much had been obtained. 
An ex-Secretary of the State even had the temerity to charge 
the President with having compelled him to desist from put- 
ting any interrogatories to the French minister on his ar- 
rival. But, be that as it may, one thing is certain, that appli- 
cation having been made to the minister, at the requisition of 
the Senate during the present session, he had declared an en- 
tire ignorance of everything relating to the subject. 

To dissipate the last shadow of doubt on the question of 
the repeal of the French Decrees, Mr. Serrurier, in his letter 
of July 23, 1811, to the Secretary of State, expressly declares, 
that "the new dispositions of our government, expressed in 
the supplementary act of the 2nd of March last, having been 
oiRcially communicated to his Court, his imperial majesty, 
as soon as he was made acquainted with them, directed that 
the American vessels sequestered in the ports of France 
since the 2nd of November, should be' released, orders were at 
the same time given to admit American vessels, laden with 
American produce !" 

Under these circustances, whatever difference of opinion 
might exist as to the propriety of the President's Proclama- 

History of Prince Edward County 

tion in the first instance, there could be none as to its revo- 
cation. As soon as it was ascertained, not only from the pro- 
ceedings of her criiizers on the high seas, but of her courts 
of law, and of her government, that France had acted, mala 
fde^ towards this country, it surely became the duty of the 
President to recall that proclamation. He could have no 
doubt of his constitutional powers over the subject, having 
already exercised in a case not dissimilar. (Erskine's arrange- 
ment). That proclamation was the dividing line of our 
policy; the root of our present evil. From that fatal proc- 
lamation we are to date our departure from that neutral 
position to which we had so long and so tenaciously adhered, 
and the accomplishment of the designs of France upon us. 
In issuing it the President had yielded to the deceitful over- 
tures of France ; and it was worthy of observation how differ- 
ent a construction had already been put upon the act of non- 
intercourse (as it was commonly called) from that of May, 
1810 — although the words of the two acts were the same. In 
the first case, a modification of the decrees and orders of the 
belligerents, so that they should cease to violate our neutral 
rights was alone required. In the second, other matter was 
blended with them, although the words of the two acts were 
identically the same. This grew out of the insidious let- 
ter of the Duke of Cadore, the terms of which were accepted, 
with the conditions annexed, by the President of the United 
States. These conditions presented two alternatives: "That 
England should revoke her orders in council and abolish those 
principles of blockade which France alleged to be new, or 
that the United States should cause their flag to be respected 
by the English" — in other words, should become parties to 
the war on the side of France. In order to know what these 
principles were, the renunciation of which we were to re- 
quire at the instigation of France, it would be necessary to 
attend to the language of the French decrees. By these it 
would not be denied that principles, heretofore unheard of, 

76 Hhtory of Prince Edward County 

were attempted to be interpolated into the laws of nations.^'* 
— Principles diametrically adverse to those which the govern- 
ment of the United States had repeatedly recognized in their 
correspondence with foreign powers as well as in their publick 
treaties, to be legitimate and incentestible. The French 
doctrine of blockade behind the only branch of the subject 
embraced in the Duke of Cadore's letter of the 5th of August, 
1810, would alone be noticed. These required that the right 
of blockade be restricted "to fortified ports, invested by sea 
and by land. — That it should not extend to the mouths of 
rivers, harbours or places not fortified." 

Under such definition the blockade of May 1806, other-, 
wise called Mr. Fox's blockade, stood condemned — but Mr. 
Randolph had no hesitation in affirming that blockade to 
have been legal, agreeably to the long established princi- 
ples of national law, sanctioned by the United States. In 
Mr. Foster's letter of the 3rd of July last to Mr. Monroe, he 
says — "the blockade of May 1806 was notified by Mr. Sec- 
retary Fox on this principle ("that no blockade can be justifi- 
able or valid unless it be supported by an adequate force 
destined to maintain it and to expose to hazard all vessels 
attempting to evade its operation") nor was the blockade 
announced, until he had satisfied himself by a communica- 
tion with the board of Admiralty, that the Admiralty pos- 
sessed the means, and would employ them, of watching the 
whole coast from Brest to Elbe and of effectually enforcing 
the blockade. 

"The blockade of May 1806, according to the doctrine main- 
tained by Great Britain, was just and lawful in its origin 
because it was supported both in intention and in fact, by 
an adequate naval force." In a subsequent part of the same 
letter it is distinctly averred that "that blockade was main- 
tained by a sufficient naval force :" and the doctrine of paper 
hlockade is every where disclaimed in the correspondence, 
here as well as at I^ndon. "If (says Mr. Foster) ) the orders 

History of Prince Edward County 77 

in council should be abrogated, the blockade of May 1806 
could not continue under owr construction of the law of na- 
tions^ unless that blockade should he maintained hy a due af- 
plication of an adequate naval force?^ The same admission 
will be found in Marquis Wellesley's correspondence with 
Mr. Pinkney. 

The coast of France from Brest to Calais is what seamen 
call an iron-bound coast. It had been blockaded in every war 
during the last century, that short period of the American 
War excepted, when England lost the mastery of the channel. 
No British minister would be suffered to hold his place, who 
should fail strictly to watch the opposite coast of France. 
Brest, her principal naval arsenal, protruded out into the 
Atlantic Ocean, confessed the want of suitable harbours for 
ships of war in the channels, while from Plymouth, Ports- 
mouth, and the mouth of the Thames, the opposite coast is 
easily watched and overawed. From Calais to the Elbe the 
coast is low, flat and shelving, difficult of access, affording 
few good inlets, indeed none except the Scheldt. The block- 
ade of this coast is as easy as that of Carolina. But it must 
not pass unnoticed that the blockade was in point of fact, 
(as appears from Mr. Monroe's letters to Mr. Madison of 
the 17th and 20th of May 1806) limited to a small extent of 
the coast between Havre and Ostend ; neutrals being per- 
mitted to trade, freely, eastward of Ostend, and westward of 
the mouth of the Seine "except in articles contrabrand of war 
and enemies' property which are seizible without blockade." 
And Mr. Monroe, in announcing this very blockade of May 
16, 1806, to his own government, speaks of it as a measure 
highly satisfactory to the commercial interests. And yet the re- 
moval of this blockade, against which Mr. Monroe did not 
remonstrate, of which there was no mention in the subse- 
quent arrangement of Mr. Erskine, which did not stand in 
the way of that arrangement of which no notice was taken 
in our proposition to England for a mutual abandonment of 

78 History of Prince Edward County 

our embargo and her orders in council, is now by French 
device and contrivance to be made a sine qua non, an indis- 
pensable preliminary to all accommodation with Great Brit- 

Mr. Randolph had heard with sincere satisfaction many 
respectable gentlemen in the House and out of it, express a 
wish, that, by a revocation of the orders in council, the British 
ministry would put it in the power of our government to 
come to some adjustment of our differences with England. 
The position which he was about to lay down, and the proof 
of which the course of his argument had compelled him in 
some degree to anticipate, however it might startle persons of 
this description, was nevertheless susceptible of the most 
direct and positive evidence. Little did these gentlemen 
dream, but such was the indisputable fact, that their removal 
at this moment would not satisfy our administration. In 
Lord Wellesley's letter to Mr. Pinkney of Dec. 29, 1810, he 
says: "If nothing more had been required of G. Britain, 
for the purpose of securing the continuation of the repeal 
of the French decrees, than the repeal of our orders in coun- 
cil I should not have hesitated to declare the perfect readi- 
ness of this government to fulfill that condition. On these 
terms the British government has always been seriously dis- 
posed to repeal the orders in council. It appears however, 
not only by the letter of the French minister, but by your 
explanation, that the repeal of the orders in council will 
not satisfy either the French or the American governments. 
The British government is further required by the letter of 
the French minister to renounce those principles of blockade 
which the French government alleges to be new." 

This fact is placed beyond a doubt, by Mr. Pinkney's 
answer of the 14th January, 1811. "If I comprehend the 
other parts of your Lordship's letter," says he, "they declare 
in effect that the British Government will repeal nothing out 
of the Orders in Council y--2Lnd again, "It is certairdy true 

History of Prince Edward County 79 

that the American Government has required as indispensa- 
ble in the view of its acts of intercourse and non-intercourse, 
the annulment of the British blockade of May 1806." 

Thus when the British Government stood pledged to 
repeal its Orders in Council, a question entirely distinct, has 
been dexterously mingled with it in our discussions with 
England; the renunciation of the right of blockade in the 
face of Mr. Madison's construction of the non-intercourse 
law, and of Mr. Smith's instructions to General Armstrong 
of July 5, and 2nd November, 1810, has been declared in- 
dispensable in the view of that act, and there is the fullest 
admission that more than the repeal of the Orders in Council 
was required ; viz, of that blockade, against which we had not 
lifted our voice, until required to do so by France, which Mr. 
Monroe (so far from remonstrating against it, which would 
Have been his duty to have done if illegal) consider it 
"«5 highly satisfactory to the commercial interests,'''' A block- 
ade easy as would be that of the ports of Chesapeake, with a 
sufficient force stationed in Lynn Haven Bay. What is a 
legal blockade? A blockade with such force as renders the 
approach of merchant vessels dangerous. 

Mark the wonderful facility with which Mr. Pinkney, 
not only blends the question of the blockade of May 1806, 
with the repeal of the Orders in Council; but his disposition 
to go, if he could^ the whole length of the French doctrine of 
blockade; a doctrine unheard of before the reign of Bona- 
parte. "It is by no means clear that it may not fairly be 
contended on principle and early usage that a maritime 
blockade is incomplete with regard to states at peace, unless 
the place which it affects, is invested hy land a^ well as hy 
seay And yet in the same letter he says, "You will imagine 
that the repeal is not to remain in force, unless the British 
government, in addition to the revocation of its Orders in 
Council, abandon its system of blockade. I am not conscious 
of having stated, as your Lordship seems to think, that this 

History of Prince Edward County 

is so, and I believe in fact that it is otherwise. Even if it 
were admitted however, the Orders in Council ought never- 
theless to be revoked." 

The American doctrine of blockade is expressly laid 
down in Mr. Smith's letter to Commodore Preble of the 4th of 
February, 1804. "Whenever therefore you shall have formed 
a blockade of the port of Tripoli ('so as to create an evident 
danger on entering it') you will have a right to capture for 
adjudication, any vessel that shall attempt to enter with a 
knowledge of the blockade." The very same doctrine against 
which, at the instigation of France, we are now about to 
plunge into war! 

Mr. Randolph said he was compelled to omit many strik- 
ing proofs of his positions, from absolute weakness and in- 
ability, to read the voluminous extracts from the documents 
before him. If the offer should be made of a repeal of the 
Orders of Council which our people at home, good easy souls, 
supposed to be the only obstacle, the wound, as after the 
accommodation of the affair of the Chesapeake, would still 
remain incurable. He had not touched upon the subject of 
impressment, because, notwithstanding the use which had been 
made of it in that House and in the publick prints, it did 
not constitute, according to the showing of our own govern- 
ment, an obstacle to accommodation; (the orders in council 
and question of blockade being the avowed impediments) and 
because it appears from Mr. Monroe's letter of the 28th Feb- 
ruary 1808 "that the ground on which that interest was 
placed by the paper of the British commissioners of Nov. 8, 
1806, and the explanations which accompanied it, was hoth 
honourahle and advantageous to the United States. That it 
contained a concession in their favor on the part of Great 
Britain, on the great principle in contestation, never before 
made, by a formal, obligatory act of the government, which 
was highly favorable to their interests." 

In fact the rejection of Mr. Monroe's treaty had alone 

History of Prince Edward County 81 

prevented the settlement upon honourable terms, of this^ as 
well as of every other topic of difference between the two 

He called the attention of the House to Mr. Smith's letter 
to Mr. Armstrong of July 5, 1810, requiring, in the name of 
the President, restitution of our plundered property as "a 
peliminary to accommodation between the two governments," 
— "As has been heretofore stated to you, a satisfactory pro- 
vision for restoring the property lately surprised and seized 
by the order, or at the instance of the French government 
must he combined with a repeal of tlie French edicts with a 
view to non-intercourse with Great Britian; such a provision 
being an indispensable evidence of the just purpose of France 
towards the U. States!" Yet no restitution had been made: 
"that affair is settled by the law of reprisal." What had 
been the language held on this floor and by ministers of 
state in official communications to committees of Congress? 
"that the return of the Hornet should be conclusive as to our 
relations with France. That if Mr. Barlow should not suc- 
ceed in attaining the most complete redress for the past and 
assurances for the future we would take the same stand 
against her as against Great Britain; that any uncertainty 
as to his success would be equivalent to the certainty of his 
failure." Such was the language held until the fact occurred, 
that NO satisfaction had been, or was likely to be obtained. 
Indeed, for some days after the arrival of the Hornet, these 
opinions had been maintained. They had however gradually 
died away and it was only within 48 hours past that a differ- 
ent language had been held. Was it necessary to remind the 
House of the shuffling conduct and policy of France toward 
us? Of the explanation attempted by DECREES, the min- 
ister of marine, in relation to the Berlin Decree and the sub- 
sequent annunciation of his government to Mr. Armstrong, 
with true French sang froidj that "as there was no excepting 
of the United States in the terms of the decrees, so there was 

History of Prince Edward County 

no reason for excepting them from their operation." Have 
we forgotten Champagny's declaration of war in our name, 
"War exists then in fact between England and the United 
States and his majesty considers it as declared." — In short, 
for years past France has required us to make war witli Eng- 
land as the price of jiiidefined commercial concessions from 
her. We have been told "that we ought to tear to pieces the 
act of our independence — that we were more dependent than 
Jamaica — ^that we were without just political ^dews, without 
energy, without honour, and that we must at last fight for 
interest, after having refused to fight for honour." 

France, whilst you required of her as a preliminary to 
further accommodation, the restitution of her plunder, de- 
coyed into her ports, required from you, as preliminary, a 
war with England. Mr. Barlow has now been ten months in 
France, dancing attendance upon her Court, without being 
able to obtain an answer to a few plain questions. Are your 
Decrees repealed? — It is considered as improper to make the 
enquiry, — Instead of the edict, rescript, the instrument of re- 
peal, by whatsoever name it be called, he sends us the strict- 
ures of the French Grovernment upon the proceedings of 
the American Congress; and a remonstrance to the Duke of 
Bassano, that the repeal of the Decrees (in which he is com- 
pelled to feign a belief, because the President's proclamation 
is the sole evidence of the fact) has not been given in charge 
to the French cruizers, but that the publick ships of war 
(Nymph and Medusa) continue to hum our vessels on the 
high seas. And what does the Duke of Bassano tell him in 
reply? The same old story of Champagny to General Arm- 
strong— "The United States will be entirely satisfied on the 
pending questions, and there will be no obstacle to their ob- 
taining the advantages they have in view, if they succeed 
in making their flag safeP"* In other words, make war with 
England and you ^ill be satisfied (and not until then) on 
the pending questions. And what are they? On one of them 

History of Prince Edward County 83 

the required compensation for plunder, — your minister, after 
waiting for months for an oral answer, tells you, "This is 
dull worh^ hard to begin and difficult to execute.''^ This is 
the claim too, required by Mr. Secretary Smith, under the 
President's order, to be satisfied as a preliminary to the 
acceptance of the overture of August 5, 1810! It is possible 
the Wasp may bring out something, just to hush up com- 
plaints until we are fairly embarked in war; into which, if 
we enter, it will be a war of submission to the mandates of a 
foreign Despot — the basest, the most unqualified, the most 
abject submission. France for years past has offered us terms 
(without specifying what they were) at the price of a war 
with England, which, hitherto we have rejected. That price 
must now be paid. The Emperor deals only for ready money 
— and carrying his jealousy further than in the case of the 
President's Proclamation (which he would not believe until 
its terms were fulfilled) he requires to be paid in hand before 
he will make his equivalent. 

In the celebrated case of insult by implication, or insinua- 
tion, offered by Mr. Jackson, there existed in the Archives of 
the country, a monument (such as it was) to the insensibility 
of this House to that insult. 

If under such circumstances, without having received any 
shadow of indemnity for the past, or security for the future — 
if indeed security could be given by the French Emperor — 
the United States becomes virtually a party to the war in 
his behalf, it must confirm bej'^ond the possibility of doubt, 
every surmise that has gone abroad, however gross, however 
injurious to the honour or the interests of this government — 
that there exists in our councils an undue, a fatal French 
bias. After the declarations of official men, after the lan- 
guage uttered on that floor, if the U. States become parties to 
the war with France against her rival, it must establish as 
clearly as the existence of the sun above us — this event has 
not happened, and God forbid it should — but if it does, the 

84 History of Prince Edward County 

conclusion will be irresistible, and this government will stand 
branded to the latest posterity, (unless the press should 
perish in the general wreck of human liberty) as the pan- 
dars of French despotism — as the tools, the minions, syco- 
phants, parasites of France. 'Twas to secure the country from 
this opprobrium that the proposition was about to be sub- 

This is not like a war for a Spanish succession or a 
Dutch barrier; for the right of cutting logwood on a desert 
coast, or fishing in the Polar sea. It is war unexampled in 
the history of mankind — a war, — separated as we are from 
the theatre of it by a wide ocean — from which it behooves us 
to stand aloof — to set our backs to the wall and await the 
coming of the enemy, instead of rushing out at midnight in 
search of the disturbers of our rest, when a thousand dag- 
gers are pointed at our bosoms. But it is said we must fight 
for commerce — a war for commerce deprecated by all the 
commercial portion of our country, by New England and 
New York, the greatest holders of our navigation and capital ! 

(Mr. CALHOUN called to order ; the question of war was 
not before the House. It was decided by Mr. Bibb, then in 
the chair, the Speaker having vacated a few minutes before 
that the objection was not valid, as the gentleman from Vir- 
ginia had announced his intention to conclude with a motion, 
and it had been usual in such cases, to permit a wide range 
of debate.) 

Mr. Randolph thanked the gentleman from South Caro- 
lina for the respite Avhich he had unintentionally given him, 
and which, in his exhausted situation, was highly grateful. 
This war for commercial rights is to be waged against the ex- 
press wish (constitutionally pronounced, spoken in langu- 
age which cannot be misunderstood) of the great commercial 
section of the United States — a war which must cut up com- 
merce by the roots; which, in its operation, must necessarily 
drive population and capital beyond the mountains. 

History of Prince Edward County 85 

(Mr. CALHOUN said he would give the gentleman from 
Virginia another opportunity to rest himself. He repeated his 
call to order, and the Speaker decided that the motion must be 
submitted, reduced to writing, and seconded (thus reversing 
his own, and Dr. Bibb's previous decision). An appeal was 
taken from this decision, and it was affirmed ; ayes 67 ; noes 42. 

Mr. Kandolph then said, that under the compulsion of 
the House, he would submit his motion. 

"Resolved, that under existing circumstances, it is in- 
expedient to resort to war against Great Britain." 

The motion was accordingly handed to the chair, and 
being seconded, Mr. Randolph was proceeding to argue in 
support of it, when Mr. Caliioun again interrupted him on 
the ground that a vote must be taken (without debate) ''Ho 
consider the motiony TRe Speaker decided that this was not 
necessary, — and Mr. Randolph, after thanking the Speaker 
for this decision, was re-commencing his observations, when 
the objection being repeated, the Speaker said he had given 
a hasty opinion, and reversed his decision. The vote to con- 
sider the motion was then put and negatived; ayes 37; noes 
72. Which put a period to all further discussion." 

The Manifestoe; the main body of which has thus been 
given; goes on for a full page to cite extracts from various 
jetters and reports in support of the arguments used in the 
main body of the speech of Mr. Randolph, but are not neces- 
sary to our purpose here and will be omitted. 

The war party succeeded and the war went on with but 
little glory to the United States, and with little advantage 
to France. 

T^vxntt Eirnarh Qlomtlg in tly^ War S^tm^^tt ttf^ ^tuttB 

1. Introduction. 

2. Comparative Table, prepared by Mr. C. G. Lee. 
8. Muster Rolls of Prince Edward Companies. 

4. Interesting Experiences. "Captain" Sam Paulett; 
"The Old Reb." 

5. Local War History. Dr. James L. White; the "Be- 
loved PbAsician." 

History of Prince Edward County 89 



It is extremely unfortunate that even oificials. specifically 
charged with responsibility^ in the premises, so often betray 
but little diligence in making and preserving important rec- 
ords and lists, and that the public are so slow in coming to 
realize the vast impotrance of such things to future genera- 

This disposition is glaringly evident in the lackadaisical 
manner in which our war records are kept — or, rather, in 
the way in which they are not kept. 

And all this is very evident in relation to the records of 
the War Between the States. Only such records of the part 
pla3^ed by Prince Edward county in that colossal contest are 
available, as have been rescued from the rapidly disappear- 
ing mass, and compiled by private citizens. And they are 
pitiably meagre! Chief amongst those to whom the county 
owes a real debt of gratitude in this connection, is Captain 
Sam. W. Paulett, of Farmville. 

At the risk of appearing to over-balance the records, 
we are printing all the materials thus collected, in the sin- 
cere hope that they may thus be preserved from complete 
and final disappearance, in which case Prince Edward 
county would be indeed a serious loser. Hence the peculiar 
structure of this chapter. 


History of Prince Edward County 



Whites from the South 

Whites from the North ..„ 

Negroes .__ _ „ 

Indians ..._ _„.. 

Total ..._....^ _ , „ _ 

Confederate Armies all told 

Numerical Superiority of Northern Army 









Aggregate Federal Army, May 1st, 1865 1,000,516 

Aggregate Confederate Army, May 1st, 1865 „ 133,433 

Number of men in battles : 

Seven Day's Fight 

Antietem „.. 

Chancellors ville _ _ 

Fredericksburg „ 


Chicamauga _ 

Wilderness ._._ _. 


. 87,164 
. 95,000 
. 65,000 

Federal prisoners in Confederate prisons ...„ _ _ _....-27 0,000 

Confederate Prisoners in Federal prisons _ _ 220,000 

Confederates died in Federal prisons 26,436 

Federals died in Confederate prisons „ 22,570 

The above table shows that the Federals let a little over twelve 
per cent, of their prisoners die in captivity. While the Confeder- 
ates lost only eight and one-half per cent, of their prisoners by 

The above statement is sworn to bv C. G. Lee. 

Farmville, Virginia. 

See Page 89. 

History of Prince Edward County 91 


The following petition will be heard before the county 
court of Prince Edward on Monday, the 19th day of Decem- 

^^' ^^^^* W. H. THACKSTON, Clerk. 

To the Honorable J. M. Crute, Judge of the County 
Court of Prince Edward county: 

The petition of S. W. Paulett; O. T. Wicker; and R. D. 
Miller, respectfully represents: 

That your petitioners served as soldiers in the defense of 
Virginia in the War Between the States of 1861 and 1865, 
inclusive ; that they were members of a company of Infantry, 
enlisted for the most part in said county, in the commence- 
ment of said war. That said Company was raised for the 
defence of Virginia and did actually serve in one of the 
armies of the Confederate States of America, to wit: the 
Army of Northern Virginia, as Company F, 18th Virginia 
Infantry Regiment during the whole war. 

They file herewith a muster roll of said Company of 
Infantry and pray that the same may be recorded among 
the records of said county. And to that end that your Honor 
will require the proper notice of this application to be pub- 
lished and render to your petitioners all such other and fur- 
ther aid in the premises as may be needed, and your petition- 
ers, as in duty bound, will ever pray, etc. 

S. W. Paulett, 
O. T. Wicker, 
R. D. Miller. 

Virginia: — Prince Edward county, to wit: 

I, Richard A. Booker, formerly Captain of Co. F, 18th 
Virginia Infantry, do certify that S. W. Paulett, O. T. 

92 History of Prince Edward County 

Wicker, and R. D. Miller, whose names are signed to the 
within petition, were members of said Company of Infantry 
and were thoroughly reputable soldiers. 

Richard A. Booker, 
Formerly Captain Co, F^ l^th Va. Infantry, 

History of Prince Edward County 93 





Captain — Richard A. Booker. Wounded at 2nd battle of 
Manassas; resigned and afterwards made Colonel of Re- 
serves and served to the close of the war. 

1st Lieutenant — Charles D. Anderson; left Company 
April, 1862 ; became an officer in the Richmond City Battalion 
and served during the war. 

2nd Lieutenant — Charles H. Erambert. Resigned April, 
1862; became an officer in the Richmond City Battalion, and 
served during the war. 

3rd Lieutenant — Samuel B. McKinney. Health failed; 
resigned April, 1862; served during the war in the Q. M. 
G.'s office at Richmond. 

1st Sergeant — Chesley Wood. Health failed; detailed in 
Hospital; served during the war. 

2nd Sergeant — Wm. C. Priddy. Health failed; detailed 
in Hospital ; served during the war. 

3rd Sergeant — Wm. H. Pettus. Transferred to Cavalry, 

4th Sergeant — Wm. G. Vjenable. Discharged, May, 1861. 

1st Corporal — James W. Womack. Killed at Gaines' 
Mill, 1862. 

2nd Corporal — Robert E. Warren. Health failed ; put in 
a substitute; afterwards entered the Cavalry and served dur- 
ing the war. 

94 Hutory of Prince Edward County 

3rd Coropral — C. D. Lindsey. Transferred to Co. K, 18th 
Va., Regiment, April, 1862, and served through the war. 

4th Corporal — Samuel C. Price. Promoted to Sergeant- 
Major of the regiment, February, 1862; wounded at the 2nd 
battle of Manassass; promoted to Quarter Master of the 
regiment, fall of 1862, served during the war. 


Peyton B. Anderson, Killed at Gaines' Mill, 1862. 

William F. Anderson, withdrew after 1st battle of 
Manassas; afterwards served in the Cavalry. 

Z. A. Blanton, promoted to Sergeant; to Orderly Ser- 
geant; to First Lieutenant; then to Captain; disabled by a 
terrible wound in the charge at Gettysburg. 

George R. Boatwright, wounded at the battle of Drury's 
Bluff; killed at Hatcher's Run, March 31, 1865. 

Chas. H. Brimmer, health failed; detailed in hospital, 
where he served during the war. 

Thomas H. Bryant, wounded at Frazier's Farm ; killed at 

Robert M. Burton, made orderly with staff of Gen. G. T. 
Beauregard; there served most of the war. 

Allison Brightwell, died in hospital. 

L. C. Butler,—. 

Joseph E. Chappell, wounded at Seven Pines ; transferred 
to artillery. 

Thos. A. Cli borne, wounded in several battles. 
George W. Clibome, died of disease, contracted in the 

E. B. Coleman, transferred to Co. H, 18th Va. 

History of Prmce Edward CourUy 95 

Richard Crafton, transferred to artillery. 

J. J. Chernault, detailed brigade butcher. 

W. M. Davidson, served in the field, then detailed as 
Quarter Master's clerk. 

C. H. Dowdy, killed at Frazier's Farm. 

J. S. Davis, killed at Gettysburg. 

W. C. Davis, put in substitute 1862. 

E. P, Davis, put in substitute, December, 1861. 

A. L. Deaton, died of typhoid fever, September, 1861. 

James H. Dunnington. wounded and disabled at Gaines' 
Mill, 1862; afterwards served as Orderly for General Hunton. 

Tom Dowdy, wounded at Bermuda Front, and died from 
its effects. 

Pat Dougherty, killed at Hatcher's Run, 31st March, 

J. T. East, died of typhoid fever, September, 1861. 

Robert W. Elam, promoted to Orderly Sergeant; killed 
at Hatcher's Run, 31st March, 1865. 

George W. Elam, promoted to 2nd Sergeant, then to 
Orderly Sergeant; killed at Gettysburg. 

George W. Erambert, detailed in hospital, October, 1861. 

J. T. Elam, detailed at General Hunton's headquarters. 

Obediah East, wounded at Seven Pines and Gettysburg. 

J. W. East, health failed; discharged. 

John Eagles, wounded and disabled. 

Peyton Enroughty, — . 

A. L. Faris, wounded and disabled at the battle of Wil- 
liamsburg, May 5th. 

George R. Flippen, wounded at Gaines' Mill. 

A. S. Foster, transferred to Co. K, 18th Va., killed at 
Seven Pines. 

B. F. Foster, served faithfully through the war. 

S. B. Foster, transferred to Co. C, 18th Va., Regiment, 
April, 1862; died about close of the war. 

96 History of Prince Edward County 

A. J. Fowlkes, wounded at Gaines' Mill; promoted to 
Orderly Sergeant; then to 1st Lieutenant. 

John M. Foster, captured at Grettysburg; died at Point 
Lookout, Md. 

James ¥, Foster, — . 

Kobert Gilliam, wounded at Gettysburg. 

George Gills, — . 

Henry G. Haines, transferred to Co. K, 18th Va., April, 
1862 ; supposed to have been killed in retreat from Petersburg. 

B. J. Harvey, detailed at Confederate shops at Farmville. 
J. S. Harvey, served through the war. 

B. A. Holt, transferred to Co. C, 18tR Va., April, 1862; 
detailed at Richmond, June, 1862; became Captain of a local 
company of city guards. 

T. A. Holt, wounded at Sailor's Creek. 

W. V. Holt, transferred to Co. K, 18th Va., April, 1862. 

R. M. Hawkins, detailed as brigade blacksmith. 

H. H. Hooton, wounded at Gaines' Mill. 

S. C. Hooton, wounded at Gaines' Mill, and killed at 

A. M. Hughes, promoted to Sergeant, April, 1862; killed 
at Williamsburg, May 5th. 

J. W. Hancock, health failed; discharged, February, 

J. S. Hart, detailed at Confederate shops at Farmville. 

Jeff Hawkins, transferred to 19th Va. Regiment. 

Jett Hawkins, wounded; transferred to 19th Va. Regi- 

Henry Harvey, wounded. 

Elisha Hunt, killed at Gettysburg. 

Tobe Hudgins, deserted at Gettysburg. 

Johnson Harvey, killed at Hatcher's Run, 31st March, 

Jesse Harvey, — . 

N. H. Jackson, promoted to 3rd Lieutenant; wounded at 

History of Prince Edward County 97 

2nd battle of Manassas; resigned, and afterwards served in 
the Cavalry. 

Abram Jenkins, detailed as blacksmith in Richmond. 

J no. Jenkins, transferred to Cavalry. 

Henry Jenkins, detailed as blacksmith in Richmond. 

Tom Jenkins, killed at Frazier's Farm. 

Jno. Jackson, killed at Hatcher's Run, 31st March. 

Archer Jennings, — . 

Elihu Morrissett, transferred to Co. C, 18th Va., April, 
1862; wounded and disabled at Gaines' Mill. 

T. L. Morton, detailed in hospital. 

Nat. S. Morton, wounded at Drury's Bluff; promoted to 
1st Corporal. 

Wm. H. Morton, made Color Corporal, April, 1862; 
wounded at Gaines' Mill; transferred to Cavalry. 

H. C. Middleton, detailed in hospital. 

W. J. Morrissett, elected Lieutenant at Orange C. H.; 
promoted to Captain; slightly wounded once or twice. 

Eddie Miller, left marker. 

R. D. Miller, captured at Gettysburg and kept in prison 
many months. 

John Moss, — . 

Rod Mayo, — . 

William A. Miller, promoted to 1st Lieutenant; wound- 
ed at Gettysburg. 

J. H. Minor, transferred to Co. E, April, 1862; health 
failed; detailed in hospital. 

T. F. McKinney, wounded at Gaines' Mill; afterwards 
served in Cavalry. 

W. J. Nash, wounded at Frazier's Farm; promoted to 

Thos. J. Osborne, discharged, — ill-health. 

V. C. Overton, died of typhoid fever, February, 1862. 

Richard H. Page, killed at Frazier's Farm. 

98 History of Prince Edward County 

John H. Pearson, died of disease, contracted by ex- 

Samuel B. Partin, — . 

John E. Paterson, detailed in hospital during 1861 ; made 
Commissary of 16th Va. Regiment, 1862. 

T. J. Paulett, wounded at Gettysburg. 

H. A. Paulett.— 

Samuel W. Paulett, right marker; wounded at 2nd Man- 
assas; slightly wounded and captured at Gettysburg; severe- 
ly wounded and captured at Sailor's Creek, 6th April, 1865. 

Tom Price, killed at Bermuda Front. 

E. T. Rice, detailed in hospital. 

Chas. R. Richardson, detailed as clerk, October, 1861; 
afterwards returned to Company; killed at Bermuda Front. 

Walter H. Richardson, discharged as farmer, Sept., 1861. 

Jno. W. Ransom, made Sergeant of Company. 

Jesse Robertson, wounded terribly and died. 

T. L. Robertson, — . 

J. J. Riggins, captured at Gettysburg. 

George M. Setzer, wounded at Frazier's Farm; pro- 
moted to Corporal; killed at Gettysburg. 

W. G. Stratton, wounded at Hatcher's Run, 31st March, 

W. F. Smith, transferred to Co. K, 18th Va., April, 1862. 

Wm. Smith,—. 

Joel W. Toney, discharged 1862: joined again in 1864. 

Wm. A. Tuggle, killed at Frazier's Farm. 

-" Tompkins, wounded at Hatcher's Run, 31st March, 

Cicero A. Verser, transferred to Co. C, 18th Va., April, 
1862; killed at Gaines' Mill. 

Ed. Verser, — . 

Paul C. Venable, transferred to Co. D, 18th Va., Feb., 
1862; promoted to Ordinance Sergeant of the regiment; 

HiMory of Pi^'mce Edward County 90 

afterwards promoted to Captain of Ordinance, on Gen. Wade 
Hampton's Staff. 

C. M. Walker, transferred to Cavalry, and wounded at 
Spottsylvania C. H., Stevensburg, and Winchester. 

L. A. Warren, promoted to Sergeant, and afterwards 
made Quarter-Master Sergeant. 

W. H. H. Walthall, promoted to Color Corporal. 

Thos. Weaver, killed at Bermuda Front. 

B. C. Wells, served through the war. 

T. A. Wells, served through the war. 

W. C. Wells,—. 

W. Archer Wilson, killed at 1st battle of Manassas; first 
man of the Company killed in battle. 

Abram !N^. Womack, discharged for disease and over-age. 

Nathan B. Womack, discharged; afterwards rejoined. 

W. T. Worsham, wounded at Gaines' Mill; killed at 

Tom Walden, died at Point Lookout, Md. 

Peter Wells,—. 

J. T. Wilkerson, discharged; afterwards put in 19th Va. 

O. T. Wicker, wounded at Gaines' Mill; 2nd Manassas; 
Flint Hill; Gettysburg; and Bermuda Front. 

Edgar Wicker, — . 

Jno. D. Walthall, wounded at Gaines' Mill; and Gettys- 

Conrad Zimmerman, wounded and disabled at Gaines' 
Mill; afterwards served as Conscript Officer. 

NOTE: (The foregoing most excellent summary of 
Company F, was made under the personal supervision of 
"Captain" S. W. Paulett.) 

NOTE: (R. D. Miller, one of the signers of this peti- 
tion, died in October, 1921, and was buried in Farmville 

100 History of Prince Edward County 



The following petition will be heard before the County 
Court of Prince Edward, on the 21st of April, 1899. 

W. H. THACKSTON, Clerk. 

To the Honorable Judge of the County Court of Prince Ed- 
ward county: 

The petition of N. H. Garland, C. C. Bass, and F. H. 
Davis respectfully represents: — • 

That your petitioners served as soldiers in defense of 
Virginia in the War Betweei^ the States of 1861 and 1865, in- 
clusive; that they were members of a Company of Infantry 
enlisted for the most part in the said county, in the commence- 
ment of said war. That said Company was raised for the 
defense of Virginia, and did actually serve in one of the 
armies of the Confederate States, to wit: in the Army of 
Northern Virginia, as Company I, 23rd Virginia Regiment, 
during the whole war. 

They file herewith a muster roll of said Company of 
Infantry and pray that the same may be recorded among the 
records of said county. And to that end that your Honor 
will require the proper notice of this application to be pub- 
lished, and to render to your Petitioners all such other and 
further aid in the premises as may be needed, and your Peti- 
tioners, as in duty bound, will ever pray, etc. 

C. C. Bass, 
F. H. Davis, 
N. H. Garland. 

HiMory of Prince Edward County 101 

Virginia: — Prince Edward county, to wit: 

I, Branch Worsham, formerly Lieutenant of Co. I, 23rd 
Virginia Infantry, C. S. A., do certify that C. C. Bass, N. H. 
Garland, and F. H. Davis, whose names are signed to the 
above petition, were members of said Company of Infantry, 
and were thoroughly reputable soldiers. 

B. Worsham, 
Lieutenant Co. /, ^2trd Fa., Infantry, 


This Company was organized at Prince Edward court- 
house (now Worsham) and was the third to leave the county; 
was mustered into service May 22nd, 1861, at Richmond, and 
on Sunday, June 9th, 1861, left Richmond for Northwest Vir- 
ginia, the Regiment being commanded by Colonel William 
B. Taliaferro. 

Captain, Moses T. Hughes; commanded until the battle 
of Carriclcsford, July 13th, 1861, when he resigned. 

1st Lieutenant, J. P. Fitzgerald; commissioned Captain 
of the Company from July 25th, 1861. Commissioned Major 
of the regiment from June 10th, 1863, and Lieutenant- Colonel 
from the 27th of November, 1863. Wounded at Sharpsburg; 
captured at Spottsylvania ; carried to Fort Delaware, and 
from thence to the coast of South Carolina; exchanged at 
Charleston, July, 1864. Was with the Army of Northern 
Virginia at the surrender at Appomattox. 

2nd Lieutenant, Branch Worsham; captured at the battle 
of Carricksford. Appointed clerk of the Circuit Court of 
Prince Edward. 

3rd Lieutenant, William G. Trueheart; elected 1st Lieu- 
tenant, July 20th, 1861; subsequently resigned and joined 
the Prince Edward company of Cavalry. 

1st Sergeant, Nathaniel G. Jones ; served until discharged. 
Afterwards served in the 18th Virginia Regiment. 

102 History of Prince Edward County 

2nd Sergeant, Henry Venable; killed in the battle of 
Carricksford, July 13th, 1861. 

3rd Sergeant, Christopher C. Bass; wounded at Mc- 
Dowell, May 8th, 1862; served until July, 1862, when he was 
discharged for physical disability. 

4th Sergeant, Gustavus A. Bass; elected 1st Lieutenant 
at the re-organization in May, 1862. He commanded the 
Company at the battle of Chancellorsville, 1863, where he 
was killed. 

6th Sergeant, James H. Thackston; captured on the re- 
treat from Northwest Virginia, and paroled, and when he 
was exchanged, joined some other company. 

1st Corporal, Henry W. Edmunds; wounded at the battle 
of Carricksford, July 13th, 1861; captured and paroled, and 
when exchanged, joined the Cavalry, and was again severely 
wounded. . 

2nd Corporal, Thomas R. Farrar; killed at the battle of 
McDowell, May 8th, 1862; body sent home and buried in 
Prince Edward. 

3rd Corporal, George W. Cliborne; exchanged into Com- 
pany F, 18th regiment in 1863. 

4th Corporal, William L. Gutherie; elected 3rd Lieuten- 
ant at the re-organization of the Company in May 1862; on 
the death of Lieutenant G. A. Bass, was made 1st Lieutenant, 
and became Captain of the Company in 1863; was captured 
at Spottsylvania Courthouse, May 12, 1864, and taken to 
Point Lookout, and thence to Morris Island, S. C, and, on 
being taken back to Lookout, died there from exposure and 
hardships endured while in prison. 

5th Corporal, John M. Booker; killed at the battle of 
Sharpsburg, September 17th, 1862. 

History of Prince Edward County 103 


J. D. Allen, discharged for physical disability. 

John J. Allen, discharged, January, 1862. 

John R. Allen, captured July, 1861 on the retreat from 
Northwest Virginia, and paroled when exchanged, and did 
not rejoin the Company. 

Robert P. Anderson, transferred in June, 1861, to Captain 
J. M. P. Atkinson's Company (Hampden- Sidney boys) ; 
captured at Rich Mountain, July, 1861, and, when exchanged, 
joined the Artillery. 

Elisha S. Boatwright, served until late in the war, and 

Richard F. Burke, served through the war. 

Henry C. Campbell, discharged, August 1st, 1861, on 
account of physical disability. 

Wm. H. Campbell. 

John A. Chappell, captured at Spottsylvania Courthouse. 
May 12th, 1864; imprisoned at Point Lookout until the close 
of the war. 

John Carter, killed at Carricksford, July 13th, 1861. 

Elijah F. Collins, killed at Carricksford, July 13th, 1861. 

John W. Cave, wounded at Carricksford. 

James A. Chrisp, served until late in the war, when dis- 
charged for physical disability. 

Jeremiah G. Daub, wounded in the arm at McDowell, 
May 8th, 1862, and discharged. 

Fayette H. Davis, captured at Spottsylvania Courthouse, 
May 12th, 1864, and kept a prisoner at Fort Delaware un- 
til the close of the war. 

Richard A. Davis, captured on the retreat from North- 
west Virginia, July, 1861, and paroled; when exchanged, 
jomed another company. 

Joshua Foster; killed at Carricksford, July 13th, 1861. 

Nelson H. Garland, was made 1st Sergeant of the Com- 
pany, and, at the re-organization in May 1862, was elected 

104 History of Prince Edward County 

2nd Lieutenant, and at the battle of McDowell, May glh, 1862, 
was disabled by a wound through the arm, and after that 
was on detached service. 

John R. Hughes, discharged July, 1861, for physical dis- 

Shadrach H. Hines, discharged at the end of the first 
year's service as being over forty-five years old. 

Thomas L. Hines, captured at Spottsylvania Courthouse 
and retained a prisoner at Fort Delaware until the war ended. 

Samuel C. Hines, discharged for physical disability. 

James H. Hailey. 

William Hamilton, died of disease, September, 1861. 

Francis Hamilton, served through the war. 

James Hamilton; served through the war. 

Irby King, killed at Carricksford, July 13th, 1861. 

Drury Lacy, wounded at Carricksford, July 13th, 1861; 
elected Lieutenant 1863; captured at Spottsylvania Court- 
house, May 12th, 1864; carried to Point Lookout, and thence 
to the coast of South Carolina, and afterwards exchanged at 

Matthew L. Meadow, captured July, 1861, and never re- 
turned for duty. 

Overton Meadow, served through the war. 

Wm. J. Morris, wounded at Spottsylvania Courthouse, 
May 12th, 1864, captured and not released until the close 
of the war. 

Elijah Morgan, captured at Spottsylvania Courthouse. 

T. W. Price. 

Joseph B. Price. 

Albert G. Rogers, served through the war. 

T. H. Rogers, wounded in the leg at Sharpsburg, served 
to the end of the war. 

R. T. Rice, discharged in March, 1862, for physical dis- 

History of Prince Edward County 105 

John F. Rice, Jr., captured at Spottsylvania Courthouse, 
May 12th, 1864, and not exchanged until after the war. 

F. S. Scott, captured at Spottsylvania Courthouse. 

Robert C. Thackston, wounded at Cedar Mountain, 
August 9th, 1862, and died of his wound in the hospital. 

John S. Watson, captured at Spottsylvania Courthouse, 
May 12th, 1864, and taken to Fort Delaware; on his return, 
afterwards accidentally drowned by falling overboard the 
steamer at Baltimore. 

John M. Williamson, captured July, 1861, and never re- 
turned to his Company. 

Benjamin A. Womack, captured at Spottsylvania Court- 




N. E. Venable, served in 1861 in the Marine Corps, and, 
in September, 1864, resigned his commission and entered 
this Company as a private; was promoted to the Lieuten- 
ancy; was commander of the Company at Kernstown. 

C. R. Venable, joined the Company September, 1861, and 
was made Sergeant. 


Wm. D. Allen, captured at Spottsylvania. 

James J. Bigger, died of disease. 

Archer L. Bagby, captured at Spottsylvania. 

Robert Fitzgerald, died of disease. 

John E. Campbell. 

Richard Crafton, killed at the Wilderness. 

Beverley Dupuy, killed at Chancellors ville. 

106 History of Prince Edward County 

George G. Fowlkes, killed at Chancellorsville. 
James T. Fowlkes. 
Minford Fowlkes. 
Darious Hash; died of disease. 
John T. Hines. 

Stephen Hines, died of disease. 
George K. Hughes, discharged and died. 
John F. Jones, wounded at McDowell. 
Wm. L. Meadow, died of disease. 
James M. Morton, died of disease. 
Nelson McGeehee, died 6f disease. 
James Phelps, died of disease 
Robert Reider. 

Robert K. Thackston, wounded at Petersburg. 
John S. Thackston, captured at Spottsylvania. 
Wm. A. Walton, became 1st Sergeant and was killed at 

James L. Waddell. 

(Note: Fayette H. Davis, one of the signers of this 
petition, died in 1920, and was buried in Farmville cemetery.) 

History of Prince Edward County 107 


December Term 1898 

On motion of the petitioners; W. H. Ewing, J. F. Wal- 
ton, and H, W. Edmunds, and it appearing that the Muster 
Roll of Company K, 3rd Regiment, of Virginia Cavalry, Fitz 
Lee's Division, C. S, A., has been published for two succes- 
sive weeks in the "Farmville Herald," and the Court. being 
satisfied that the copy of said Muster Roll is as perfect as 
practicable to be made, doth order the same to be recorded as 
the law directs. Teste: W. H. THACKSTON, Clerk. 

Captain, John I. Thornton, elected Lieutenant- Colonel in 
1862. Killed at the battle of Sharpsburg, 1862, while in com- 
mand of the 3rd Regiment. 

1st Lieutenant, Peyton R. Berkeley, elected to Captain in 
1862. Resigned 1863. " 

2nd Lieutenant, H. I. Parrish. 2nd Lieutenant at or- 
ganization; promoted to be "Aid De Camp," with rank of 
Captain; afterward Major, Lieutenant-Colonel, and Colonel 
of 16th Virginia Infantry. 

2nd Lieutenant, F. D. Redd. Retired at re-organizaion 
in 1862. 

2nd Lieutenant, Richard Stokes. Retired in 1862. 

1st Sergeant, E. N. Price, wounded at Five Forks in 1865. 

2nd Sergeant, Jno. H. Knight, promoted to be 1st Lieu- 
tenant in 1863; Captain in 1864, wounded at the "White 

3rd Sergeant, R. B. Berkeley. Transferred to Medical 
Department in 1863. 

4th Sergeant, Frank H. Scott. 

1st Corporal, L. M. Penick. 

2nd Corporal, R. AY. Dalby. 

3rd Corporal, A. B. Cralle. .■>.■. 

4tir Corporal, Daniel I. Allen. 

108 History of Prince Edward Cownty 

Drury L. Armistead. Orderly for General Joseph E. 

Henry A. Allen. 

Charles B. Anderson. 

Frank C. Anderson. 

H. Threat Anderson. 

Charles I. Anderson. 

Wesley W. Anderson. 

M. L. Arvin, captured in the Valley. 

James A. Baker. 

John W. Baker, wounded at Front fRoyial in 1863, 
and Spottsylvania in 1864. 

♦James JV. Bell, elected Lieutenant in 1862; resigned in 

Clifford A. Bondurant, wounded at Kelly's Ford in 1863. 

Samuel J. Bondurant. 

John J. Bondurant, discharged. 

Samuel W. Bondurant, put in substitute. 

W. A. Binford. 

George Booker. 

J. Horace Booker. 

William D. Booker. 

A. A. Bragg, Quarter-Master Sergeant of the Company. 

William Brooks. 

Samuel A. Bruce. 

William A. Bruce, orderly for Colonel Owen. 

John Chaffin. 

William T. Crafton. 

John R. Cunningham, wounded at Kelly's Ford and dis- 

Charles E. Clark. 

Charles W. Crawley. 

John M. Daniel. 

John P. Dickinson. 

R. M. Dickinson, transferred to Infantry and promoted. 

History of Prince Edward County 109 

W. P. Dupuy, wounded at Buckland in 1863, and Tom's 
Brook in 1864. 

Henry W. Edmunds, wounded and disabled at Kelly's 
Ford in 1863. 

F. L. Elliott. 

T. L. Elliott. 

John W. Elliott. 

R. C. Elliott, promoted to Sergeant and killed at Haws 
Shop in 1864. 

William W. Evans, wounded at Front Royal in 1864. 
W. H. Ewing, wounded at Front Royal in 1864. 
John J. Ewing. 
Charles Flournoy. 

John J. Flournoy, wounded and discharged in 1863. 
Thomas Flournoy, transferred. 
Rolin Foster. 
George W. Foster. 
George Fowlkes. 
James D. Fowlkes. 
Lafayette Garrett, teamster. 
J. H. Guthrie. 

Johnson Harvey, killed at Sailor's Creek in 1865. 
W. J. Harvey, transferred to Q. M. Dept. 
A. A. Haskins, promoted to Lieutenant in 1863. 
Thomas E. Haskins, promoted to Orderly Sergeant in 

John Z. Holladay. 
George Hunt. 

John C. Hunt, orderly to General Stuart and killed at 

Joby Hunt, wounded and lost a leg. 

John Jenkins. 

E. T. Jeffress. disabled and discharged. 

Frank Jenkins. 

John S. Kelley, a substitute. Captured in 1864. 

110 History of Prince Edward County 

E. S. Lockett. 

Goodrich Ligon, died of camp fever in 1862. 

K. V. Ligon. 

George Nicholas, a substitute and deserted. 

Charles Martin, professor at Hampden-Sidney. Pro- 
moted to Q. M. Dept. 

H. I. Meredith, captured at Boonsboro in 1862. Elected 
Lieutenant in 1863. 

E. A. Miller. 
B; M. Moseley. 
W. H. Morton. 

Charles K. Moseley, transferred to Infantry. 

F. J. Penick, wounded at Charles City in 1864. 
Daniel Price. 

B. H. Kagsdall. 

C. E. Redd, put in substitute. 
John A. Redd. 

John H. Redd. 
Joseph T. Redd, discharged. 
J. Wesley Redd. 
R. L. Redd. 
W. M. Richardson. 

James C. Rowlett, wounded at Five Forks in 1865. 
John D. Richardson. 

Junius C. Rowlett, lost a leg at Front Royal in 1864. 
S. S. Rowlett. 

Edwin Scott, killed on Picket near Newport News in 

Lafayette Scott, wounded at Kelley's Ford in 1863. 

James C. Spencer, killed in Charles City county in 1864. 

N. B. Spencer. 

J. D. Spencer. 

L. A. Starling. 

P. B. Sublett. 

Charles B. Spencer. 

History of Prince Edward County 111 

Nat. Thackston, captured at Williamsport in 1863; 
wounded at Trevillians in 1864. 

A. K. Todd. 

W. C. Trueheart. 

Charles Venable. 

A. R. Venable, transferred to Q. M. Dept., and pro- 
moted to Captain. 

John F. Walton. 

L. D. Walton. 

R. H. Walton. 

R. H. Watkins, elected to Lieutenant in 1862; to Captain 
in 1863; wounded at Aldie in 1863; at Tom's Brook in 1864; 
disabled and retired. 

Marcus West. 

Oscar Wiley, transferred, 1861. 

Jack C. Williams. 

James H. Wilson, killed at Haws Shop in 1864. 

Ed Witt, captured the same day he enlisted. 

A. C. Womack. 

A. W. Womack, discharged. 

D. G. Womack. 

Eugene Womack, killed at Tom's Brook in 1864. 

W. W. Womack, discharged. 

Frank L. Womack. 

Willie W. Wootton. 

Samuel T. Wootten, wounded at Louisa Court House. 

Thomas Watson. 

Jimmy Womack, discharged. 

112 History of Prince Edward Cov/nty 

Note: (The following series of articles regarding the 
experiences of Co. F, 18th Va. Regiment, in the war between 
the States, were written by "Captain" S. W. Paulett, of 
Farmville, Prince Edward county, known locally as the "Old 
Reb," who served throughout the war in that unit, and were 
published in the Farmville "Herald" during 1897. They form 
a most interesting, and at the same time a most valuable, 
history of that Company, and are well worth preserving.) 


Thinking it might be interesting to many of my old, as 
well as young friends, it has often occurred to me to write 
in my feeble way, an account of some of the scenes and in- 
cidents through which I passed, and was an actor, during my 
four years' service in the so-called "R^bel Army." 

Today my mind seems ill at ease. I find it drifting back 
to the scenes ' of long ago ; ever and anon I catch a faint 
glimpse of some little incident happening along our line of 
march, or while in camp. At this time one in particular 
looms up which I think will interest some of your many 
readers. Returning from North Carolina in May, 1863, my 
division, (Pickett's) was ordered to cross the Blackwater, sur- 
round, and make an effort to capture Suffolk, Va. We re- 
mained there a few days, when we were ordered to Peters- 
burg, and thus began the long and weary march across the 
State of Virginia, and to Gettysburg, Pa. The incident re- 
called, and which I wish to portray, occurred while in camp 
near Hanover Junction. We had, on that day, made quite 
a long and weary march, and were glad indeed, to see the 
head of our column file left and enter a maple woods, where 
we would camp for the night. No one but those who par- 
ticipated in these stirring times have any idea how light- 
hearted the old Rebs were, both in camp and on the march. 
While many had their fun, yet Bob Miller, otherwise known 

History of Prince Edward County 113 

as "Ilootsy B," and the writer, alias, "Bonsy," were said 
to be the life of our company, being ready at all times, and 
in all places, to carry out some devilment to relieve the te- 
dious hours as they passed. 

Now, in our company, there was a well-known character 
by name of Obediah East, who was always ready for fun and 
frolic, and also one of our best soldiers. It was on this in- 
dividual we had set our hearts on this occasion. I can recall 
him now, with his short-stem pipe, sitting quietly by him- 
self near his shake-down, before retiring to obtain the much 
needed rest all old soldiers know so well how to enjoy. Sit- 
ting thus, and jantidipating the good night's rest, he is 
startled by the approach of two striplings, namely. Bob 
and Sam. Obediah knows something is up. The two quiet- 
ly take their seats just opposite him, and they too light their 
pipes and begin to smoke. Not a word has been spoken. 
Obediah becomes restless, uncomfortable; he is satisfied we 
are there for a purpose; he can stand it no longer; so he 
jumps up and says: "Fetch take it all, what did you two 
little devils come here for?" "To give you a gentle army 
drag tonight, old boy," is the reply. "I am blamed if you 
do. I's gwine to set up all night.'' "All right, if you can stand 
it, we can." So silence once more falls on the three, while 
others are watching to see what the two little devils are up 
to. The striplings hold the fort. After many hours, Obediah 
falls back and draws his blanket closely about him. 

The two little devils are now wide awake and all atten- 
tion, awaiting the sound they knew was soon to follow. 
Soon the snore, deep and loud, is heard; the time has come; 
the little ones are up and ready for the fun. "Hoots," 
says Sam, "get him by the other leg." Hoots gets his hand 
under the blanket, when he is startled oy Obediah saying, 
"Take your hand outen dar, I ain't sleep yet." So the boys 
fall back and bide their time, knowing full well the time 
will come, for Obediah is tired and sleepy. 

114 History of Prince Edward County 

Another hour has passed and Obediah begins to twitch, 
squirm, and cry out. We now know the time has come, and 
tlirowing the blanket off, we each take a leg and start on the 
run down the hill toward the river, Obediah following like 
greased lightning in our wake, and making every effort to 
break away, but the two little devils have him good and fast, 
and take him nearly to the river and drop him a hundred 
yards from the starting point. We then ran for our lives, 
fully expecting rock, stick, and oath; we are surprised to 
hear Obediah crying in a loud voice : "Fetch take it all, I am 
d — n glad you dragged me, I had one of them blamed things 
on me," meaning he had a night-mare, which he was subject 
to all during the war. 

Mr. Editor, of such is army life, and it affords old 
soldiers much pleasure to review the many pleasant hours 
spent around the camp-fires. But as we review them, they 
all remind us of the solemn fact that the story of our lives 
will soon Le finished. Since 1865 how rapidly have our com- 
rades, who sat with us around those camp-fires, passed out 
into the shadowy night. 'Tis a sad thought, yet true. The 
ranks are thinning. Soon the last survivor of those times 
will be gone out; darkness will fall; and that scene of tre- 
mendous activity, and terrible reality to us, be only as a 
silent memory of the past. 

Now my old comrades, you who may read this, penned by 
one of your kind, let it remind you as we linger on the bor- 
der land, and as we assemble around our last camp-fire with 
the sunset in our faces, we may listen in silence and hear the 
ripple of the mystic river over which we soon must pass, and, 
as with our noble leader, Stonewall Jackson, and with the 
faith that ever shone brightly with him, we may say as he 
did, "Let us pass over the river and rest under the shade of 
the trees." Fraternally, the old Reb. 

Co. F, ISth Va, Regiment. 

History of Prince Edward County 115 




With your permission, and for the benefit of your many 
readers, I will continue to give some of my recollections of 
the war. 

June, 1863, found us in camp near Hanover Junction. 
At this time the Federal Army under General Hooker, re- 
occupied the heights opposite Fredericksburg, where it could 
not be attacked except under very great disadvantage, so 
our great and notable leader determined not to await the 
pleasure of "Old Fighting Joe," but to draw him out from 
his impregnable position. 

General Lee determined, if possible, to free Virginia, 
for a time at least, from the presence of the enemy, to trans- 
fer the theatre of war to the northen soil, and, by selecting 
a favorable time and place, to take the reasonable chances 
of defeating his adversary in a pitched battle. To that end, 
and in pursuance of that design. General Lee, early in the 
month of June, moved his army northward by way of Cul- 
pepper, and thence to, and down the valley of Virginia, to 

The army had now been reorganized, designated the first, 
second, and third corps, and commanded respectively by 
Lieut.-Gen'ls Longstreet, Ewell, and A. P. Hill. On the 12th 
of June, the second corps being in advance, crossed tihe 
branches of the Shenandoah, near Front Royal. Coming in 
contact with the enemy under General Milroy, he proceeded 
in his usual manner to attack, gave them a good thrashing, 
captured a great many, and the renmant sought safety be- 
hind the works at Harper's Ferry. General Ewell, with three 
divisions, crossed the Potomac in the latter part of June, 
and, in pursuance of General Lee's orders, traversed Mary- 
land, and advanced into Pennsylvania. General Hill, whose 

116 History of Prince Edward County 

corps were the last to leave the line of the Rappahannock, 
followed with his three divisions in Ewell's rear. My division, 
(Pickett's) was attached to the first, or Longstre^t's, corps, 
and it is of this particular division which I shall deal in this 

Breaking camp at Hanover Junction, the division was 
formed and headed for Culpeper C. H., from which point we 
moved by way of xVshby's and Snicker's Gaps into the Valley. 
By this move we covered the movements of the second and 
third corps which had preceded us. Here we left General 
Stuart the task of holding the Gaps of the Blue Ridge moun- 
tains with his corps of cavalry, and we passed down the Val- 
ley and into Williamsport, when we crossed the Potomac 
into Maryland. Here an incident, which I recall, occurred. 

Just after the battle of Fredericksburg, a sub^itute be- 
longing to Co. E, 18th Regiment, deserted. He was cap- 
tured, brought back, court-marshalled, and ordered to be 
shot. This man's name was Rhiley. For some cause the 
sentence of the court had not been executed up to this time, 
but we knew Rhiley would be shot before sunset on this day. 
After crossing the river, the head of the division was turned 
to the right into an open field where it was formed into 
three sides of a square, and the orders given, parade, rest, 
and we waited the coming of the doomed man. Soon the 
band struck up the dead march, and from the right was 
seen approaching, 1st, the band ; 2nd, the coffin borne by four 
men; 3rd, Rhiley: 4th, and last, the detail of twelve men 
who constituted the firing party. This p»*ocession, and in 
this order, marched around the three sides of the square 
until they reached the fourth, or open side; here they halted. 
Now was seen the stake to which the prisoner would be tied. 
The officer in command advanced and taking Rhiley by the 
hand, he conducted him to the stake, ordered him to kneel 
so that his back rested against the stake, he was then tied 
and blind-folded. The firing party now advanced to within 

History of Prince Edward County 117 

ten paces and made ready to do their duty. Guns were load- 
ed and capped, the officer gave the command, "ready" . 

At this Rhiley raised his head and said, "Good-bye boys, aim 
at my heart." At the comimand "fire" the guns spoke out in 
no uncertain sound and Rhiley had passed in his checks. 
The grave had already been prepared, his body was placed 
therein and we camped for the night. 

The next day we passed through Hagerstown and headed 
for Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, which place we reached on 
or about the 27th of June. Here we remained until the morn- 
ing of the 2nd day of July. The battle of Gettysburg be- 
gan on the 1st, but we knew nothing of this, as General Hill, 
with the 3rd corps, held our advance in that direction, and 
was concentrating his corps at Cashtown, with Heath's di- 
vision thrown forward toward Gettysburg. Just about 
break of day on the morning of the 2nd, the long roll 
sounded in our camps, ranks were formed, rolls called, and 
we moved through Chambersburg and on to Gettysburg. It 
was a hard march, as we were moving rapidly forward to 
aid the 2nd and 3rd corps then engaged with our old enemy, 
the army of the Potomac, commanded by General George 
C. Meade; fighting Joe Hooker having been relieved and laid 
on the shelf. Owing to a wagon train belonging to the 3rd 
corps cutting in ahead of us and the pike being filled with 
beef cattle which had been captured and sent to the rear, our 
^march was retarded. Thus delayed, we did not reach the field 
as quickly as we otherwise would have done. We camped 
near Gettysburg and cooked rations, but began the march 
again long before day on the morning of the 3rd. I would 
say between 6 and 8 o'clock we arrived at, and took up our 
position, along. Seminary Ridge. The division was placed 
in line of battle as follows: Kemper's brigade on the right; 
Garnett's (my brigade) on the left; Armistead's brigade just 
in rear of the two first, and in supporting distance. Our 
4th brigade; Corse's; was left in Virginia. 

118 History of Prince Edward County 

After the boys had been lined up they were ordered to 
lie down. At this time, everything was so quiet none but 
those who would participate in this death grapple would 
have thought there was a hundred men within a mile. Yet 
along those lines there were, of the Yankee army, one hun- 
dred and five thousand men, and of General Lee's army, 
sixty-two thousand. Just think of it, the audacity of 62,- 
000 men making that glorious and daring attack on 105,000, 
and on ground of their own selection! Yet the charge was 
made and failed. General Meade was afraid to follow up his 
success. Notwithstanding our failure on the 3rd, General 
Lee held the field all day on the 4th in absolute quiet, and 
withdrew from their front without serious molestation. Gen- 
eral Sickles testified before the cojmmittee on the conduct of 
the war, that the reason the Confederates were not followed 
up was on account of differences of opinion whether or not 
the Federals would retreat, as it was by no means clear in the 
judgment of the corps-commanders, or of the General in com- 
mand, whether they had won or not. If we had had 75,000 
men there would have been no doubt in General Meade's 
mind as to who had won. 

But to resume my story, being always of an inquistive 
turn of mind, and wishing to know all that was going on 
in sight, I took occasion during this lull, to view the ground 
and surroundings. I tell you the sight was not an encour- 
aging one ! In our immediate front, say distant three-fourths 
of a mile, was that strong position, known in history as 
Cemetery Heights. This position, though strong by nature, 
had been made doubly so by the erection of breast- works, 
behind which men of all arms, and in great numbers, were 
stationed to slap the life out of us gentle Rebs as we crossed 
that open field, without shelter to hide the size of a man's 
head. Now, look to our right, and therfe standp Little 
Bound Top Mountain; a giant indeed, crowned with ar- 
tillery and infantry, ready as we advanced, to pour death 

History of Prince Edward County 119 

and destruction into our ranks. After taking a general sur- 
vey, and noting the difficult and dangerous path we must 
travel in order to reach those Yanks, my heart almost failed 
me, and my hair and hat began to rise as I thought, "Can 
we win?" Then turning to the company, I said: "This is 
going to be a heller, prepare for the worst." Oh, no; this 
remark created no laugh ! The boys had looked and seen for 
themselves ! They knew that many of us had answered our 
last roll-call, and no doubt asked themselves, "Is it me?" 
or "Is it I," but none can t«ll. Soon the signal gun is fired, 
and never before or since, has such artillery thunder been 
heard. This continued for about two hours, then came down 
the line the simple word, "Attention"; the boys sprang to 
their feet, reeling from the effects of the hot July sun, but 
soon they became steady, and the line was ready to face and 
charge the jnighty host of men and guns on Cemetery 
Heights. At this time Gen. Pickett rode in front of our bri- 
gade, (he having been our former commander) and raising 
hmiself in his stirrups, he pointed to the Heights, and said: 
"Boys, you see that battery ; I want you to take those guns. 
Remember you are Virginians." Forward! The line moved 
out at quick step. Passing through our line of artillery, we 
made for the Heights. Our line being in full view from 
the start, the Yanks opened on us with round shot, then 
shell. Nearing the Emmittsburg road Little Round Top on 
our right, having enfilade fire, opened with shell, which 
tore great gaps in our line; sometimes as much as 30 feet 
of men would go down from the effect of one shell ! Did the 
boys falter ? No ; the order would come : "Close to the right, 
boys," and, continuing the advance, the gap would be closed ! 
A few yards farther on, and the batteries in front opened 
with grape and cannister, mowing the boys down by the 
hundred. Does this stop the living? No; the advance con- 
tinues, but the worst is yet to come. Their infantry had 
reserved their fire until we were within 30 yards of their 

120 History of Prince Edward County 

works, then with round shot and shell, grape and cannister, 
pistol and musket; it seemed that heaven and earth had 
come together with a mighty crash; the earth trembled; m^n 
fell to rise no more; and in a few moments the pride of 
Virginia manhood had burned their last powder! 

Official report puts our loss at 3,333 men ! The Farm- 
\ill Guard had the following killed and wounded: Killed — 
Bryant; El am; Davis; Hooton; Hunt; Setzer; and Wor- 
sham. Wounded — Captain Z. A. Blanton; East; Gilliam; 
Paulett, J. T.; Paulett.S. W.; Wicker; and Walthall. Here 
T was captured with others of my company, and carried to 
the rear of the Yankee army, so, for the present, my con- 
nection with the army of northern Virginia had ceased. 

A few days ago Bob Miller met me on the street and 
asked if I remembered what passed between us on the field 
just after being captured. I told him no. He said he came 
up to me while we were under fire of our own guns, then 
sTielling the Heights, and asked me what had become of the 
boys, and I replied: "Hootsy, damned if I know." This 
to shown how utterly unconscious of fear boys became in 
war. Here I will close this, and if you so desire at some 
future time, I will narrate some of my prison experiences. 

History of Prince Edward County 121 


Farmville, Va., May 25, '97. 

In compliance with my promise in my last communica- 
tion, I will now take up the thread of my story, and relate 
some of my experiences while a prisoner of war. 

In my last I stated that I was captured in Pickett's 
charge at Gettysburg, and that for the nonce my connec- 
tion with the army of Northern Virginia had ceased in the 

On the night of July 3rd, after the battle, I, with many 
others who had been captured, was taken to the rear of the 
Federal army and put in camp, now strongly guarded by 
both infantr;^ and cavalry. General Kilpatrick, a Yankee 
cavalry officer, rode in our midst and proclaimed in a very 
excited manner, that we must keep quiet, and that any at- 
tempt to escape would be met with death on the spot. Uur 
der the circumstances, this was hardly necessary, inasmuch 
as were tired and worn out by hard fighting and marching. 

On the morning of the 4th, we were formed in line and 
ordered to march, guarded by their cavalry. Some hours' 
march brought us to a small town some distance in the rear 
of the Yankee army. Here we found General Stuart had 
been the day before with some of his cavalry. Owing to 
this fact, the cavalry guarding us became very uneasy, for 
fear that General Stuart would make a sudden dash and re- 
capture us. The Old Rebs were highly elated at the prospect 
and prayed as they marched that Stuart would come, but our 
hopes were vain ; it was not to be. 

122 History of Prince Edward County 

The next point reached, as I remember, was Westmin- 
ister, Maryland, at which place we arrived during the after- 
noon of the 4th. Here, for the first time, we were given 
something to eat. We were marched into an open field sur- 
rounded by a high fence, outside of which the guards were 
stationed. I made a raid and succeeded in stealing a large 
ham, which we enjoyed very much. The rain was now 
coming down in torrents; no shelter; no blankets; no oil 
clothes; we were indeed in a pitiable condition as we stood 
in this weather, looking as best we could while the rations 
were issued. A worse looking set of men I never in all my life 
beheld. Tired and worn; ragged and dirty; wet and hungry; 
surrounded by our enemies, and gazed at by the curious 
town people who had left their comfortable homes in order to 
see what we Rebs looked like, was a sad sight and engen- 
dered feelings long to be remembered. Here we remained 
during the night of the 4th, sleeping in the mud and mire 
like so many hogs. 

On the morning of the 5th we were put in the cars and 
started for Baltimore. Reaching that point just about dark, 
we were taken off and marched through the streets of the 
city to Fort McHenry, when we were placed iii the open 
ground around the fort without food or shelter. 1 thought 
it had rained at Westminister, but it was only a drop out of 
the bucket. Here the clouds seemed to reverse themselves, 
turning bottom-side up, spilling all the water from on high. 
In this condition, and in this weather, we remained during 
the night. No rations ever issued, and the poor old Rebs 
slept as best they could, being hungry and cold, with no 
shelter or bedding of any kind. 

On the morning of the 6th, rations of coffee, hard tack, 
and meat were issued. This made us more comfortable and 
we began to feel like men once more. My recollection is that 
we remained at Fort McHenry during the day and night of 
the 6th. Here I will insert the names of my company who 

History of Prince Edward County 12B 

were with me at that time: R. D. Miller; S. B. Partin; J. 
J. Riggins; J. W. Foster. Richard Thackston joined us 

On the morning of the 7th we were placed on board a 
steamer and taken to Fort Delaware, then under command 
of General Scheopf. Landed at the fort, another new ex- 
perience had to be encountered. We were formed in double 
rank, open order, and ordered to remove our shoes from 
our feet! I thought, can this be holy ground? But I was 
soon to jSnd out. Soon a detail of Yankees came down the 
line searching each Reb as they passed, confiscating all money, 
or other contrabrand of war, found in their possession. I 
did not have one cent and doubt if the clothes on my back 
would have sold for that sum. Here a roll of the prisoners 
was made up; names were listed and to what command we 
belonged, and from what State we came. We were then put 
in barracks and our prison life began in reality. 

Miller, Partin, Riggins, Foster, and myself, were placed 
in the old barracks. To those barracks were attached a mess, 
or eating hall, where we obtained our GRUB. As the north- 
ern people have seen fit to cry down the way we fed the 
Yankee prisoners on this side, and to praise the manner in 
which we, the rebel prisoners, were looked after along this 
line on their side, I will here insert our daily bill of fare, for 
the benefit of the hungry: Our breakfast consisted of one 
cup of warm water called coffee, and made from the grounds 
used in the Yankee hospital, redried, barreled and sent to us; 
one and a half hard-tack or cracker, sometimes alive with lit- 
tle living worms ; one- fourth of a pound of beef or pork. Now 
for dinner ! Remember we got only two meals a day ! Same 
quantity hard-tack as for breakfast; and about one pint of 
what they called soup, made sometimes from potatoes, then 
cabbage, and again from carrots. A few of these were thrown 
into a large kettle of water in which beef or pork had been 
boiled, and was then served to us as first-class soup, fit for 

124 History of Prince Edward County 

"the gods," but I have seen my hogs have better. I was in 
their hands for about six months, and to my recollection, 
this bill of fare never changed! Yet, I thank them for so 
much ; it kept life in me and gave me strength to return to 
pixie and feed back to them lead through my musket barrel ! 

To resume. There occurred many incidents at Fort 
Delaware prison which I recall; too many in fact, and for 
fear of tiring your readers, I will only stat« a few. 

liations being light, the first thing to look after was 
how to procure more. So I began to spy around in our mess 
hall. This hall contained eleven tables, at each of which 
one hundred men could stand. The mode of feeding was as 
follows: When breakfast or dinner was ready, a Yankee 
Sergeant would come out in front of the hall and announce 
the fact by crying out, "Fall in for Breakfast," or "Dinner," 
as the case might be. The Rebs would form in double rank, 
march to the door through which they passed in single file. 
This door was in the end of the building, and facing table No. 
1. As the Rebs marched in, the first man halted at the first 
tin plate, while the other passed to his rear, the second man 
halted at plate No 2, and so on until the eleven tables were 
filled. Noting this mode of procedure, Miller, Partin, and 
myself, always made it a point to fall in line on the out- 
side so as to reach the middle of table No. 1. After getting 
to our plates we would exchange our coffee for a cracker, 
with some Reb, or else leave it. This was done by crying 
out. "Here is your cup of coffee for a cracker." The ex- 
change made, we looked out for the Yankee Sergeant, and 
when his head was turned, we would again enter the line 
as it was passing in our rear, and fetch up at the next table. 
Here the coffee was disposed of as before and we would again 
enter the line. We sometimes succeeded in getting to all the 
tables, thus getting the crackers intended for 33 men. Of 
course these men had to be fed ! The Yanks knew that some 
Reb was stealing, but catching is before hanging, everything 

History of Prince Edward County 125 

'cept a fish. We had been here but a short while before we 
had hard-tack enough to stave off hunger. 

Walking out on the levee one day I found my chum, 
Bob, in a bad fix. A Yankee guard had him on the double 
quick at the point of the bayonet, trotting up and down the 
levee. I called out: "Hello, Hootsy B, what's up now?" 
He shook his head, said not a word, but as in the old song, 
he had to push along, keep moving. After about two hours 
of this work, the Yank turned him loose, and he told me 
the Yanks had caught him at one of our tricks and took him 
in charge. Well, I promised not to tell on him when we got 
home, so you must guess the trick. 

One interesting place on the island was known as "Devil's 
Green." Here all manner of gambling was carried on. 
Some betting money, some crackers, and others tobacco. To 
illustrate, we will visit the Keno table. Here we found fif- 
teen or twenty men sitting around the dealer, each having 
in front of him a card on which are three lines of figures, four 
figures on each line. Before the game begins each man puts up 
his chew of tobacco, the dealer draws a figure and crys out, 
the person having that figure would cover it with chip or but- 
ton. The call continues, and figures covered, until one of the 
players has the four figures on the same line covered, when 
he tells the news by crying out "keno on top," "middle," or 
"bottom" line, as the case may be. He has won all the "chaws" 
in the pool, each puts up again, and the game continues as 
before. From early morn until late at night, the "Devil's 
Green" was full of men betting at some one of the games there 

Bob Miller and I had no money, so we were always pie- 
rooting around to see what we could pick up, owned by some 
other fellow. On one of these outings we each succeeded in 
hooking a hook and line. Call it stealing if you will, but re- 
member soldiers don't steal, they only pick up what they 
need when it can be found and the other fellow ain't looking. 

126 History of Prince Edward Cownty 

Having hard-tack in abundance, we proceeded to fish for 
meat. At one point in the bay all the slops from the mess 
hall were emptied. To this spot we went, and very soon 
had as many cat fish as we wanted. Ask any old Fort Dela- 
ware prisoner to tell you about the cat caught on Delaware 
I5ay; his answer will interest you. 

At this time we were not permitted to write to any north- 
ern friend for money. Going out to the water tank one 
night, I found a nice Yank on guard. I struck up a con- 
versation with him, and unfolded ^my poor and penniless con- 
dition. After talking some time he agreed that I might 
write to some of father's friends in Baltimore asking for a 
little money, and he would forward it. You bet I wrote that 
letter without delay ! Some days after this, a Yankee came in 
our barracks and hunted me up. He escorted me to Lieu- 
tenant Wolf, who was the meanest Yankee I ever saw. He 
questioned me very closely, trying to find out how I got my 
letter out, but he failed. Then he wished to know who I 
knew in Baltimore. I gave him the names of several parties, 
and among them, that of Messrs. Straus, Hartman, Hoflin 
& Co. Those were the gentlement who sent me the money. 
Finally, Lieut. Wolf said: "Well I guess you are the man, 
or rather boy." I said: "Lieutenant, you can call me what 
you choose here, but I want you to know ,1 can stand in a 
man's shoes when in Dixie." He then sent me under guard 
to the fort in which was Gen. Scheopf 's office. The General was 
not in when I arrived, so I employed my time in looking al 
the pictures, of which there were many, hanging on the walls. 
His private secretary was writing at his desk and said to 
me: "Johnnie, you had better take off your hat." I in- 
formed him that "Johnnies" when at home did not take of! 
their hats when in the General's office. He smiled, said no 
/nore, and continued his writing. I had almost forgotten 
where I was, so busy was I in looking at the pictures. 
Pretty soon I heard the door open, and some one in a loud, hard 

nUtory of Prince Edward County 127 

voice said: "Take off your hat, sir." I turned and recog- 
nized the General. No talking back now ; my hat came off in 
double quick time, and under my arm it went. I knew the 
time had come, and hats off was in order. The General asked 
me many questions along the line in which Wolf had gone 
over, but he got no more information than Wolf did. He 
then ordered his secretary to give me an order on the Sutler 
for fifteen dollars. I was sent under guard to the Sutler's 
place of business. This man refused to give me money, but 
gave me the amount in 5, 10 and 25 cent Sutler tickets. On 
,my return to barracks I placed myself near the Sutler's win- 
dow and soon had my checks or tickets converted into Uncle 
Sam's green-backs. Chum and I were now in the swim. We 
bought of the Sutler baker's bread and golden syrups. Could 
you have seen us licking in that soft bread, and those *lasses, 
after eating hard-tack, pork and carrots for so long, it would 
have done your heai-t good. 

Anjong the Yankees here, there was one to whom the 
Kebs had given the name of "Hack Out." His duty was to 
look after and keep things straight in barracks. He obtained 
his name in the following manner : While making his rounds 
some old Eeb would get in his way, when he would squall 
out: "Hack out of this." Some of us remember the many 
little acts of kindness done for us by this old man while we 
were prisoners at Fort Delaware. Come down, Hack Out, to 
see us; we will be delighted to repay you an hundred fold. 
Old Hack was a particular friend of mine, telling me often 
that I ought to be at home tied to my mother's apron strings. 
I don't suppose at that time I weighed ninety pounds. 

About this time they began to erect hospitals on the is- 
land. The lumber for this purpose had to be carried on men's 
shoulders from the wharf across the island for half a mile. 
The Rebs were detailed to do this work, for which they re- 
ceived three meals per day of soft bread, meat, coffee, and 
soup; in addition each man received a small piece of tobacco. 

128 History of Prince Edward County 

Old "Hack Out" made me a Sergeant, and gave me thirty 
men. My duty was very light; I remained at the wharf to 
see that each man carried his allotted number of turns be- 
fore each meal. At this wharf the steamer Oseola landed 
every day, bringing the mail and passengers for the fort. 
Being here every day, and seeing the people aboard this 
steamer, it struck me that some money might be made. On 
my return to barracks I went among the Rebs who were 
making fans, rings, tooth picks, and many other articles. I 
succeeded in buying a nice lot for a very small sum. Next 
morning on the arrival of the steamer, I called attention to 
the wares made by the Johnnies, and to my surprise and de- 
light, found no difficulty in selling out at a big profit. Some 
of the ladies did not even ask the price. All they wanted was 
some article made by a rebel prisoner. I sold one lady a loco- 
motive for the sum of twenty-five dollars. I carried on this 
business so long as I remained at the fort. Chum and I 
lived on the fat of the land. 

One very great drawback here was the vermin. Never 
before in the history of man, was there so many lice on the 
same number of men! They were in our clothes, on the 
blankets on the bunks, in every crack and crevice, on the roof, 
on the ground; in a word, they were everywhere! One of 
our boys seemed to be sweet meat for them. I'll not call his 
name, for he is now living. He had them to perfection. When 
"taps" was sounded at night for lights out, he could be seen 
taking off his shirt and turning it wrong side out. About twelve 
o'clock he would get up and go through the same perform- 
ance. After a while our curiosity was aroused, and we asked 
why he did in this manner. He replied: "I am flanking 
these d — n lice; while they are going around, I am sleeping." 
You now see how smart he was; every time he turned his 
shirt he placed the lice on the outside, and, in order to get 
at his meat again, they had to perform the flanking act. 

With my last communication I fully intended to dis- 

History of Prince Edward County 129 

continue my description of prison life and enter again the 
field where the army was doing actual work, but since its 
appearance, many of your readers, and among them many of 
our oldest citizens, have requested me to continue the narra- 
tion. With your permission I will now continue to do so. 

To describe to the uninitiated the lights and shadows of 
prison life is indeed a hard task and should only be attempted 
by one whose descriptive powers are far above mine. I shall 
do the best I can, hoping to please some of your readers. I 
learn that some of my lady friends object to some of my say- 
ings; for instance they think the "Kuss words" and "Louse 
story" might have been left unsaid. They seem to forget that 
I am trying to give a truthful narration of incidents happen- 
ing in a varied prison life, and, to record them properly it 
must be done in order, and just as they occurred. 

During the month of August the heat at Fort Delaware 
was very oppressive, in fact almost unbearable. The barracks 
had but few windows, and these were placed on line with the 
first, or lower row of bunks. We who occupied the second, or 
upper row, received but little air fram these. Miller and I 
determined to cut a small window just at the head of our 
bunk. We knew that the guard had orders to shoot any 
prisoner caught doing this sort of work, but this did not deter 
us The guard's beat was not twenty feet from where we 
would do the cutting; we had decided to have air from some 
point. The boys near us objected to our cutting saying, some 
of us would be killed. We paid no attention to them and be- 
gan the work. We selected a plank about twelve inches wide, 
and with our pocket knives proceeded to cut an opening about 
ten by twelve inches. While one was cutting the other 
would watch the guard, whose beat was nearly under where 
we were at work. Finally we cut nearly through and notified 
the boys to get out, which they did in double-quick time. This 
left the ground clear for the guard to shoot. We procured a 
stout stick, and getting as far from the piece to be knocked 

130 History of Prince Edward County 

out as possible, we gave it a quick, hard thrust, and ran for 
our lives. It was well we did, for the piece had scarcely 
touched the gi'ound before the guard raised his rifle and fired 
at the hole in the wall. It is needless to tell you he did no dam- 
age, except to the barracks, as all the "Johnnies*' had left, and 
gone where the Whang- doodle mourneth and the conscript offi- 
cer cometh not. We had made all our preparations for this 
shot, and got out of the way. Knowing old Hack-out would 
be around trying to find out who did the cutting, we did not 
venture back for several hours. We had fresh air, and did 
not serve our time in a dungeon under the fort, as would have 
been the case had we been caught. 

Fort Delaware is a large fort situated on an island in 
Delaware Bay, just opposite Delaware City, and about 1% 
miles from the Delaware, and 2i/^ miles from the New Jersey 
shore* Of course the water surrounding it is at all times 
very brackish and not at all drinkable. I remember that at 
one time we were forced to drink that or nothing. Drinking 
water used for prisoners, was hauled by a water boat from 
the Brandywine river to the Island and then pumped into 
large wooden tanks by forcing it with a small engine such 
as we use here for fire purposes. The tanks were very large 
and placed outside the barracfe. Sometimes before the water 
could be consumed it became very hot, as there was no protec- 
tion from the sun. During this time, green slime, such as 
we see on our frog ponds, or stagnant pools of water, would 
often form two inches thick on the water in these tanks. Five 
or six faucets were placed at intervals around the bottom of 
these tanks from which we drew our drinking water. At one 
tin:e some accident happened to the wat^r boat, and before it 
could be remedied, we consumed all our drinking water, and 
General Scheopf, in the kindness of his heart, permitted us 
to use water from the reservoir under the fort. We drank 
this so low there would soon be none left for the garrison, and 
the General called a halt. Our only resort for water now was 

History of Prince Edward County 131 

that in the Bay, which we procured in the following manner : 
We would take several canteens, and swim some distance out 
in the Bay, uncork the canteens, dive down as near the bot- 
tom as we could and permit them to fill. Thus we obtained 
water a little cooler than that at the surface, but just as salt. 
This we drank for several days, and, from its effects there was 
scarcely a well man among the seven thousand prisoners on 
the Island ! This was enough to kill us, but there was an- 
other enemy entering the fold. We had withstood the storms 
of battle, the long march, and the hardships of prison life, 
now we were to undergo another trial. Small-pox put in its 
appearance, and the poor boys had to succumb to that dread 
disease, and many there were who found their last resting 
place in the State of New Jersey, far from home and kindred. 
The place selected to bury these poor fellows was in New 
Jersey, just opposite the fort. Many times have I been to 
the wharf where the dead were placed to be taken over, and 
found from eight to twenty-three dead men, all of whom had 
died during the preceding twenty-four hours ! This was not 
the case only one or two days, but for many days. No doubt 
a scene such as this would touch the hearts of many of my 
youthful readers, but on us, whose hearts were hardened, it 
made no impression. Dead men were no rarity to us, scarce- 
ly a day passed that we did not see one, often one hundred, 
and sometimes thousands! What man could behold these 
sights and not become callous where even the dead were con- 
cerned? So dead to fear had we become, I believe if dead 
bodies had been piled as so many railroad sills to the height 
of six feet, an old Reb would not hesitate, in order to get 
off the damp ground, to spread his blanket and oil-cloth on 
the pile and sleep as quietly and as peacefully as any of my 
readers do now in their feather beds! 

The barracks at the Fort were built in a hollow square 
with a sally-port on two sides; leading to these was a plank 
walk-way three feet wide. These were used by the prisoners 

132 History of Prince Edward County 

to keep out of the mud, which consisted of a black, slimy, 
salty substance, in which it would not do to walk barefooted. 
Eemember, not one in a hundred of these seven thousand had 
shoes on their feet, and any who ventured in this mud with- 
out shoes lived to regret it. Their feet would turn blood-red, 
and after a few days, burst wide open, exposing the bone and 
sinew; intense suffering followed and many died from this 
cause alone. 

While on the wharf one day, I purchased a water-melon 
and carried it in for Bob and I to enjoy. We took it out on 
the canal, a dirty pool of water, and then cut and ate it. We 
had nearly finished when a "tar heel'' prisoner came along, 
and, eyeing the rind, he opened up as follows : "Say, mister, 
can't you give me that ar rind for a sick man?" We told him 
no, we did not wish to kill the sick man. For fear that he 
would eat it if left on the bank, we put our muddy feet all 
over it, and threw it in the canal. We went off a little way 
and watched him Soon he procured a stick, fished out the 
rind and ate the last bit of it. 

Our stay at Fort Delaware was now fast drawing to its 
close. For several days the rumor had been afloat that we 
would soon be exchanged and sent back to Dixie. During 
the month of October the names of seventeen hundred prison- 
ers were taken, as we thought for exchange. Among this 
number was Partin, Miller, Foster, Keggin, and myself. 
Early one morning we were placed aboard the transport 
steamer, "Philadelphia," weighed anchor, and steamed out 
of the bay. The men were packed like sardines in a box. 
When we struck old ocean many became deathly sick. I 
need not tell you what they did; if you have ever been sea- 
sick you know. The steamer was short of hands and, not 
knowing what else to do, I volunteered, and took a hand 
at hauling the lines. This gave me the privilege of the 
upper deck among the sailors. I had some green-backs and 
very soon bought from one of the sailors a quart of good old 

History of Prince Edward County 133 

rye. You bet I was now in the swim in good earnest. I 
went below where Hootsy and Partin were, and offered them 
a smell out of the quart. They refused, saying they had 
more in their stomachs than they could contain. I thought 
so too after hearing them call "york" a few times. We had 
a very rough passage. The boys did not seem to mind it 
much as we were "gwine back to Dixie." Alas for our hopes, 
the Yanks had fooled us. They were merely transferring us 
from one prison to another! One morning about light, the 
old transport came to anchor, and we found ourselves in 
the Potomac river just off Pbint Lookout, Maryland. Here 
we disembarked, and, after being searched from head to 
foot, as at Fort Delaware, were placed in the bull pen and 
again took up prison life. The place selected for this prison 
is on a point of land between the Potomac river and Chesa- 
peake Bay, known as Point Lookout, Maryland. This prison 
differed from Fort Delaware in many respects. There was 
no fort or barracks. The prison consisted of a number of 
acres of land between the river and the bay. These acres 
were enclosed by a straight up and down fence about sixteen 
feet high. Near the top of this fence was a parapet on which 
the guards were stationed, say ever^ twenty feet apart. Near 
the main gate was a battery of artillery so placed as to comb 
the entire camp with grape and cannister should it become 
necessary to do so. The prison was laid off nicely by streets, 
along which tents were erected, in which from ten to twenty 
Rebs were placed for shelter. The boys were formed into 
companies and divisions. Ours was company B, division 
seven. Roll was called night and morning to see if any 
tlohnnie had, by hook or crook, made his escape. At meal 
times each man fell in with his own company and marched 
to the mess hall where he got his cup of hot water and 
his hard-tack. We found to our sorrow that we could not 
flank rations here as at Fort Delaware. The Yanks had 
placed Rebs in charge of the cook-houses and, for fear of los- 

134 History of Prince Edward County 

ing so fat a job, they watched us closely, thus many times 
we left the mess hall hungry. The drinking water here was 
terrible. The wells were sunk in camp, and, being between 
the river and bay, both of which at this point are salty, we 
obtained water not fit for human beings to drink. It tasted 
as if a quantity of Sulphate of Iron had been put in each 
gallon. The effect of this water on our poor old Rebs can 
be better imagined than described. 

During November and the part of December while I 
was at Point Lookout the cold was intense. The winds storms 
coming across the bay loaded with fine snow and hail, found 
us poorly provided against its attacks. The boys each had 
but a single blanket with which to cover, and they would lie 
down in huddles like so many hogs in a bed, draw the blanket 
about them as best they could, shiver and cuss, groan and 
pray, until morning, when the sun, in a measure, would warm 
them up again. But, you ask, why didn't we keep our fires 
going? Let me answer you by telling you how we obtained 
the little fuel we had. One hundred men under guard, were 
permitted to leave camp by the main gate, and were marched 
ahout a mile up the point, where there was a lot of small 
dead pine. This the boys would break up and take a^fmuch 
as they could carry on their shoulders, and march back to 
camp. This detail of one hundred men consisted of one man 
from each tent, and the wood he brought back must last 
that tent for twenty-four hours. The Yanks may have done 
better after I left them, but, remember, I am giving you 
my personal experience. I remember being on this detail 
one morning, and we had all assembled at the main gate on 
the inside, thereby blocking the way out right much. Soon 
a Yankee officer, "Capt. Sides," who was on the inside, and 
wishing to go out, rode in among us. We being so crowded, 
could not open up the way fast enough for him, angered 
him. Without a word he drew his pistol and fired into the 
crowd. The Rebs scattered as best they could, and ran for 

History of Prince Edward County 1^ 

their lives. However, before the way could be cleared, he 
succeeded in killing two, and wounded three of the boys. 
Every shot counted and found its mark, and yet the officer 
who did the shooting was never punished on earth that I 
knew of, but I do hope the devil got him at last and put him in 
the North-east corner at the bottom of the bottomless pit, 
there to remain. So mote it be. 

Rations were very nearly as "scase" as wood. Bob and 
I decided to pie-root and see what could be done along that 
line. We hunted the camp over but found nothing to lift. 
We now turned our attention to the bay. About one mile 
from shore there was an oyster bed, from which large quan- 
tities of oysters were gathered daily for market. The water 
over the beds was quite deep and the oystermen gathered 
tliem by using long handled tongs. While grappling with 
the tongs they would loosen a great many, which on account 
of the tide and restless motion of the water, would float shore- 
ward. I determined to capture a few of these stray fellows 
and if possible secure a mess for chum and me. To think 
with me was to act. I wanted some of those bivalves badly. 
Mess pork and boiled carrots had about put me through, 
and a change of diet was about necessary. Here was the 
chance and I took advantage of it. Calling Bob to book we 
proceeded to plan the battle. He was in, but not for going 
into the water. Said he was thin (and he is yet), and that 
his blood was poor, but that if I would go he would look after 
all that I caught and threw out. Darn his hide, he was no 
thinner than I, nor was my blood any richer than his, it 
was the cold water he was afraid of. But I agreed to lead 
the advance force, and proceeded to line up for a battle. Re- 
member, this was the month of December, with the ther- 
mometer out o' sight. It was so cold that the water for 
ten feet from the shore was nothing but a perfect loblolly of 
powdered ice. This pack was about ten feet wide by about 
four feet thick. Nothing daunted, however, I stripped off 

136 History of Prince Edward County 

my clothes and plunged in head foremost. If any man suc- 
ceeds in reaching the North Pole, and becomes any colder 
than I for a few minutes after striking that ice, he will, I 
am sure, be converted into a solid block of northern ice. 
After getting through the ice, and reaching open water, I 
struck out swimming, and lay out about twenty yards from 
shore. I now stood erect and began to tread water, my 
whole body submerged up to my neck. When an oyster would 
float by me, I would go under, fetch it up, and throw it to 
Bob on shore. Thus for an hour or more I have remained in 
the water, sometimes catching more oysters than a half dozen 
hungry Rebs could eat. When I came out I would again 
pass through this slush of ice. On reaching shore my poor 
little body would be blue and shriveled, my hands half closed 
and resembling hawk's claws. After dressing I would get in 
the sunshine until Hootsey B. could boil the oysters, bring- 
ing me some with hot soup, as he called it, which was nothing 
but hot water flavored with the oyster. We had none of the 
ingredients with which to make a stew, so we boiled them. 
Permit me to say I have never since eaten any I thought half 
so good. I made many trips in the bay after oysters. Al- 
though Bob was very much afraid of water, he was not so 
of the oysters. He would stick to the camp kettle so long as 
one remained at the bottom. I never begrudged anything 
I had to him, nor he to me. We were chums indeed, always 
dividing what we had, yet he had the best of me, poor fellow, 
his legs were hollow and had to be filled first. Sometimes he 
would look like a grave-yard deserter, but fill him up with 
any kind of provender and he was ready to fight the whole 
Yankee nation, foreigners thrown in. 

About the first of December my clothes had become very 
ragged and I had no shirt on my back. My little rounda- 
bout was so dilapidated it would scarcely hang on my 
shoulders. I was in a freezing condition. Many times have 
I walked about camp bareback, without shirt or coat, with a 

History of Prince Edward County 137 

cold north-west wind blowing at the rate of fifty miles an 
hour, accompanied by snow, hail, or fine sleet. This, falling 
upon my naked back, caused a smart, tingling sensation, but, 
strange to say, I did not mind it. I was not very cold and 
never made an effort to shun the weather, no matter how 
cold or wet. I don't remember having a bad cold, or being 
sick in any way while in prison. 

I wrote again to my good friends, Straus, Hartman, 
Hoflin & Co., of Baltimore requesting them to send me some 
clothes. They sent me a nice warm suit and other belongings, 
among which were two nice grey flannel shirts. I was very 
proud of the shirts and hastened to put one on. I soon found 
1 could not wear it in any comfort, as my back had been so 
long without covering it seemed as if the shirt would burn 
it up. I felt as if a thousand sharp needles were sticking in me. 
I stood it for several hours then pulled it off and sold it to 
Davis, one of our tent mates, for the sum of five dollars Con- 
federate money. I was afraid to try the other one, and lay- 
ing it away, turned my back out to graze once more, and 
went about as before. Being out one cold, bitter night, be- 
tween one and two o'clock, I ran across a hospital steward, 
who, seeing my back without coat or shirt, called and asked 
if I had a shirt. I told him no, which was a lie, but an- 
swered my purpose. I wanted two shirts. He invited me 
down to the hospital tent and gave me a beautiful percale shirt. 
I immediately put it on. Being of a different texture it did 
not worry me as did the flannel. By this means I again be- 
came accustomed to a shirt and continue to wear one to 
this date. 

You can bet I was always on the lookout for some chance 
to make my escape and hoping the time would come. It did 
come, and, as usual, I was ready to try my luck. On about 
the 20th of December an order came to send out five hundred 
sick men for exchange, to City Point, Va. Finnigan, a Yan- 
kee sergeant, who had this business in hand, did not obey the 

138 History of Prince Edward County 

order as given. Being a Mason he went among the prison- 
ers and selected Masons to be sent over. If a Reb with a good 
roll of greenbacks was found, a bargain was made and the 
fellow would go. Being too young to be a Mason, and not 
sick, nor yet with sufficient funds to buy my way out, my only 
chance was to flank. I determined to come over with that 
five hundred if possible. I put my wits to work but found 
it hard sailing, yet, not discouraged, I kept my left eye open. 
For some cause the exchange boat did not come on time and 
the men were put back in the pen to be called on the arrival 
of the boat. As near as I can remember it was between one 
and two on the night of the 21st. I had not given up, and 
was out to see what would turn up. Soon I heard Finnigan 
calling for the five hundred to report at mess house number 
eleven. I worked my way to that point and awaited develop- 
ments. Looking on for a while and hearing Capt. Patterson 
calling the roll, I saw a very small opening for a flank move- 
ment and at once made my way very cautiously to the de- 
sired opening. Now was the trying time! Would I suc- 
ceed? I decided then and there to make the effort, and 
watching every point carefully, with every nerve strung, I 
slowly edged my way toward the guard I must pass. He 
turned his head but for a moment; this was my time and 
away I went into the darkness! Nearing the outer gate I 
passed through with the others, and was safe for the present 
on the outside. While waiting for the whole five hundred to 
get on the outside, I approached a sentinel who was doing 
parapet duty and asked him to call R. D. Miller, company B, 
seventh division. He did so and soon Chum put in his ap- 
pearance. I informed him in a whisper, through a crack in 
the fence, that I had succeeded in flanking out, and he must 
keep mum. We had quite a long talk before all were out of 
the pen. I gave him all my belongings in camp, and told 
him to look out for some money I had written for, and when 
it c»me to represent me and use it for himself, which he did, 

History of Prince Edward County 139 

and enjoyed, while I was in Dixie. I bade him good-bye, 
told him not to go in swimming for oysters, and if he didn't 
die, I thought at some time he might see Dixie again. Thanks 
to a strong constitution and a mean disposition, he did live 
to get home. I left him with a sad heart. If he could have 
come with me all would have been lovely; to leave the old. 
chum was indeed hard to bear. We had become as it were 
more than brothers. In camp, on the march, or under fire, 
we were always together. Now, to leave him in prison and 
wend my way to hoTne and friends, touched a soft place in 
my nature, and I almost regretted having made my escape. 
But such is life ! Made up of sunshine and shadow, and each 
to be enjoyed or endured as the case may demand. 

All the Kebs for exchange were now outside the pen and 
were formed in two ranks and marched to the wharf, put 
aboard the steamer "City of New York," which now weighed 
anchor and steamed away for Fort Monroe. Here we remained 
for an hour or two, then steamed for James river. Entering 
this beautiful stream we made our way up to City Point, where 
the exchange would take place. On our arrival we found 
the Confederate exchange boat had not yet put in its appear- 
ance. The "City of New York," now cast her anchor in 
mid-stream to await the Confederate boat. None of us were 
permitted to land. Maj. Mumford, the Federal agent of ex- 
change, went ashore in a row boat to ascertain what detained 
our boat. He soon catoae aboard again and informed us, our 
boat, on its way down, had hung upon some obstructions 
placed in the river by our own government to prevent the Yan- 
kee gimboats from ascending. Owing to this it would not 
reach us until the next day. We did not relish this much 
and wanted him to land us at City Point so we might march 
to Richmond. This he said he could not do. The boys got 
mad and informed him we would consent to remain on board 
until ten o'clock next day, and if by that time our boat had 
not arrived, we would land by force if necessary. At this he 

140 History of Prince Edward County 

threatened to weigh anchor and take us back to Fort Mon- 
roe. He was told we would not submit to that ; we were now 
in old Dixie, and would die before we would go back to 
prison. We meant what we said. Fifty men were detailed 
to guard that anchor during the night, with orders to give 
the alarm should any attempt be made to lift it. Major 
MvTmford did not expect to be delayed in making the ex- 
change, consequently there were not rations enough on board 
to feed the men. Being hungry, and seeing no other way 
to get something to eat, the Rebs broke into the ladies' cabin 
where many good things were stored to be sent to the Yankee 
prisoners at Libby prison, and such a feast as we had you 
never saw. Ask Ned Erambert to tell you of what some of 
those things consisted. I understand he got some of our 
leavings after they were put aboard the Confederate boat. 
Nothing happened during the night to disturb us. Bright 
and early next morning we were up casting anxious eyes up 
the river for our boat. About nine o'clock we discovered a 
column of black smoke ascending far up the river. We were 
informed this was our boat. Sure enough, the smoke came 
nearer, until finally we saw the old boat, with a lighter eith- 
er side of her, slowly approaching us. You hear us talk 
about the rebel yell ! You ought to have heard the one given 
by those five hundred, as our boat came along-side the Yan- 
kee steamer! It fairly made the steamer, "City of New 
York," tremble. Our boat was very small, so all the Yan- 
kees were transfered to the "City of New York" before we 
could leave. As the last Yank stepped aboard the "New 
York," I jumped frdm the top deck, a distance of twelve or 
fifteen feet, to our boat. Thus, though a flanker, I was the 
first Reb on our boat ! 

All my fears were now at rest. I was safe at last I 
Here T found Ned and Jimmie Erambert, who had come down 
from Richmond as guards on our boat. We soon cast off and 
headed for Richmond, where we arrived after dark. After 

History of Prince Edward County 141 

landing we were placed under guard and started for Camp 
Lee. The guard succeeded in getting very few to camp; 
the boys were making their escape all along the line. I did 
not reach Camp Lee until near day-break. I had right 
much money with me, flanked the guard early in the start 
and, taking a young fellow named Wilks with me, we pro- 
ceeded to hunt up a bar-room, or restaurant. We soon 
found one^ and after taking on several eye-openers at the 
price of five dollars a smell, I called for the best grub they 
had, and we proceeded to fill the vacuum in our rebel hides. 
After doing this we again went for the eye-openers, and suc- 
ceeded in storing away several more, which began to make us 
feel good. We were now in good trim to see the town. You 
can bet your last cent we saw it all over before Camp Lee 
saw us. 

I had now been from my home and people for more than 
nineteen months. I went to General Winder, who was in 
charge of us, and stated my case to him, telling him I had 
made my escape from Point Lookout, and had not seen my 
people for so long, and asking him to grant me a furiough 
to visit my home before again reporting to my command for 
duty in the field. He listened to my statement very patiently, 
and said he would look into my case, and if I had made my 
escape as stated, he would grant me a furlough for thirty days. 
I guess he found out my statement was true, as in a few 
days Captain Patterson, in charge of Camp Lee, handed me 
the furlough, and I left for home. I was not prepared for 
the change I found in old Farmville. It looked like a dead 
town. No business going on, nobody at home except the 
ladies^ old men and boys, too old or too young to enter the 
army. The Yankees said we had robbed the cradle and the 
grave to fill our ranks. I must say it looked very much that 
way. Of course I was very glad to be at home with my dear 
mother, father, and the children, but the town was )too 
dead for me. I remained several days, then putting on a 

142 History of Prince Edward County 

"biled'' shirt, and the best I had, I struck out for my company, 
now doing provost duty in the city of Petersburg. I re- 
mained with them to within a few days of the expiration of 
my furlough, then returned home to make my arrangements 
to rejoin the army for duty in the field, of which I shall, with 
your permission, have something to say later on in another 
communication in your paper. 

Thanking you for placing before your readers all I have 
so far, in my feeble way, written, I remain, yours very 

History of Prince Edward County 143 

In the beginning of this article, permit me to say, I do 
not wish what I shall write to be misunderstood at any point. 
It will not be an attefmpt to blow my own horn, nor yet to 
silence that of another, but merely an honest effort to state 
facts and incidents as they occurred in my own varied experi- 
ence in four years of war. In order to do this, of course the 
little "I" must necessarily show itself often at the front, but 
not in an egotistical way, and I trust my readers will not view 
my articles from that standpoint. Again, I say, remember I 
am not attempting to write a history of the war, but merely 
that part in which I was an humble participant. ''Nuff sed." 
Now for the article ! 

In my last communication I stated that I remained in 
Petersburg with my company, to within a few days of the ex- 
piration of my furlough, then returned ho-me to make ar- 
rangements to rejoin the army in the field, for duty. Dur- 
ing by absence my dear mother had been hard at work mak- 
ing for me the very best clothes to be had, from the materials 
to be found at that time. To my surprise and delight, on my 
arrival at home, I found a nice new uniform, some under- 
wear, and a pair of coarse shoes. The shoes I put on at once. 
Being new and very rough, they soon had all the skin off 
my heels. I paid very little attention to it at first, and the 
consequence was my heels became running sores: I could 
scarcely walk at all . Notwithstanding this, I determined 
to report to my command in time. So, at the expiration of 
my furlough, I reported to Dr. Taliaferro, whose office was 
then on the second floor of the old two-story frame building 
standing on the ground now occupied by the new brick store- 
house owned by Mr. George Kichardson. Here I asked for 
transportation, which was furnished by the government to all 
soldiers returning to their commands in the field. While the 
clerk was preparing my papers. Dr. Walton, who was then 
stationed here, came in; he was the first surgeon of my regi- 
ment. Seeing me there he wanted to know my business. I 

144 History of Prince Edward County 

told him I was on my way to rejoin my company. About 
this time my papers were ready, and I walked across to the 
clerk's desk to get them. The doctor now discovered the con- 
dition of my shoes. I could not bear to have them touch my 
heels so had "slip-shod" them and pushed my feet in. He 
made me take them off ; examined my heels, and told me that 
I could not go back to the army in that condition, as I was 
not fit for duty. He said I could remain at my home, but to 
consider myself a hospital patient and to report every morn- 
ing and he would report my case to the captain of my com- 
pany. This was law, and I of course, had to obey. I re- 
mained under his treatment for twenty-one days, and again 
made application for transportation, which was granted. 

I knew my regiment had been ordered to North Caro- 
lina, but to what point I did not know until I reached Peters- 
burg. Here I ascertained it was near Goldsboro. I then se- 
cured transportation to that point, via the Petersburg and 
Weldon railroad. On my arrival I found they were in camp 
about one mile north of the town. On my way out to camp 
I passed the quarters of our head surgeon. Dr. Gaines; he 
too noticed my feet, which were now again in "slip-shod" 
shoes. He call to me to come by. I told him I was anxious 
to see the boys first, and to deliver letters and other articles, 
sent by me, to them. The boys were all glad to see me back 
in the ranks again. After chatting with them a while, I 
reported to Captain Morrissette for duty. He instructed Ser- 
geant Elam to get my war harness. This consisted of musket, 
cartridge-box, cap-box, and about sixty rounds of ball cart- 
ridges. I now remembered my promise to Dr. Gaines, who 
had always been my good friend. I went up to see and shake 
hands with him. After some conversation, he, like Dr. Wal- 
ton, referred to my feet and examined them. He at once 
wanted to know if I had reported for duty. I told him yes. 
He said, return to camp, tell Sergeant Elam to put you on 
the sick list, get your belongings, and report to me here ; you 

History of Prince Edward County 145 

are unfit for duty; your heel is in very bad condition, and 
needs attention at once. 

Law again and another rest in view ! But this time I 
was with the boys and satisfied. The doctor had two very fine 
iron-gray horses, and one of which he turned over to me 
for my own use. This was a big thing for me; no duty, and 
when the boys marched in the mud and sand, I rode my iron- 
gray at their head ! I also used the horse in my pie-rooting 
trips. The doctor's mess, of which I was one, lived high 
while my heel was sore, and I rather think he was mad when 
it was well. Sometimes I would be five miles from the 
marching column, and secured everything in reach that was 
good to eat. 

My feet again in good condition, I reported to the com- 
pany for duty. We had now reached Tarboro, and camped 
for several days. When orders came to march we formed 
column and head for Kinston and on arriving there, marched 
through its main street, which was knee deep in sand. We 
continued the march and crossed the Neuse river and went 
into camp about one mile from the bridge. Here we re- 
mained for some time, with nothing to do but camp duty, 
which was very light. Old Bow Harvey (who has since 
died in the Soldier's Home in Richmond), and I, had become 
chums, "Hootsey B" being still in prison. Bow and I, 
employed our time in fishing and in visiting some gunboats 
in course of construction at this point. I don't think they 
were ever completed, but blown up at the approach of some 
Yankee soldiers. 

I will here state that the 8th, 19th, 28th, and 56th, Vir- 
ginia Regiments of my brigade were still doing duty in 
Virginia, we, the 18th, having been detached and ordered to 
report to General Corse, otherwise known to the boys as "old 
puss in the boots." The old general was a heavy-set, short 
legged man, and wore boots reaching far above his knees, 
hence the pet name of "old puss in the boots." The old man 

146 History of Prince Edward County 

was as brave as the bravest, and not only loved by the 
men of his own brigade, but by the whole of that grand di- 
vision of Virginians. 

General Pickett, who was now in command of this military 
department, was concentrating a small force in and around 
Kinston for the purpose of making an attack on Newberne. 
Everything being ready, on May the 3rd, orders came to 
break camp, and we commenced the march for Newberne. 
During the 3rd the roads were good, consisting mostly of soft 
sand, and very hard to march over. On the 4th we began to 
reach the lower country and here our troubles commenced. 
The whole country looked like one vast swamp ; water stand- 
ing all along the ^'oad from six inches to four feet deep where 
the creeks crossed our path. At first the boys began to coon 
the logs put up by the people to cross the deeper water. 
Our commander soon found this to be too slow, so he ordered 
the pioneers ahead to pull the logs down, which was done. 
Now the boys had to take it as it came, deep or shallow, in 
you go, out you come, clothes and all on! Our horses were 
very poor and could not get the wagon train along fast 
enough. A detail of men was made to help get the wagons 
ahead. Tucker Paulett, otherwise "I^egs," and myself, were 
put with our ammunition wagon. Our duty was to assist the 
horses in getting through the swamps by shoving at the 
hind wheels. At first we would, on arriving at a swamp, 
pull off our clothes, jump in and get the wagon over, dress, 
and follow on again. We had two extra mules but no harness, 
so Legs and I rode them when we were not pushing the wagon. 

Eight here permit me to relate an incident that happened 
on this trip. The swamps had become so frequent, to un- 
dress and dress at each was too much trouble. So I pro- 
posed to Legs that we strip, put our clothing in the wagon, 
and go it blind and stark naked, to which he agreed. The 
country was sparsely settled, so we ran little risk of being 
seen by many who wore the calico. At the next swamp we 

History of Prince Edward County 147 

stripped off every rag and put therm in the wagon. This 
proved to be a short one and we soon had the wagon over. We 
then mounted our mules and followed after the train. I 
admit it was a queer sight and created much fun for the 
boys, but Legs and I were as happy as a dead pig in the sun- 
shine. The next was a very long swamp, something over a 
mile wide. We got down and tied our mules and helped to 
get the whole train over. To do this we did not go quite to 
the end, as the ground was firmer on that side. The last 
wagon out, we returned to deep water, washed the mud off 
ourselves, mounted our mules, and started across. Just be- 
fore reaching the opposite side we heard much talking and 
laughter. Not being able to make it out we halted and lis- 
tened. It did not take long to discover, from the musical 
tones, and silvery laughter, that much calico was in that 
crowd. It seemed that all the women and children in that 
neighborhood had selected this point to see our army pass. 
How to get by them in our condition was the question. On 
either side of the road the bamboo briers were as thick as 
rabbit tracks in the snow, and no way to flank. So there 
was nothing to do but put on a brave front and charge 
straight up the road. I put my arms around the mule's 
neck, hung on, Indian fashion, on the off-side, gave him the 
stick, and shot past the crowd. They were astonished, failed 
to make me out, and no doubt thought me a strange com- 
pound, part mule and part man. But Legs was yet to come. 
He was afraid to do the Indian act, but with a yell he came 
charging up the road, sitting bolt upright on that mule! If 
the devil himself had come out of that swamp those people 
could not have gotten out of the way any faster. Legs did 
not even have time to say, "Just tell them that you saw me" 
before the last one was out of sight. I could not help but 
laugh when I thought of an old saying, heard many years 
ago: "Scatter, Sal; scatter, what the devil do you keep me 
now for." When Legs caught up with us he said, "Bones, we 

148 History of Prince Edward County. 

will put on our clothes," and we did after passing the next 
swamp. After going into camp that night, we were relieved, 
and reported back to our company. 

We were now near Newberne, and had captured several 
stockade forts and many prisoners. On the morning of the 
2nd of May we continued to advance, and crossed the rail- 
road leading out to Moorehead city, and rested our right flank 
on the Neuse river just below Newberne. Here I saw the 
first locomotive converted into an iron-clad battery. The 
Yanks ran it out from Newberne and opened fire at us as 
we crossed the railroad. The Yankee gunboat began to shell 
us. A 150-lb. shell fell just in front of my regiment; buried 
itself in the soft earth, and exploded, digging a nice well, 
from which we got our supply of water ! 

The troops on our left flank had not been idle. They 
had already captured one fort and sixty prisoners. Prepara- 
tions were now in full progress to make a general attack 
on the Yankee works all along the line, when orders came for 
us to withdraw and hurry back to Kinston. We were needed 
in old Virginia ! 

General Grant, who was now in command of the army 
of the Potomac, had completed his plans for conducting the 
campaign against ''Marse Robert" in the Wilderness. The 
army of Northern Virginia had never before had such num- 
l3ers, and vast resources, to contend against. The official 
return of the army of the Potomac, on May 1st, 1864, shows 
present for duty, a total of 141,160 men of all arms. To 
meet, and successfully resist this vast host. General Lee, by 
official returns of his army, had only 63,984 men of all 
arms : a difference in favor of General Grant, of 77,176 men ; 
or more than two for one. I am thus particular in giving 
the relative strength of the two armies, in order that the 
reader may have a proper conception, and appreciation of 
the difficulties that beset our great commander and the noble 
men who fought under him. In addition to this force, Gen- 

Hktory of Prince Edward County 149 

eral Grant had ordered General Butler (the beast) to leave 
Fort Monroe with 38,000 more, and land them on the James 
River, between Richmond and Petersburg, to capture one or 
both these cities if possible. It was to meet this attack of 
Butler's that we were ordered back to Virginia. Our return 
march was commenced from Newberne on the afternoon of the 
5th of May and continued until the 8th, on which day we 
reached Kinston and halted. From this place we took the 
cars, passed through Greensboro, and on to Stony Creek, where 
we arrived on the evening of the 13th, and camped. The 
Yanks had been here and burned the bridge, and our train 
could go no further. A train of cars was sent out from 
Petersburg. This reached us on the morning of the 14th. We 
immediately got aboard and were soon in Petersburg. We 
were broken down and hungry, and had been told that the 
good people of Petersburg would feed us as we passed 
through the city. This was not to be. On our arrival we 
found the people much excited and no grub in sight. Butler 
was then destroying the railroad between Petersburg and 
Richmond! We left the cars at Jarratt's Hotel in Peters- 
burg and hurriedly formed line and away we went at the 
double quick down Sycamore street and across the Pocahon- 
tas bridge into the county of Chesterfield. We took up our 
line of march along the pike leading to Richmond. Not 
knowing exactly where Mr. Butler was, we threw forward 
skirmishers, and marched sloAvly behind them. When we 
began to close up on him, Mr. Butler found he was on the 
wrong road, and fell back toward the James river, thereby 
leaving the pike open to us to Richmond. We quickjy 
availed ourselves of this error, and passed rapidly along his 
front, and halted at the "Half-way House" and went into 
line of battle along Deep Creek, and called check to his 
march on to Richmond. Here we remained in line of bat- 
tle all night expecting an attack but none came. Old "Tin 
Ware" Wicker and myself were in the skirmish line that 

150 History of Prince Edward County 

night and could hear the Yanks forming their lines and get- 
ting into position for tomorrow's fight. 

Early on the morning of the 15th our skirmish line was 
drawn in Avithout a fight. We had only nine thousand men 
in front of Butler's thirty-eight thousand. We were out- 
numbered more than four to one, but ready to put up a 
good fight, which Butler soon found out. Butler began to 
move and soon the fight was on. He threw a flanking column 
down our right, which we could not resist while in the works, 
so we vacated the line and gave them battle in the open field. 
Here too, they proved too many for us. After a short and 
sharp fight, we fell back to our second line of works. But- 
ler did not attack again that day. Early on the morning of 
the 16th we heard the pop, pop, of the skirmish line on our 
left, then the long roll of musketry as the infantry advanced. 
We at first thought it was the Yankees making the attack, 
but soon found by the firing that the Rebs were getting down 
to business and making things lively for Butler and his peo- 
ple. Soon the order came for us to leap the breastworks, 
and charge the Yankees in our front, which we did in fine 
style, and with the old Reb yell. We never stopped until 
we had cleaned them up. Our entire line, consisting of 
9,000 men was advancing in good order, and fighting trim, 
on Butler's 38,000 ! Strange, but true, in less than two hours 
we had whipped them so bad they did not stop running un- 
til they reached the breastworks on the James river. Had 
General Whiting, who was near Petersburg, and in Butler's 
rear, done his duty, we would have captured Butler and his 
whole army. 

We followed Butler's retreating forces until we had 
reached our former position near the Half -Way House. Here 
we again formed line of battle along our outer line of works, 
and remained during the night of the 16th. On the morning 
ol the 17th we resumed our advance toward Petersburg, 
and again formed line of battle along the pike. Soon the 

History of Prince Edward County 161 

order came to moA^e forward and we commenced the advance 
toward the James river, on which Butler had retreated under 
cover of his gunboats. We soon struck his skirmish line, 
which was driven back on his main line. Our line of battle 
was now up, and ready to grapple again with Mr. Butler. 
He did not wish to feel us again so soon, and withdrew his 
line nearer the river. We halted here and threw up a slight 
line of works. My company was now detailed, and thrown 
forward as skirmishers, in front of our regiment. We de- 
ployed to the front and commenced the advance again, leav- 
ing the other troops to complete the line of works. We ad- 
vanced across an open field and entered a large body of 
woods. Here we felt sure we would run into the Yankees 
and again open up the fight, but they had continued their 
retreat and we failed to locate them. Night was now^ coming 
on, but we continued the advance for half a mile further and 
halted in position. We were noAv more than one mile in ad- 
vance of our line of battle, and each of us selected the best 
possible position for the night's duty. We fully expected 
the Yankees would feel us out during the night and we were 
not disappointed. About twelve o'clock they came up a wood, 
leading to our position. It so happened that old Bow Har- 
vey's post in line was right in this road. He saw the road 
suddenly darken in his front, not twenty yards off. He knew 
the Yankees were coming and, without a word, raised his 
musket and fired. My post was just ten feet to his left, and 
behind a big pine tree. I let drive at them, w^hen the whole 
line opened. We fought them for half an hour, when they 
retired, but not yet satisfied. They wished to find out where 
our line of battle w^as, and in about an hour they advanced 
again. Everything was quiet along our line, but all on the 
alert. We could hear the tramp, but could not see them. 
It was cloudy, and very dark in the woods. Here and there 
we could hear the officer in command say to his men : "Steady 
on the right : steady on the right." . This gave us a cue as 

152 History of Prince Edward County 

to their distance from us. Captain Morrissette cautioned the 
boys to hold their fire. We did so until they were within twen- 
ty-five yards, then our muskets began to talk in earnest. The 
Yanks returned the fire at once. We now had the flash of 
each other's guns to fire at, and the midnight fight waxed 
warm and furious; the boys were there to stay; the Yanks 
could not move them. After a half-hour's good, hard, stand- 
up fight, they gave up the job and retreated. We made no 
effort to follow them in the dark. 

Early on the morning of the ISth, we were relieved and 
returned to the line of battle. Our company had now been 
on duty for twenty-four hours without sleep, and very little 
of anything to eat, yet went to work on the breastworks as 
soon as we reached the line, and worked until night, by which 
time we had a very good line of works, and wanted the 
Yanks to give us one fight from behind them. We never got 
the chance. All our labor was lost. Early in the night of the 
19th we were relived by other troops, ordered to vacate the 
Avorks and march to Richmond, which we reached on the 
morning of the 20th, got aboard the cars and started in the 
direction of General Lee's Arm3^ Arriving at Penola sta- 
tion we found Yanks in that neighborhood. We got off the 
cars and prepared to fight. My company was again de- 
tailed and thrown forward as skirmishers, and was ordered 
to go forward and protect a railroad bridge about a mile be- 
low the station. Captain Morrissette placed a man in the 
center of the track and deployed his men right and left, 
using this man as a guide for the line. The command, "For- 
ward; guide centre," soon came and off we went double quick 
for the bridge. When within one hundred yards of the bridge, 
we discovered the Yankees about the same distance on the 
other side, coming up to the bridge. It was now a race as 
to which would get there first. It fell to our luck, and we 
opened a brisk fire on them. They returned the fire, but soon 
fell back. We now went to work digging rifle pits, and soon 

HiMory of Prince Edward County 153 

had good ones. It did not take a Reb long in those days to 
wiggle a hole in the ground to hide his head. It was now 
quite dark. Bob Elam and myself decided to have a good cup 
of coffee j we had gotten some out of the havei-sacks of the 
dead Yankees on the 16th. We soon had a fire; boiled our 
coffee: ate what bread we had; and resumed our position 
near our rifle pit. 

Late in the night we heard a heavy splashing in the river 
above and below us. For some time we could not make it 
out, and two men were sent to find out the cause. They soon 
returned and informed the Captain that the Yankee cavalry 
were swimming their horses across the river above and be- 
low and were then surrounding us. Captain Morrisette im- 
mediately drew in the boys from right and left, formed us 
in single file on the railroad, and ordered us to stick to the 
roadbed, but to git, and git fast. You bet we got, and got 
in a hurry. We succeeded in passing out just as their two 
lines were crossing to cut us off. They opened fire on us and 
we handed them a few in return, but kept *'a gitting" all 
the same. Reaching the station where we expected to find 
the regiment, to our surprise not a man was there; not even 
one to direct us the way they went ! We . were in a pretty 
fix. Had the Yankees now come up, they would have gob- 
bled up the last one of us. Lucky for us, the moon was now 
up and, by getting close down to the ground, we discovered 
the way the toe marks pointed, and followed them as our 
guide. About day we came up with them, on the Telegraph 
road on which General Lee's army was moving to keep up 
with General Grant in his great flanking movement. We rest- 
ed here while Lee's troops were passing, and fell in with the 
rear guard and marched to Hanover Junction. 

On the 23rd we marched to Andersonville during the 
night, halted there until the 27th, when we left, and made 
seventeen miles in the rain, and camped near Atlee's station. 
The following day we passed the station and marched about 

.154 Hhtory of Prince Edward County 

12 miles toward Hanovertown, and camped about three miles 
from Mechanics ville. On the evening of the 30th we reached 
the line of entrenchment near Cold Harbor. Here we had a 
very heavy fight with Grant's army, in which we lost mar.y 
good men. 

One June 1st there was heavy fighting on our right ; also 
on the 2nd, when Gen. Early drove the enemy some distance. 
On the 5th more fighting in Kershaw and Hoke's front on 
the right. On the 7th, General Early's command drove in 
the Yankee skirmish line, taking about one hundred pris- 

We were still doing duty with General Corse's brigade, 
and the boys were anxious to get again with our own^ (Hun- 
ton's brigade) and r«.q':ested Col. Carrington, who was in 
command of our regiment, to demand the same. Not many 
hours elapsed before the order came to fall in. We were 
satisfied orders had come for us to return to our brigade. The 
boys fell in with a 3'^ell. As we marched out wo found "Old 
Puss in the boots," and many of his men had placed them- 
selves along our line of march to bid us good-bye. As we 
passed, "Old Puss" stood with his hat off, and a smile on 
his face, and said, "God bless you, boys." We halted, gave 
the old man three rousing cheers and passed out. On ar- 
riving at our brigade camp we found everything ready for 
cur reception. General Hunton and the boys had turned out 
to welcome us back, and with cheers, hand-shaking, and kind 
words, we resumed our position with the old war brigade once 

On the morning of the 13th, we found the enemy had 
left our front, and were moving toward the river. At an 
early hour we started, marching in a parallel line with the 
enemy, passing over the old battle-field of Gaines' Mill, 
crossed the Chicahominy river over McClellan's bridge, near 
Seven Pines, and halted near the battle field of Frazier's 
Farm. On the morning of the 16th we started at daybreak, 

History of Prince Edward County 155 

marched to Chaffin's Bluff, and crossed the James river on a 
pontoon bridge. 

Passing over the battle ground of Drewry's Bluff, we 
got on the turnpike leading to Petersburg, On arriving just 
opposite Chester, when quietly marching along, the head of 
the column was suddenly fired into by the enemy who had 
possession of the turnpike. We (Pickett's division) were 
then formed in line of battle and, sending forward our skir- 
mish line, commenced to advance. We drove the enemy 
back to the line of works we had thrown up just one month 
before, they having been vacated that morning by our troops, 
who had been moved to meet (jeneral Grant's army at Peters- 
burg, leaving only one cavalry regiment, which was unable to 
hold the enemy in check. Night was now coming on. We 
halted at this line of works. My company was again thrown 
forward as skirmishers. We advanced about half-mile to 
the front, halted, and established line for the night. We were 
relieved early next morning by Company B of our regiment. 
We reported back to our line. Soon the order came to advance. 
General Pickett had determined to recapture a line of works 
which our troops had thrown up further on, and nearer the 
river. The pop, pop, of the skirmish line was heard. The 
line of battle now closed up at a steady gait. Coming up 
with our skirmishers, we raised the old Rebel yell, and charged 
the enemy in our front. They couldn't stand the yell, and 
bullets proved too much for them. They broke and ran lil^e 
sheep. With our line closing up after them, we soon had 
possession of our other line of works, and the halt was called. 
We had many good men killed and wounded in this charge. 
Tom Price was lulled in this battle. Of the wounded, I re- 
member O. T. Wicker, W. J. Nash, N. S. Morton, and, I 
think, O. F. East. It afterward appeared that General Lee 
did not intend to carry on the attack to such an extent, and 
sent his aides to stop the charge, but they were too late, the 
charge had been made, and the work well done. However, 

156 History of Prince Edward County 

he was satisfied with the result. He wrote the following 
letter to General Anderson after the charge. 

"General: — I take great pleasure in presenting to you my 

congratulations upon the conduct of the men of your corps. 

I believe they will carry anything they are put against. We 

tried very hard to stop Pickett's men from capturing the 

breastwork of the enemy but could not do it. I hope hiF 

loss has been small. ,r^. -.v -d t^ tt7»i7< ry i ii 

(Signed) R. E. LEE, General." 

Official: G. M. Serrel, Lieut.-Colonel, Acting Adjutant- 

On which General Anderson endorsed: 

"For Major-General. Geo. E. Pickett, Commanding Di- 

The Richmond Examiner, at this time stated in one of 
its issues, that General Lee had given orders for long-tail 
coats to be issued Pickett's men to hold them back while 

After getting in those works, we moved up and down 
them for several days, getting the brigades of divisions in 
their positions, from right to left, reaching from the Howlett 
House on the James river, to the mouth of the Appomattox 
river. Between these points we now had Butler's force bottled 
up, and General Lee meant to keep the cork in, — the cork 
was our division and pretty hard to move. We now settled 
down to prepare for the long siege. 

There was but little fighting along this line during this 
campaign. We did camp and picket duty on the skirmish 
line for some months. Winter was now coming on and we 
began to build huts and dig holes to protect us from the cold 
weather. While on parapet duty one day I looked to my 
right hand and saw Generals Lee, Pickett, and Hunton com- 
ing down the line of works. As they passed my post I halted 
and presented arms, they saluted and passed just beyond my 

History of Prince Edward County 157 

post and halted. General Lee was inspecting our lines. At 
this time the Yankee skirmish line was not more than one 
hundrd and fifty yards from where they stood. Of course, 
our skirmish line was between them and the Yankees, but 
the Generals were in full view of the enemy, and could have 
been easily killed by their sharp-shooters. Our skirmish 
Jjnes were so close to each other I could have shot a gravel 
from one to the other without effort. In fact we often ex- 
changed tobacco for coffee with the Yanks. We would toss 
to them a piece of tobacco and they would toss back a small 
bag of ground coffee in exchange. General Lee remained 
here for some time examining the Yankee works through his 
field glass. My beat ran beyond where they were standing, 
and in walking it, I passed and repassed them many times. 
Always on the lookout, I, of course, caught a little of their 
conversation. General Lee finally turned to General Pickett 
and said : "General, those people are too close to your works. 
You must move them." I did not hear Pickett's replj'^, but 
knew those Yanks had to get further. After coming off duty 
I told the boys what I had heard. They agreed with me. 

We always relieved the skirmish line at sundown. A 
few days afrer General Lee had left the skirmish line, we 
doubled. We knew this had its meaning. After getting on 
the line we were told by the officer in command that when 
"taps" were sounded at the works, which was always done at 
nine o'clock, we should immediately leap the pits and charge 
the Yankees in our front without further orders. The time 
soon came. Taps sounded and over the pits we went. The 
Yankees were more than surprised. They fired Jbut few 
shots before we were upon them and over their pits. We 
captured many of them and advanced our line further on, 
and halted to dig the new line of pits. The Yanks did not 
like this much. While we were digging away, they threw 
forward a new line of battle, charged our skirmishers and 
drove them back to the old line of pits. Everything now 

158 History of Prince Edward County 

remained quiet for a few days.. Tom Dowdy of my com- 
pany was wounded in this charge. Pickett was not satis- 
fied, — General Lee's orders had not been carried out. Prepa- 
rations were again made to charge the line. This time the 
effort would be made at daylight, so that we could see what 
we were doing. General Hunton came on the line to look 
after the work, gave orders to double the skirmish line, and 
to charge just at daybreak, which we did, again driving the 
Yanks out. and advancing our lines two hundred yards. 
Here we dug new pits, and General Hunton threw forward 
his line of battle to protect us until the work was finished. 
The Yanks, seeing the line of battle in the field, concluded 
to let us remain. It was on this new line, but not at this 
time, that Charlie Richardson and Tom Weaver were killed. 
This was our skirmish line so long as we remained at this 
point Winter was now on and wood v-ery scarce. We 
had used up all between us and the works. There was a 
small piece of woods between our line and the Yankee skir- 
mish line. Both were afraid to cut it. The weather began to 
pinch us pretty tight. Both wanted that wood, so an agree- 
ment was made that each side should send out a detail of 
men, under guard, just before night, cut, and divide the 
wood. I have seen a Yank and a Reb cutting on the same 
tree and divide equally. The wood secured for the night, 
each would return to the pits, and ready to fight again if 
necessary. At this time the pickets were not firing at 
each other at all, although we were within speaking dis- 
tance. I have stated we relieved the picket line at sundown 
every day. The Yankees did the same. I have seen the two 
details marching along their respective lines relieving the 
men in the pits, the lines being from fifty to seventy-five 
yards apart, and not a shot fired! In fact, we got to know- 
ing each other by name! I have often heard a Yankee 
calling out: "Say, Johnnie, is Captain Nash on duty this 
morning?" Everything worked like this for a long time; in 

History of Prince Edward County 159 

fact till the Yankees withdrew the whites, and put negro 
troops, in our front. This kicked up the devil, and the kill- 
ing of everything in sight began again. There was no 
hold up now; the pop, pop of the guns was heard day and 
night. There was no rest for the negro; if he exposed any 
part of his body it was immediately shot at. Many were 
killed and wounded, but few of us were hurt. Bob Meadows 
and myself were one day on the right of our line, sharp - 
shooting, in front of Stewart's brigade. There were three 
negroes in a pit, but rather too far off for Stewart's boys 
to do much with them. Bob and I decided to turn our at- 
tention to them; they were about two hundred yards to our 
right, and in a half-moon pit. Our position gave us an enii- 
lade fire along this pit, and we arranged a small log of wood 
to prevent the Yanks on our left and front from seeing us 
Elevating our rifle sights to two hundred yards, we awaited 
our time, agreeing that he would shoot the centre man, and 
I the one on the left of the pit. We did not wait long be- 
fore we saw their heads coming up from behind the pit; 
we took deliberate aim, and, at the command from Lieut. 
Murray, fired. At the crack of our guns the two fell back 
dead on the outside of the pit, and remained in full view from 
about ten o'clock in the morning, until dark. The other 
gentleman in that pit did not show himself again during that 
day, though we tried very hard to make him do so, by firing 
across his pit. I suppose he thought two dead niggers in 
one pit would do for one day. This firing was kept up for 
about three weeks, when, before day one morning, we were 
surprised by hearing a Yankee calling out: "Hello, Johnnie, 
don't shoot! There are no negroes on this side, this morn- 
ing." Dougherty, an Irishman belonging to our company, 
replied. "We will wait until day and see." Between day- 
break and sun-up we called and asked them to show up. 
Immediately three white men to each pit jumped out in full 
view, not a shot was fired, and quiet was restored along our 

160 History of Prince Edward County 

whole front again. We chatted with them, swapped tobacco for 
coffee, exchanged papers, and had a good time generally. 
During the month of December we were relieved and with- 
drawn from the line, and marched to Richmond, and from 
this point sent to Gordonsville, to meet a Yankee raid on 
that place. We succeeded in checking this, and returned to 
our lines again. 

On the 22nd of January, 1865, our gunboats 
came down the river to the Howlett House battery. Their 
intention was to shell Butler's observatory, pass along down 
the river in the rear of the Yankee line, and destroy the 
enemy's shipping at City Point. In the attempt to pass 
the obstructions in our front, all, except one, the "Fredericks- 
burg," ran aground. She succeeded in doing considerable 
damage to the enemy's vessels. During that night a heavy 
demonstration was made by our troops, and the next day the 
enemy's monitors arrived, and opened fire on our iron-clads 
which were aground in the river. A small wooden gunboat, 
the "Drewry," was blown up by them. The firing was very 
lively, the forts on both sides taking a hand in it. About 
the middle of the day, our boats succeeded, without material 
loss, in retiring to the rear of Fort Howlett, and at night 
they returned to Richmond. 

In this connection permit me to narrate a little personal 
experience. On the night of the gunboat expedition it fell 
to my lot to do vidette duty between the lines. Right here 
permit me to explain. In this day none but old soldiers 
would know what a vidette was. In approaching our line 
of battle, at night from the rear, you would first strike the 
the line of battle, then the skirmish line, next the vidette 
post. The post was next to, and as close as you could get it, to 
the enemy's line. Thej^ were thus placed, in order to observe 
and report any movement of the enemy. In case of advance 
on the part of the enemy, their orders being to fire and fall 
back on the skirmish line, the skirmish line reserving their 

History of Prince Edward County 161 

fire until the videttes were all in. On this occasion I was 
left vidette for my line, with orders to hold my post until 
the Yankees advanced, then to fire and fall back. Those or- 
ders were given me by Lieut. Fitzgerald of Company "I," 
who was in command of the skirmish line that night. I had 
been on but a very short while when firing commenced on 
my left next to the ITowlett House, nearly one mile away. 
I paid no attention to this at first, but gradually the firing 
extended up the line and toward my position. Having or- 
ders not to abandon my post unless the enemy advanced, I of 
course, held my ground as no enemy appeared. Yet I knew 
when the 8th Virginia opened fire on my left, to remain I 
would be in great danger, both from the Yankees and my own 
men, yet orders must be obeyed and, as there were no Yan- 
kees advancing on my front, I held my post. The boys in 
my rear lost their heads, and, forgetting that I was still in 
their front, they opened fire. The enemy opened also, thus 
placing me between the fire of the two lines. I placed my 
gun on the ground and laid down beside it, expecting that 
one side or the other would soon kill me. I could hear the 
singing of the bullets from either side, but was not hit. As 
soon as the fire slacked, I returned to the line of skirmishers; 
Lieut. Fitzgerald ordered me back to the vidette post; I 
refused to go ; he said he would put me in the guard-house ; I 
told him to do so, and be d — d, as I would no longer do 
duty for an officer who would place a vidette on post with 
orders to hold the same until the enemy advanced, then to 
fire and fall back: and he, being in a safe place, would per- 
mit his line to open on the enemy, with that vidette still in 
front. I jumped in a pit, and Fitzgerald did not arrest me, 
nor did I go on vidette duty again that night. I had fully 
made up my mind never again to serve as vidette with Lieut. 
Fitzgerald in command of the line, and I never did. 

After the white troops were put back in our front, 
with the exception of a few skirmishes in which we partici- 

162 Hutory of Prince Edward County 

pated, we had a quiet time on the skirmish line. Drilling, 
guard and picket duty, and working on the fortifications, 
were our principal occupations. The men had now learned 
the value of being protected by the shelter of earthworks, 
and they did a big lot of that kind of work. 

On March 5th, our (Pickett's) division was relieved by 
Mahone's division, and put in the field for active duty. Now 
our troubles began again. We marched out and halted near 
the turnpike, within two miles of Chester station. While in 
camp without any shelter, a cold rain set in and continued 
for two days. On the 8th General Pickett held a grand 
review of his division. On the 10th Stewart's and our (Hun- 
ton's) brigade marched to Manchester, where we got aboard 
the cars, (old freight cars) on the Richmond and Danville 
railroad and came to Burkeville. Here our trains, in 
three sections, were transferred to the tracks of the 
South Side railroad, now a part of the Norfolk and Western 
system, and started for I^ynchburg. We of course passed 
through old Farm vi lie. On reaching here all the people 
turned out and gave us all we could eat and drink, the boys 
got "how come you so" in a hurry, but we soon were off again. 
On arriving at Pamplin City we learned that Stewart's bri- 
gade had stopped off at Farmville and gone into camp. We 
were taken off at Pamplin's and camped in a piece of woods 
just to the right of where the pipe factory at that place now 
stands. We now heard that the object of our move was to 
assist General Early in heading off, and thrashing, General 
Hunter, who was making an effort to capture Lynchburg. 
The old General had gotten afoul of him that morning, 
cleaned him up, and was now in hot pursuit of him down 
the valley, and did not need us. We took the cars again the 
next morning and, headed again for Richmond, passed 
through FarmviUe but did not stop. Arriving at High 
Bridge we stopped, got off, and went into camp near the 
dwelling of Mr. Madison; the place is now owned by our 
townsman, C. W. Blanton. 

History of Prince Edward County 163 

Soon after getting into camp, a lot of us came back to 
old Farmville, and were painting the old burg red. About 
one o'clock we were passing the Kandolph Hotel where Gen- 
eral Pickett had his headquarters, when Charlie Pickett our 
Adjutant General, called, and informed us that marching 
orders had come, and we must get back to the bridge as soon 
as possible, or we would be left behind. We now struck back 
to the railroad and counted sills at the double-quick. We ar- 
rived on time, the boys were all on the cars, and only await- 
ing orders to steam out. It soon came and we were off for 
Richmond, where we arrived on the morning of the 14th. 
We started about 12 o'clock and marched within four miles 
of Ashland, where we halted in line of battle. General 
TiOngstreet was in command of the force of which our di- 
vision was the main part. On the next day, the 15th Vir- 
ginia, had a sharp skirmish with Sheridan's cavalry at Ash- 
land. At night we were changing our position, moving to- 
ward the right, halting now and then expecting an attack, 
but none came. The next day we reached the Pamunkey 
river and built a bridge. Here our pursuit after the enemy's 
cavalry stopped, as they had disappeared from our front. 
We now returned to the lines near the Nine-Mile road. 

On the 23rd there was another grand review of our 
division by General Longstreet. On the 25th, Terry's, 
Stewart's, and Corse's brigades of our divison, were ordered 
to Richmond, thence to the right of General Lee's army at 
Five Forks. Why we left I can't sa3^ We did not move 
until the morning of the 30th, when orders came for us to 
march. We moved to Richmond and took cars for Peters- 
burg. We left the cars a few miles before reaching that 
city, and marched across to the South Side railroad. On 
reaching this point, our column was turned to the right, and 
marched up the roadbed for several miles, when we turned to 
the left, crossed Hatcher's Run on a bridge of loose logs 
near an old mill. Here we again filed to the right, and were 

164 History of Prince Edward County 

soon in line of battle behind breastworks which had been 
thrown up before our arrival. It had been raining very hard 
all day, and we were wet to the* skin, hungry, and muddy. 
We remained behind these works all night with skirmishers 
out to the front, and orders were to sleep (if we could) with 
guns in hand, as the enemy might attack our position at 
any minute. The night passed without any advance ,on; 
the part of the Yanks. 

The next morning, 31st, we were formed behind the works 
and orders came to right face, counter march, by file right. 
We marched down the works for half-mile, when we filed 
to the right, and passed to the front, forming line of battle 
along the White Oak Swamp (I think it was). Here we 
found some Georgia troops deployed as skirmishers to our 
front, in an open field. Everything being so quiet some of 
us took off our shoes, and began bathing our feet in the 
puddles of water left by the hard rain of the day before, and, 
while engaged in this, the pop, pop of the guns of the skir- 
mish line in our front was heard. You bet those shoes went 
on our feet quick, and the boys were in line, ready to meet the 
attack. The Yanks came charging over the hill and closed 
on our skirmish line in a hurry. A Lieut, of the 8th Vir- 
ginia regiment, seeing the danger to the line in front, called 
out in a loud voice: "Boys, they will capture our skirmish- 
ers; charge them." Without further orders, the boys raised 
the old yell, and at them we went on the run, with guns at 
the trail. Nearing them we opened fire, but continued to 
advance. The boys in blue stood it for a while, but, finding 
that we were closing in for a hand-to-hand fight, they broke 
and ran, we at their heels yelling like devils, and burning 
powder for all we were worth. Running them into a large 
body of woods, we found another line formed to meet us. 
We did not stop, but charged into, and broke this line also, and 
continued to advance. About a quarter-mile from this point 
we discovered their third line. By this time we )vere all 

History of Prince Edward County 165 

broke up, and orders came to halt and reform the line, which 
we did in a few minutes although under fire. Orders now 
came to charge the third line, which we did in fine style, 
breaking it up in short order. We now had three lines of 
battle of the enemy, running in our front, we following on 
the run, yelling, shooting and killing all we could. This 
was all very nice, and we enjoyed it, but the Yank's time 
was now to come. We succeeded in driving them back nearly 
to the Jerusalem plank road, our ranks growing weaker and 
thinner at every step. The enemy had massed a very heavy 
force along the Plank road and put a stop to our advance. 
On nearing this position we were halted and ordered to re- 
form line, but our boys, having already broken three lines of 
battle, were very much scattered, and before we could line 
them up, the Yanks charged. It was impossible in our con- 
dition, to successfully resist this counter-charge, and the boys 
began to fall back; slowly at first. The Yanks, seeing how 
few we were, began to crowd us, and we broke into a run, and 
made back to our starting-point, and, this being the Yanks' 
time, they gave us "hail Columbia" before we reached the 
White Oak Swamp Road; but here we halted and stood at 
bay; — they could drive us no further! Right here the heavy 
fighting done at Hatcher's Run ended; about dark we with- 
drew and fell back again behind our works. In this charge 
my company had killed: Elam, Boatwright, Harvey, Jack- 
son, and Dougherty; wounded: Stratton, and Tompkins; 
captured: Harrison Walthall. A sad day's work for old 
Co. F: five killed, two wounded, and one captured. Elam 
was a brother of our townsman D. T. Elam. 

There was no better soldier than Bob Elam. I have 
often heard him say, if the Confederacy must fail, he wanted 
to die in the last fight. The noble boy nearly got his wish. 

There were but few fights after Hatcher's Run, 31st day 
of March. Soon after getting behind the works that night, 
C^ol. Carrington, who was in command of my regiment, sent 

166 History of Prince Edward County 

for me, and I reported immediately. He informed me that 
all his staff had been killed or captured in our charge, and I 
must remain with him to carry orders. I placed two rails 
on the works, over which I stretched an oil-cloth, and then 
placed our blankets under them, and I laid down to rest. 
We had been fighting all day without one mouthful to eat, 
and now, the fighting over, we had not even one cracker to 
appease our hunger. We did not mind this much as we 
had become accustomed to it. We only drew the cartridge 
box belt the tighter and kept going. It was raining, and 
the night was very dark. Soon after we had stretched out 
to rest, we heard an orderly enquiring for Col. Carrington. 
1 called him, and found he was one of General Hunton's 
orderlies. He gave Col. Carrington some orders from Gen- 
eral Hunton for the officer in charge of our skirmish line. 
The Colonel said to me: "Sam, you have heard the orders, 
go out to the line and deliver them to Lieut. ^Murray who is 
in command." Our line was about 250 yards in our front, 
and in a body of woods. The woods in front of our works, 
for a distance of two hundred yards, had been cut down, 
lapped and interlapped, until a rabbit could scarcely get 
through it. Now you can imagine what a time I must have 
had in going to the front in such darkness. I mounted the 
works and struck out the best I could, stumbling here, fall- 
ing there, and sometimes walking upright, then on hand and 
knees, I finally worked my way to the edge of the woods in 
which our line was posted. I now thought my trouble was 
over, but not so; the Yanks got it into their heads to advance 
and drive out our boys, and the pop, pop, of the guns soon 
began again. I could hear the zip, zip, of the bullets, as 
they passed right and left, and I got behind a tree and awaited 
results. The Yanks soon found out that our boys were there 
to stay, and after firing a few rounds they fell back. I 
now advanced toward our line, and it was so dark I could 
not see a man. The men being deployed, I passed them 

History of Pmnce Edward County 167 

without knowing it, and was on my way to join the Yankees, 
when I heard someone say in very low tone: "Halt! Who 
goes there?" I recognized the voice of Sam Moore, a mem- 
ber of B Company, and a most excellent soldier. I told who 
I was, and he said: "You spoke in time; I was about to 
pull down on you." I asked him where Lieut. Murray was. 
"Gone to the left," was his reply, so I went to the left too, 
and soon found Murray, and gave him the orders, and started 
on my way back to the works. Somehow I got completely 
turned around in those woods, and when I reached the cut 
down timber I was lost good. But I knew our works were 
in the direction I was going, so kept steadily on and finally 
reached them fully one mile below our regiment. I was 
now among some Georgia troops, who told me that my bri- 
gade was on their left higher up. I got on top of the w^orks 
and found them again. On reaching the Colonel he said: 
"Sam, where have, you beenT' I replied: "Lost, but Mur- 
ray has his orders." This satisfied him and we went to 
sleep. No more orders that night, except to sleep on arms. 

April 1st, about day, orders came to march by the right 
flank, and we marched in the road, through fields, in the 
woods, taking all the near cuts, in order to get to, and rein- 
force, the other three brigades of otir division, who had been 
cut to pieces the day before by Sheridan's cavalry and War- 
ren's corps, at Five Forks. We joined them about dark, but 
found them falling back slowly, before five times their num- 
ber. About nine o'clock we halted, formed line of battle 
to fight again, but the Yanks thought better of it, and did 
not attack. Early on the morning of the 2nd we began to 
fall back again, crossing the South Side railroad at Church 
Koads, just above Petersburg, and continuing the march, 
halted near Exiter Mills, on the Appomattox river, having 
marched about twelve miles that day. But there was no 
rest for the weary and hungry ! We were soon on the march 
again. The division, now about 2,200 strong, moved to 

168 History of Prince Edward County 

Deep Creek, which we reached that night. Here we put up 
a pretty little fight, stopped the enemy's advance, then con- 
tinued the retreat, without rations. 

Constant marching and fighting without food, shelter, 
or sleep, began now to tell seriously on that grand old di- 
vision. The boys were worn almost to a frazzle, but with a 
determination to do or die, they held the Yanks^ Now and 
then we would pass a poor fellow who could hold out no 
longer, and had dropped by the roadside, to be picked up 
by the Yankee cavalry, who were constantly pressing our 
rear. With cheerful and loving words we would pass our 
dear comrade by, telling him to make one more effort and 
come if he could. When the lines were broken near Peters- 
burg, our division, with some other troops, were cut off from 
our main army. Sheridan put his whole corps of cavalry 
after those few men and tried to capture them before they 
could rejoin Lee. Sometimes he would attack our front: 
sometimes our rear. He hung a snag. We whipped him 
every time, and succeeded in rejoining General Lee at Amelia 
Courthouse, at which point General Lee had ordered rations 
for his army. None had been sent, consequently the army 
moved off again without rations. This was very hard to 
bear, but there was no grumbling among that noble band of 
men. They knew it was no fault of General Lee's and you 
could hear them say: "We will follow Marse Robert to the 
end, I will be the last spoke in the hub when the wheel fails 
to turn." 

From Amelia Courthouse our division headed for 
Painsville, marched in that direction about two miles, when 
we counter marched by file left, came back to the Richmond and 
Danville railroad, up which we marched for several miles, 
then struck off to the right, and passed through Deatonsville, 
and reached Sailor Creek during the morning of 6th of 
April. Somewhere along the line of march. Colonel Car- 
rington sat in a corn-house door and gave each man as he 

History of Prince Edward County 169 

passed three ears of corn, which he said was for three days 
rations. The head of our brigade had halted near Sailor 
Creek, and this placed our regiment in the road opposite 
Capt. Hillsman's dwelling. I got in his yard, kindled a fire, 
and with a half of a canteen was parching some of my com. 
While doing this William Wilkerson, who now lives with me 
in my factory, came to me. He belonged to the 19th Va., 
Regt. We were discussing the question of coming by home, 
when I happened to look over to the left and discovered a 
Yankee cavalry crossing an open field and passing rapidly to 
our front. I called his attention to them and he said they 
were not Yankees. I told him they were, and that I would 
know that flag if I saw in it perdition. General Pickett 
was sitting on his horse nearby. I called his attention to 
them and he immediately gave orders for us to cross the 
creek. We did so, and marched about 100 yards up the road, 
filed right and formed line of battle along the edge of a piece 
of pines. In our front was an open field about seventy-five 
yards across, then came a body of oak woods. We had been 
lined up but a few minutes, when the Yankees lined up 
along the edge of the oak woods. They were mounted, and 
we did not wait for ^ny orders, but gave them a solid volley 
of musketry, and charged across the field. They gave way and 
we continued to follow, yelling and shooting. I had gotten 
about 25 yards into 'the woods, standing loading my gun, 
when a shell exploded very near me, a piece of which passed 
through one of my limbs, giving me a serious wound, which 
kept me on crutches for seven months after the war closed. 
I was placed on a stretcher and taken to the rear, where Dr. 
Berkeley dressed my wound, and sent me over the creek to a 
spring. I was not here long before the Yankee Infantry in 
line of battle, came up. I was of course made a prisoner. 

I knew it was getting serious for our boys now. With 
infantry in our rear, and on both flanks, and their cavalry in 
our front, it would be a hard matter to hold our own against 

170 History of Prince Edward County 

such odds. The boys would not yet give up; they formed 
hollow square, and continued the fight until late in the after- 
noon, and were forced to surrender. I have heard that we 
had about 12,000 men in this fight, against 52,000 of the 
enemy, yet we held our ground for five hours! Could men 
do more? 

It were enough honor to have shared the fortunes of 
any of those regiments. During the night I wag taken up 
by the enemy and carried to Capt. Hillsman's yard, which 
was full of wounded Yanks and Rebs. Many died during 
the night. I was very weak from loss of blood and thought 
many times that night, while hearing the constant cry of the 
wounded, and the last gasp of the dying, that I too, would 
soon be marching in the silent army, but the good Lord ruled 
otherwise, and I am here to-day to recount to you those 
scenes of long ago. 

The next morning a Yankee Sergeant, who had been 
left in charge of us, drove a cow in the yard and shot her 
for those hungry, wounded men. After skinning her, he 
would cut a big chunk of the flesh, with the blood dripping 
from it, hand it to the boys, who, like dogs, ate it raw. I 
^ery well remember I thought it the sweetest piece of meat 
I ever ate. 

On the 9th a Federal surgeon came along with a lot 
of ambulances, examined, and dressed the wounds, put the 
boys in the ambulances, and sent them on to prison. When 
he got to me, he examined my wound very carefully, and 
said: "Johnny, you are very badly shot, and, if I start you 
back, you will die between here and Burkeville." I said: 
"Doctor, let me die here; I will die that much nearer home." 
He asked me where my home was, and I told him, Farm- 
ville. He soon left with his ambulance train, leaving me 
alone in Hillsman's yard. I now made up my mind to get 
to Mr. Creed Farley's if possible, and in this I succeeded, 

History of Prince Edward County 171 

and was never better treated or looked after in my life. 
While going over to Mr. Farley's I had the good fortune to 
run across a Yankee soldier, William Ferris, by liame. He 
was from New York city, and belonged to the 6th army 
corps. He was a man with a big heart; and, had I been 
his brother, he could not have done more for me. He 
dressed my wound twice regularly every day, and remained 
with me imtil I came home. We corresponded for a num- 
ber of years after the war. I wrote him last at St. Louis, 
Mo., but he has never replied, and I fear he has answered 
his last roll-call and is now marching with the silent army. 
He it was who first informed me of General Lee's surrender, 
and the assassination of President Lincoln. 

On the 27th, it having been twenty-one days since I was 
shot, the Federals sent an ambulance from Farm vi lie for 
me. I bid my good friends, the Farley's and Ferris, good- 
bye, and started for home with brother Henry, who had come 
down with the ambulance for me. On our way, arriving at 
Mr. Walthall's, we found Miss Sallie Keives, who afterwards 
married Mr. William Daniel, and who now lives a few miles 
from towi^. She wished to return to her home in Farmville 
with us, and we gladlj'^ consented, and had the pleasure of 
her most excellent company from there home. We left her 
at the residence of Mr. Joe Wiliams, who was her step- 
father, and drove to my own home, where there was great 
rejoicing over the return of the young, wounded soldier. 

That night I had a fall from our front porch which 
came very near terminating my life. My wound was nil torn 
open again, and it was thought I would bleed to death, but, 
as heretofore, I managed to pull through, and, as many of 
my friends will admit, am here yet, and hope to remain for 
many moors to come. 

As before stated, I was shot and captured on the 6th of 
April, at Sailor Creek, about twelve miles below Farmville, 

172 History of Prince Edward County 

and left on the battle field, where, what was left of our 
division, stood as a forlorn hope to save Lee's wagon trains, 
and those who did their duty on that day, were either killed, 
wounded, or captured, almost to a man. Here my own ex- 
perience as a soldier of the army of Northern Virginia, 
ended. I can now only state what others have said as to the 
final march, and end, of that noble army. 

From Sailor Oeek, General Lee continued his retreat in 
the direction of Lynchburg, passing through Farmville. He 
pressed on as fast as the condition of his men would permit, 
fighting every inch of ground, until he reached Appomat- 
tox Court-house. Here he found himself, and his little army, 
surrounded hy Grant and his vast host. Up to this point 
he had managed to check their pursuit from time to time, 
and to continue his retreat. On the Tth of April, General 
Grant sent the following communication to General Lee. 

(jeneral: The result of the last week must convince you 
of the hopelessness of further resistance on the part of the 
army of Northern Virginia, in this struggle. I feel that it 
is so, and regard it as my duty to shift from myself the re- 
sponsibility of any further effusion of blood, by asking of you 
the surrender of that portion of the Confederate States army 
known as the army of Northern Virginia. 

Lieutenant General, 

General Lee did not think as General Grant did. He 
replied on the same day, April Tth, as follows: 

General: I have received your note of this date. 
Though not entertaining the opinion you express on the hope- 
lessness of further resistance on the part of the army of 
Northern Virginia, I reciprocate your desire to avoid the 
useless effusion of blood, and therefore, before considering 
your proposition, ask the term you will offer on condition 
of its surrender. R. E. LEE, 


History of Prince Edward County 173 

Grerieral Fitz. Lee says the next communication from 
General Grant was received by General Lee "at a large 
white farm-house at Curdsville." It would be interesting to 
know who resided at that "white farm-house" then, and who 
occupies it now. I trust some old resident of Curdsville will 
give the information. The two notes read as follows: 

April 8, 1865. 
General : Your note of last evening, in reply to mine of 
the same date, asldng the condition on which I will accept 
the surrender of the army of Northern Virginia, is just 

In reply, I would say that, peace being my great desire, 
there is but one condition that I would insist upon, namely, 
that the men and officers surrendered, shall be disqualified for 
taking up arms again against the government of the United 
States until properly exchanged. I will meet you, or will 
designate officers to meet any officers you may name for 
the same purpose, at any time agreeable to you, for the 
purpose of arranging definitely the term upon which the 
surrender of the army of Northern Virginia will be re- 
ceived. U. S. GRANT, 

Lieutenant General, 

To which General Lee replied: 

April 8, 1865. 

General: I received at a late hour your note of to-day. 
In mine yesterday I did not intend to propose the surrender 
of the army of Northern Virginia, but to ask the terms of 
your proposition. To be frank, I do not think the emergency 
has arisen to call for the surrender of this army, but as the 
restoration of peace should be the sole object of all, I desire 
to know whether your proposal would lead to that end. I 
cannot therefore meet you with a view to surrender the army 
of Northern Virginia, but as far as your proposal may affect 
the Confederate States forces under my command, and tend 

174 History of Prince Edward County 

to the restoration of peace, I shall be pleased to meet you 
at 10 a. m., tomorrow, on the old stage road to Kichmond, 
between the picket lines of the two armies. 

R. E. LP]E, 


On the next morning General Grant dispatched another 
note to General Lee, as follows: 

April 9, 1865. 
General: Your note of yesterday is received. I have no 
authority to treat on the subject of peace. I will state, 
however, General, I am equally anxious for peace with your- 
self, and the whole north entertains the same feeling. The 
terms upon which peace can be had are well understood. By 
the South laying down their arms they will hasten that 
most desirable event, save thousands of human lives, and hun- 
dreds of millions of property not yet destroyed. Seriously 
hoping that all our difficulties may be settled without the 
loss of another life, I subscribe myself, etc. 

Lieutenant General, 

General Humphrey sent this note forward by Colonel 
Whittier, bis Adjutant General, who met Colonel Marshall, 
of Lee's staff, by whom he was conducted to the general. To 
this note Lee replied: 

April 9, 1865. 
General: I received your note of this morning on the 
picket line whither I had come to meet you and ascertain 
definitely what terms were embraced in your proposal of 
yesterday, with reference to the surrender of the army. I 
now ask an interview in accordance with the offer contained 
in your letter of yesterday for that purpose. 

A. E. LEE, 


History of Prince Edward County 175 

Grant, who received this note eight or nine miles from 
Appomattox, at once answered it. 

April 9, 1865. 
General K. E. I^e, Commanding C. S. A.: 

Your note of this date is but this moment (11:50 a. m.) 
received. In consequence of my having passed from the Rich- 
mond and Lynchburg road to the Farmville and Lynch- 
burg road, I am, at this writing about four miles west of 
Walker's church, and I will push forward to tlie front 
for the purpose of meeting you. Notice sent to me on this 
road when you wish the interview to take place, will meet 

Very respectfully, 
your obedient servant, 

U. S. GRxVNT, 
Lieutenant General, 

General Fitz. Lee says this reply was sent direct to Gen- 
eral Lee by Colonel Babcock. Our noble old leader was 
obliged to confront a painful issue. His duty had been per- 
formed, but so earnest was he in trying to extricate his troops, 
and carry tliem south, that he failed to recognize the hope- 
lessness of further resistance, or the emergency that called 
for the surrender of his army. At the suggestion of some of 
his higher officers, General Pendleton, the commander of his 
reserve artillery, went to Lee on the 7th to say that their 
united judgment agreed that it was wrong to have more men 
on either side killed, and that they did not wish that he 
should bear the entire trial of reaching that conclusion. But 
Lee replied, that he had too many brave men, to think of 
laying down his arms, and that they still fought with great 
spirit; that if he should first intimate to Grant that he would 
listen to terms, an unconditional surrender might be de- 
manded, and "sooner than that I am resolved to die." General 
Lee had not altogether abandoned the purpose to march south, 

176 History of Prince Edward County 

even after the notes of the 7th and 8th had been exchanged. 
Longstreet, Gordon, and Fitz. Lee, commanding his corps, 
were summoned to headquarters on the night of the 8th, near 
Appomattox Courthouse. The situation was explained free- 
ly, and the correspondence with Grant alluded to, yet "Marse 
Robert" was not ready, without one more effort, to surren- 
der those noble boys who had served him so faithfully. 

So it was decided that Gordon and Fitz. Lee should 
attack Sheridan's cavalry at daylight on the 9th, and open 
a way; but in case the cavalry was reinforced by heavy 
bodies of infantry, the commanding general must be at once 
notified, as surrender was inevitable. The attack was made 
at sunrise, and the Federal cavalry driven back with the loss 
of two guns, and a number of prisoners. The arrival at this 
time of two corps of Federal infantry, necessitated the re- 
tirement of the southern lines. General Ord, who commanded 
one of the corps of Federal infantry, states that he was 
"barely in time, for, in spite of General Sheridan's attempts, 
the cavalry was falling back in confusion." The die was 
cast ; the last gun fired ; and a white flag went out from the 
Southern ranks; the war in Virginia was over! 

Colonel Babcock, the bearer of General Grant's last note, 
found General Lee near Appomattox Courthouse lying un- 
der an apple tree upon a blanket spread upon some rails; 
from which circumstance the widespread report originated 
that the surrender took place under an apple tree. 

General Lee, Colonel Marshall of his staff; Colonel Bab- 
cock of General Grant's staff, and a mounted orderly, rode 
to the village, and found Mr. Wilmer McLean, a resident, 
who, upon being told that General Lee wanted the use of a 
room in some house, conducted the party to his dwelling. 
General Lee was ushered into a room on the left of the hall, 
and, about one o'clock, was joined by General Grant, his staff, 
and Generals Sheridan and Ord. Grant sat at a marble-topped 
table in the centre of the room; Lee at a small oval table 

HUtory of Prince Edward County 177 

near the front window. Grenerals Lee and Grant had met 
once, eighteen years before, when both were fighting for the 
same cause in Mexico. After a pleasant reference to that 
event, Lee promptly drew attention to the business before 
them; the terms of surrender were arranged; and, at General 
Lee's request, reduced to writing as follows : 

Appomattox Courthottse, Va. 
April 9, 1865. 

General: In accordance with the substance of my letter 
to you of the 8th inst., I propose to receive the surrender of 
the army of Northern Virginia on the following terms, to 
wit: Rolls of all the officers and men to be made in dupli- 
cate, one copy to be given to an officer to be designated by 
me, the other to be retained by such officer, or officers, as you 
may designate. The officers to give their individual parole 
not to take up arms against the government of the United 
States until properly exchanged, and each company and regi- 
mental commander to sign a like parole for the men of their 
coDimands. The arms, artillery, and public property, to be 
packed and stacked, and turned over to the officers appointed 
by me to receive them. This will not embrace the side arms 
of the officers, nor the private horses or baggage. This done, 
each officer and man will be allowed to return to his home, 
not to be disturbed by the United States authority so long 
as he observes his parole, and the laws in force where he 
may reside. U. S. GRANT, 

Lieutenant General, 

He then said to General Lee, "Unless you have some sug- 
gestion to make, I will have a copy of the letter made in ink 
and sign it." This gave Lee the opportunity to tell him that 
the cavalrymen and many of tne artillerymen, owned their 
own horses, and wished to know if those men would be per- 
mitted to retain them. General Grant said he would ffive 

178 History of Prince Edward County 

instructions "to let all men who claim to own a horse or a 
mule take the animal home with them to work their little 

April 9, 1865. 

General: I received your letter of this date, containing 
the terms of the surrender of the army of Northern Vir- 
ginia as proposed by you. As they are substantially the 
same as those expressed in your letter of the 8th instant, 
they are accepted. I will proceed to designate the proper 
officers to carry the stipulations into effect. 

R. E. LEE. 


The formalities now concluded, his thoughts now turned 
to his hungry veterans, and to his prisoners; he said to Gen- 
eral Grant: "I have a thousand or more of your officers and 
men, whom we have required to march along with us for 
several days, and I shall be glad to send them to your lines 
as soon as it can be arranged, for I have no provisions for 
them. My own men have been living for the past few days, 
principally upon parched corn." General Grant suggested 
that he would send him twenty-five thousand rations. He 
told him it would be ample, and assured him it would be 
a great relief. He now rode away to break the sad news to 
the brave troops he had so long commanded. His presence 
in their midst was an exhibition of the devotion of soldier 
to commander. They pressed up to him, anxious to touch 
his person, or even his horse, and tears washed from strong 
men's cheeks, the stains of powder. Slowly and painfully he 
turned to his soldiers, and with voice quivering with emo- 
tion, said: "Men we have fought through the war together, 
I have done my best for you, my heart is too full to say 
more." It was a simple, but most affecting scene to see those 
iron-hearted men, whose eyes had been so often illumined 

History of Prince Edward County 179 

with the fire of patriotism and true courage; that had so 
often glared with defiance in the heat and fury of battle ; and 
so oft<in kindled with enthusiasm and pride in the hour of 
success; moistened now with the deep love and sympathy 
they each had for their beloved chief. He soon sought res- 
pite from those trying scenes and retired to his private quar- 
ters. On the next day a formal leave of his army was taken, 
in these never-to-be-forgotten words: 

Headquarters Army of Northern Virginia, 

April 10, 1865. 

After four years of arduous service, marked by unsur- 
passed courage and fortitude, the Army of Northern Virginia 
has been compelled to yield to overwhelming numbers and 
resources. I need not tell the survivors of so many liard- 
fought battles who have remained steadfast to the last, that 
I have consented to this result from no distrust of them, but 
finding that valor and devotion could accomplish nothing 
that could compensate for the loss that would have attended 
the continuation of the contest, I have determined to avoid 
the useless sacrifice of those whose past services have endeared 
them to their countrymen. By the terms of agreement, offi- 
cers and men can return to their homes and remain there 
until exchanged. You will take with you the satisfaction 
that proceeds from the consciousness of duty faithfully per- 
formed, and I earnestly pray that a merciful God will ex- 
tend to you his blessing and protection. With unceasing 
admiration of your constancy and devotion to your country, 
and a grateful remembrance of your kind and generous con- 
sideration of myself, I bid yoo an affectionate farewell. 

It. £j. LSK. 


And then in silence, with lifted hat, he rode through a 
weeping army. Thus terminated the career of the Army of 

180 History of Prince Edward County 

Northern Virginia — an army that was never vanquished, 
but that, in obedience to the orders of its trusted comman- 
der, who was himself yielding obedience to the dictates of 
a pure and lofty sense of duty to his men and those de- 
pendent on him, laid down its arms and furled the stand- 
ards never lowered in defeat. 

Now, Mr. Editor, my task is advancing to its close; be- 
fore doing so permit me to offer an excuse for reproducing 
the correspondence which passed between Lee and Grant, 
prior to the surrender. In my conversation with many of 
my old comrades I have found but few who ever saw it in 
print. If this be true, then very few there must be among 
our young people who have seen it. For their benefit I 
ask that you publish it. There is one historical fact, per- 
taining to the surrender, which I think all should know. 
It is this: the vast discrepancy in numbers and resources 
we were contending against at this particular time. On April 
the 10th, one day after the surrender, General Meade called 
to pay his respects to General Lee. The conversation natu- 
rally turned upon recent events, and he asked General Lee 
how many men he had at Petersburg, at the time of Grant's 
final assault. General Lee told him in reply that, by his last 
returns, he had 33,000 muskets. General Meade then said: 
''You mean that you had 33,000 men in the lines immediately 
around Petersburg." To which Lee replied, "No:" that 
he had but that number from his left in the Chickahominy, 
and to his right at Dinwiddie Courthouse. At this General 
Meade expressed great surprise, and stated that he then had 
with him, in one wing of the Federal army which he com- 
manded, over 50,000 men. Now, remember. General Lee had 
for months, kept up his line of defense before Richmond and 
Petersburg, a distance of more than thirty miles, with an army 
of 33,000 half-starved men, in the face of General Grant 
and his vast army of well-fed men. The last returns on 
March 1, 1865, of Grant's army, gives the total of all arms, 

History of Prince Edward County 181 

at 162,239 men. Col. Walter H. Taylor, who was I^'s Ad- 
jutant-Greneral, says: "When General Lee withdrew his 
army from the lines during the night of the 2nd of April, 
he had of all arms, not over 25,000 men who began the retreat 
that terminated at Appomattox." Think of it! 25,000 men 
fighting and retreating before 162,000 and for several days 
succeeded in checking and driving back every attack, and 
at last with only 8,000 muskets in ranks, surrendered! 

Charges were now withdrawn from the guns, flags furled, 
and the Army of the Potomac, and the Army of Northern 
Virginia, turned their backs upon each other, for the first 
time in four long, bloody years. The Southern soldiers, 
wrapped in faded, tattered uniforms, shoeless and weather- 
beaten, but proud as when they first rushed to battle, re- 
turned to their desolate fields; homes in many cases in ashes, 
blight, blast, and want on every side! Grand, glorious, and 
noble body of men, your deeds of bravery and self-sacrifice 
to duty and your fair Southland, will go down the ages in 
history and in song, never, no never, to be forgotten ! • 

Now, Mr. Editor, as my task is drawing to its close, my 
heart throbs and thrills; again my blood courses rapidly 
through my veins as I hear in imagination the old Rebel 
Yell, and recall the many deeds of daring of my old and 
much-loved comrades in gray. How I love that grand old 
army and the noble band who filled its ranks! And it fills 
my heart with joy when I feel and know that we 

"Who fold this love with rapture nearer our heart, 
Believe that some-where, some time, we will meet and 
never part." 

182 History of Prince Edward County 


The following very interesting paper was read before 
the Pickett-Thornton Camp, Chapter 16, of the Daughters 
of the Confederacy, at Farmville, Va., by the late Dr. James 
L. White, and reported in the Farmville, Va., Herald of July 
9, 1897. Dr. White died June 26, 1909, aged 76 years, and 
lies buried in the Cemetery at Farmville. This very sug^ 
gestive inscription is inscribed on his tombstone there: ''The 
Beloved Physician." 

At the request of some of the members of your organi- 
zation, and after reading the second letter from Prof. T. J. 
Garden, addressed to you, it has occurred to me that I might, 
from my personal recollection, add some items of interest and 
information to the history of the Confederate General Hos- 
pital, located at Farmville during the late war. 

After participating as Surgeon in the celebrated cam- 
paign in the Valley of Virginia in 1862, I was ordered to 
report for duty to the surgeon in charge of the General Hos- 
pital at Farmville, and did so about the middle of Decem- 
ber of that year. I remained on duty at the General Hos- 
pital at Farmville until January '64, when I was transferred 
to field service and ordered to report to Gen. Longstreet, 
whose corps was then occupying the eastern portion of 
Tennessee. In the latter part of the spring of that year, 
Longstreet's corps was ordered to return again to Virginia, 
and I served as Brigade Surgeon to Bryant's brigade, of 
Kershaw's Division in the campaign of 1864, from the battle 
of the Wilderness to the front of Petersburg. 

I remained with I^ngstreet's corps until the early fall 
of 1864, when I was again transferred to hospital duty at 
Lynchburg, and served as Surgeon in charge of one of the 
General Hospitals until February, 1865, when I was again 

History of Prince Edward County 183 

transferred to Farmville, and took charge of my old division 
in the General Hospital, and served in that capacity till the 
termination of the war. 

Pardon me for alluding to this much of my war history. 
It is only referred to because, to some extent, it is connected 
with the history of the General Hospital at Farmville. 

The General Hospital at Farmville was organized in 
the year 1862, under the supervision of the late Dr. H. D. 
Taliaferro, who was surgeon in charge from its organization 
to the termination of the war. Its capacity was about 1,200 
or 1,500 beds, which were occupied chiefly by cases of chronic 
diseases, and convalescents from the hospitals in the cities, 
and others near the field of active operations. 

The buildings used for hospital purposes were the sev- 
eral tobacco factories and warehouses in the town, which con- 
stituted the 1st and 2nd divisions, together with ten or twelve 
new wards erected, and located to the west of the corporate 
limits, and directly on the line of the N. & W. railroad, 
which constituted the 3rd division of the General Hospital. 

Drs. Walton and Tuft were in charge, respectively, of 
the 1st and 2nd divisions, and I was assigned for duty in 
charge of the new wards, or the 3rd division. Those wards 
became the property of the United States at the surrender, 
and, after being occupied as hospitals, and deposits of dis- 
tribution of rations and other supplies to our indigent colored 
friends of this and the several adjacent counties, under the 
auspicies of the Freedman's Bureau for several years, were 
sold in 1870, or at the time this department was discontinued 
at Farmville. Soon thereafter they were all torn down and 
removed, with the single exception of the extreme western 
ward, which is even now, at this writing, partly intact, and 
used as a dwelling. 

The office of the surgeon in charge of the 3rd division 

184 History of Prince Edward County 

and the dispensary (which was in charge of the late Mr. 
L. W. Williamson, a very competent druggist, who died a few 
years ago and is buried in the Farmville Cemetery) , together 
with the bakery and the commissary department of that di- 
vision, are still standing and occupied as dwellings. They 
are the buildings in the rear of the residence and garden of 
our worthy fellow-citizen, ex-Governor McKinney, on the 
south side of the N. & W. R. R., and were opposite the 
wards which were located on the north side, with their gables 
and main entrance fronting the road, and extending back in 
their length from 100 to 150 feet towards the river. ^ 

Dr. H. D. Taliaferro had been previous to the war, sur- 
geon in the United States Navy. He was a good organizer, 
a splendid executive officer, well up in his profession, an af- 
fable and kind-hearted gentleman, and well qualified for the 
position of Surgeon in charge of the General Hospital at 
Farmville to which he was assigned. After the close of the 
war he returned to his former home in Orange, Virginia, and 
after a few years went thence to Richmond, and finally re- 
turned to Farmvile, where he resided and practiced his pro- 
fession until his death, which occurred in January, 1891. 
He was buried in the Farmville Cemetery. The other sur- 
geons in charge of divisions were Dr. R. H. Walton, and 
Dr. Tuft respectively of the 1st and 2nd divisions. Each 
of the division surgeons had under their direction a number 
of assistant surgeons who had charge of the several wards in 
^the respective divisions. Among those associated with me in 
the 3rd division were Drs. Boatwright, Chandler, Mathews, 
Garden, Ladd, Grayson, etc. In the other divisions the 
ward surgeons were Drs. Carter, Boykin, Russell, Hancock, 
Tatum, and others whose names I cannot now recall. Revs. Os- 
bom, Langhorn, and Mcllwaine were Chaplains. The Quar- 
termaster and Commissary departments were in charge of 
Major R. B. Marye, with several assistants. It was a pleas- 
ant military family and every branch was in harmony, and 

History of Prince Edward County 185 

satisfactory to the citizens and refugees, of whom there were 
a great many temporarily residing in Farmville at that time. 

There were none among us who at that time entertained 
any other idea than that the independency of the Confederacy 
would be ultimately established; but as time lengthened into 
years, we became more and more convinced that our cause 
was slowly but surely waning in its strength and resources, 
and that we had jeopardized our all, save honor and love 
of tradition and section, in the uncertain balances of war, 
which would end ere long in disaster to our homes and loved 
ones. We were not therefore, altogether surprised at the 
news which reached us on the 3rd of April, 1865, that the 
overwhelming Federal forces, which had been besieging 
Petersburg for nearly a year, had at last succeeded in break- 
ing through the attenuated lines of our half-clad, and half- 
fed Confederate heroes, driving them from their strong and 
fortified position in the front of that city and necessitating 
the evacuation of Richmond, which was the seat of the Con- 
federate Government. 

Then began that sad, but stubborn and celebrated retreat 
of the Confederate forces which terminated in the surrender, 
on the 9th of April, at Appomattox Courthouse. The sad 
and terrible scenes witnessed during that short week of the 
retreat of the Confederates, and those which followed for 
many days and weeks thereafter, will long be remembered 
by the citizens of Farmville. Especially will be remembered 
the days of the 6th and 7th of April, for those were the 
days and nights our famished soldiers reached our town. 
All day and all night long the worn and weary column drag- 
ged its slow length through our streets; all day and all night 
long did our generous people, with open doors, distribute 
such provisions of food and comfort as they possessed, to this 
almost famished and heart-broken army. 

Early in the morning of the 7th, I think it was, Gen- 

186 History of Prince Edward County 

eral Lee, weary and worn with loss of sleep and the great 
responsibility of his position, entered our town and, ascer- 
taining the whereabouts of Generals Breckenridge, Lawton, 
and St. Johns, respectively the Secretary of War, Quarter 
Master General, and Commissary General, who had spent the 
night, but not in sleep, at the residence of Mr. P. H. Jackson, 
held an interview with them. He remained but a short while 
and, after taking a CONFEDERATE cup of coffee, which 
was sent to his room, parted from those gentlemen at the 
yard gate. This, perhaps, was the last meeting, or official 
consultation, held betwen General Lee and any of the cabinet 
officers of the Confederate Government. Generals Brecken- 
ridge and Lawton turned their course toward Danville to 
join President Davis and the other members of the Cabinet, 
who had gone by rail directly from Richmond to Danville, 
and General Lee, in the opposite dire€tion, crossing the 
bridge over the Appomattox river at this place, joined the 
Confederate column in Cumberland, which had been drawn 
up in line of battle from the point of woods near the 
railroad bridge crossing the hill near the Lithia Springs, 
thence across the old plank road near the toll house and be- 
yond the dwelling on the Bazarre plantation. The Federal 
column occupied the hills to the south and east of the town. 
At one time, early in the day, it was thought. that a general 
engagement would take place, and the citizens were ordered 
to leave the town. Many of them, especially the women and 
children, did so, but there was nothing more than an ex- 
change of a few artillery shots between the two opposing lines 
of battle, which resulted in no damage, though some of the 
houses within the corporate limits twere sttruck, and the 
marks of the shots may be seen on them even at this day. 
Later in the afternoon, that portion of the Confederate 
forces which had been engaged at the High Bridge, crossed 
to the north side of the river at that point, and after uniting 
with the main body opposite the town, took up again their 

History of Prince Edward County 187 

march. In the meanwhile the Federals, so soon as the Con- 
federate forces began their march, threw a pontoon bridge 
across the river, (the wooden bridge having been burned by 
the Confederates early in the day) and crossing to the Cum- 
berland side of the river, made an attack. They were re- 
pulsed and made no further advance till near sunset. 

The night of that day our citizens were again kept from 
sleeping and in an anxious and alarmed state, by the con- 
tinuous passing of the Federal forces through the streets. 
None but those who were present can imagine the horrors of 
that miserable night to our people. Closed doors were but 
little protection from the swarm of the Federal host that 
crowded our yards and streets, and none at all from the horde 
of lawless thieves and boomers who followed in the wake of 
the victorious army. We were indeed in a pitiable condi- 
tion. Martial law, however, was established the following 
day, and guards of protection were given those who applied 
for them, and though we were prisoners in our own homes, 
still we felt less alarm, and madfe ourselves more comfortable. 
We knew nothing of the events transpiring at the front. 
Hopeful we were, but ignorant as to whether our people had 
succeeded in reaching and uniting with others of our Con- 
federates at Lynchburg, or had encountered irreparable dis- 
aster. Sunday morning however, the various Church bells and 
others in the town, began ringing, and we were told it was 
to announce to all the surrender of General Lee at Appomat- 
tox Courthouse. 

Thus ended with us the entire movements of the war, 
but for days and weeks and months we had to submit to mili- 
tary government in our town and vicinity. A provost mar- 
shal with a military company to assist him, held us in sub- 
mission for eighteen months or two years, and we had no 
liberty or freedom of action until the last blue coat of our 
conquerors had disappeared from among us. 

188 History of Prince Edward County 

This much of the local history of our town during the 
last days of the Confederacy I have thought would be of 
interest to jovl. None but those who witnessed them 
can ever realize how terrible was our everyday life. Our 
domestic living and home rule, underwent a sudden and de- 
plorable change. With no financial resources, and our pro- 
visions all exhausted, many of our citizens were compelled to 
accept the GENEROUS BOUNTY of dry codfish and hard- 
tack from our aggressors. 

(Note: This article was continued in a later issue of the 
Herald, but this much is perhaps sufficient for our present 
purpose. — C. E. B.) 

^rinr; Zluttarit (ilauntg in % Vs-tatatttutian l^etxa^ 

History of Prince Edward County 191 


The War was ended! It had ended disastrously for 
the South ! Virginia, battle-ground of the hostile forces, was 
devastated! Her soldiers came back to their homes, if in- 
deed they had any homes to come back to, and, settling down 
to peaceful pursuits with the same determination with which 
they had addressed themselves to the war, began the sterner 
struggle with poverty. 

There was not enough seed left in Prince Edward with 
which to plant the first crop; neither was there money with 
which to buy seed had it been obtainable. Their hands were 
tied in many trying ways, yet they bent to the new tasks with 
a cheerfulness that was inspiring. 

Freedmen's Bureaus were set up by the conquering North 
and officials with shoulder straps and brass buttons abounded. 
They were sent into every County with authority to look 
after the late slaves; "wards of the nation," as they were 
then called. 

The negroes were organized into "Union Leagues." 
They were not eager for work. The difficulty of obtaining 
labor was added to the other troubles of the people. De- 
praved men, some of them alas, citizens, many of them a low 
type of Northern new-comers, entirely ignorant of the negro 
and his ways, and of the problems of the South ; "Scalawags," 
and "Carpet-baggers" they were called, respectively, went 
among the negroes and did what they could to incite them to 
tumult and riot. 

To the everlasting credit of these negroes, be it said, 
that, though accepting their freedom as a great boon, and 
relying with childlike faith upon the promises of thes© 

192 History of Prince Edward County 

northerners, most of them continued to be orderly, respectful 
and industrious. Thus was the previous kind treatment they 
had received from their Virginia masters vindicated. Yet, 
even in spite of their admittedly difficult position, it cannot 
be said that Prince Edward County, had even then, any 
greater ''labor problem" than has been experienced by her in 
recent years. 

We must not neglect to note in this connection, the fact 
that the city of Baltimore came to the aid of Virginia in 
this time of tremendous need like a veritable Ceres sowing 
seeds of hope, and offered to furnish seed on security of the 
crop to be planted, and marketed. This offer was most grate- 
fully accepted, and everybody took fresh courage. There was 
pulsing life once more in the land; peace brooded over all. 
Alas it was not to go on uninterrupted ! The horrors of the 
reconstruction were coming on apace. Prince Edward 
shared in the hope that came with the generosity of the city 
of Baltimore; she was to share in the turmoil of the recon- 
struction days. The eager cormorants from the north were 
getting hungry and were already demanding their sop. 

In 1870 the new Constitution of Virginia, framed in 1867- 
68, by what is known in history as the "Black and Tan," 
or ''Underwood" Convention, became effective. Virginia was 
"readmitted into the Union;" that Union she had been fore- 
most in forming and in establishing, and that Union she 
had been loathe to leave. Under these new conditions, each 
county was laid off into townships, and the County Courts, 
almost coeval with the Colony, were abolished, and the office 
of County Judge was created. 

Boards of Supervisors were created at the same time. 
Grave apprehension was felt lest the negroes, then constitut- 
ing the majority of the registered voters, might work great 
havoc in the fiscal matters of the county by electing a ma- 
jority of the newly created boards. The whites, however, so 

History of Prince Edward County 198 

arranged their forces that these fears were never seriously- 
realized, and the minimum of disorders occurred. 

From about 1870 matters have gone on in regular and 
orderly routine, with nothing of particular moment calling 
for the attention of the chronicler of the Reconstruction Days. 

Further light is shed on these strange days in the chap- 
ter on the judiciary, to which the attention of the reader is 
specifically directed. 

Prtttr^ lEdmarii (Honntxi in lift WatUi Var 

1. Introduction. 

2. Red Cross activities. 

3. Muster Roll of the Farmville Guard. 

4. List of white men from Prince Edward county in 
the service. 

5. List of colored men from Prince Edward county in 
the service. 

Hhtory of Prince Edward County 197 



In this chapter we shall endeavor to give, with some rea- 
sonable accuracy, the story of the part played by Prince 
Edward county in the great war of 1914-18. Of necessity the 
recital must be somewhat curtailed, for space is not avail- 
able in which to tell of the multitudinous war activities of the 
people of this part of the State. Then, too, the lists appended 
are subject to further revision for errors. It is too much to 
expect that, in the mad whirl of war's turmoil, all names 
shall be properly recorded or transcribed. Many of the men 
went by "nicknames" and these occasionally got into the 
records. Difficulty was encountered also, in keeping the names 
of white and colored soldiers separate. Reasonable accuracy 
has, however, been attained, due in no small measure to the 
splendid work of Mrs. Roberta Large of Farmville, who, at 
much expenditure of time and labor, has done so much to 
keep our county records straight. 

Much additional and valuable information upon this 
topic will be found included in chapter eleven of this work, in 
the war activities of the Churches of the County. 

198 Hutory of Prince Edward County 


The following brief statement respecting the work of 
the Prince Edward County Chapter of the American Red 
Cross, is taken from a careful report of the work of that or- 
ganization during the great war, prepared by Senator R. K. 
Brock of Farmville, and filed at the Court House: 

The local chapter was organized at Farmville, August 
31, 1917, largely through the efforts of Dr. T. G. Hardy, sup- 
plemented by a visit to Farmville of Col. Henry W. Ander- 
soi'., later head of the Red Cross Mission to Roumania. 

At the organization meeting the following officers were 
elected : 

Chairman: Robert K. Brock. 
Vice-Chaifman : Mrs. J. L. Jarman. 
Treasurer: J. L. Bugg. 
Secretary: Rev. C. P. Holbrook. 

Executive Committee: the Chairman, Secretary, and 
Treasurer, ex-officio; W. S. Weaver, Rice, Va. ; E. S. Taylor, 
Prospect, Va. ; Mrs. T. P. Singleton, Darlington Heights, Va ; 
E. S. Martin, J. L. Jarman, Mrs. R. B. Tuggle, Mrs. A. T. 
Gray, Mrs. J. L. Jarman, and Mrs. W. P. Richardson, all 
of Farmville, Va. 

A Membership Committee, composed of Dr. J. L. Jar- 
man, Mrs. A. T. Gray. Mrs. R. B. Tuggle, Mrs. Thos. G. 
Hardy and Miss Sue Gray Flippen, was appointed by the 
Chairman, and the membership was rapidly increased. 

The officers and the Executive Committee, as well as 
the Committee on Membership, are people of standing in 
the community. The Chairman is a lawyer by profession 
and a former member of the Virginia Senate ; the Vice- 
Chairman, wife of President Jarman of the State Normal 
College for Women at Farmville, occupies a place of great 

History of Prince Edward County 199 

prominence in the social and civic life of the community; 
the Treasurer is Cashier of the People's National Bank, one 
of the leading banking institutions of ^hlis section, liand 
Chairman of the third, fourth, and fifth Liberty Loan Cam- 
paigns, bringing his county well over the top each time; and 
the Secretary is Rector of Johns Memorial Episcopal Church, 
Farmville, who has had wide experience in many forms of 
social welfare work, and brought with him an enthusiasm for 
the great work he was espousing. 

The Women's Work Committee, headed by Mrs. J. L. 
Jarman, amongst much other invaluable war work made the 
following articles: 

Surgical Dressings 21,660 

Hospital Garments 825 

Hospital Supplies 520 

Refugee Garments 818 

Reclamation Work done for Soldiers at 

Camp Lee 1,368 

Comfort Kits 1,100 

Christmas Packets 50 

Property Bags 50 

Linen Shower 350 

In addition, the Knitting Committee com- 
pleted the following: 

Sweaters 248 

Socks _ 286 

Mufflers 11 

Wristlets 18 

Afghan 1 

Branch Chapters were organized in the following places: 
Rice Branch, W. S. Weaver, Chairman; Meherrin Branch, 
M. E. Gee, Chairman; Darlington Heights Branch, Mrs. T. 
P. Singleton, Chairman; Prospect Branch, T. J. Mcllwaine, 

200 History of Prince Edward County 

Chairman, succeeded by W. C. Chick; Sandy River Branch, 
W. B. Bruce, Chairman; Abilene Branch, Miss Annie Me- 
Gehee, Chairman; Felden Branch, Miss Marie Allen, Chair- 
man: Hampden- Sidney, Miss Susie Venable, Chairman; Five 
Forks Branch, Mrs. Norvell Crute, Chairman. There is 
also a Colored Branch in Farmville^ and colored members 
elsewhere in the county, who did fine work. 

The Chapter was not organized when the first drive for 
funds was inaugurated, but in the second drive in the spring 
of 1918, with Dr. Jarman as Chairman of the War Fund, the 
quota of $2,800 was more than dioubled, the sum of $6,250 
being raised. This was accomplished with the splendid or- 
ganization perfected by Dr. Jarman. 

The Home Service Section was organized in the early 
summer of 1918, with Dr. J. M. Lear as Chairman, and Miss 
Mary Dupuy as Secretary. Miss Dupuy was succeeded by 
Mrs. lioberta Large, who has performed wonders in securing 
and perfecting the records of the individual personnel of the 
men who went into service from Prince Edward County. 

The Junior Red Cross, under the leadership of Miss 
lima Von Schilling did wonders and forwarded the follow- 
ing articles to the Red Cross Headquarters: 

Property Bags 200 

Layettes 1 Box 

Garments 145 

Scrap Books 180 

Gun Wipes - ~ 500 

The local Chapter is still (1921) maintaining an exist- 
ence, as a permanent organization. 

HiMory of Prince Edward County 201 


Members Farmville Guard , 

J. Watson Anglea; John W. Almon. 

J. E. Baldwin; S. Blanton Badgett; Charles Boyd; 
Lloyd Bullock; Otiis Bowman ; Roibert Stanley Baldwin; 
Henry Bailey. 

D. J. Carroll; * Alfred Coleman; J. Vernon Collins; 
John Hughbert Cocks; Wirt Card^ell; William Haislip 
Crenshaw; Fields Cobb; Granville Chappell; Mack Cowan; 
W. C. Collins; Guy J. Crenshaw; Felix Cline; C. E. Chap- 

Harry Dix; *Hershel Dix; W. P. Davis; F. L. Dietrick; 
Ruben Daniel; W. D. Druen; R. C. Dodl; J. F. Dodson. 

Littleton Edmunds; Charles F. Eifert; J. F. Echols; 
Decker Emerson. 

R. H. Foster; George Fitzgerald; J. W. Fers. 

Thomas Greenalls; *John N. Garland; J. H. Gilliam; 
J. E. Garnett; R. R. Gilliam: W. S. Gilliam; J. W. Good- 
man: Walker M. Gray. 

H. H. Hunt; Goode Hundley; L. L. Haymaker; *W. W. 
Hillsman; J. Ashley Hurt; Meband Harper. 

John N. Irving; Linwood Irvine; Courtney Irvine. 

Emerson Jarman; Joseph Jarman^ 

Henry A. Kelsey; A. G. Kelsey; *Finney Kernodle. 

Joseph E. Lowe; James E. Lipscomb; Guy F. Lancaster. 

Horace H. Moorefield; Richard K. Marsh; Rupert F. 
Mann; Frank L. Mcintosh. 

T. A. Perrow; D. W. Paulett; Raymond Phillips. 

Robert B. Rodgers; Lucius R. Reedy; Charles W. Raf- 
ferty; Spottswood B. Robinson. 

♦Millard Guy Smith; H. B. Shultz; Emmett Sheppard; 

202 History of Prince Edward County 

Joel Sheppard ; Bryant Sheppard ; Melvin T. Smith ; Blanch- 
ard Skillings; Frank E. Slaughter. 

J. C. Terry; Lawrie W. Thompson; Thomas F. Taylor. 

Cunningham Watkins; T. H. Whitlock; J. A. Whitlock 
James Leigh Wilson, Jr.; W. H. Waters; Ernest Woodall 
T. H. Williams; Sam Webster; *John Woodson Webster 
Henry Wood; Carl Wilck; Paul Wilck; George W. White 
Homer F. Wilkinson; Stanley Watkins; Wallace J. Wilck 

*Signifies those who died in Service. 

History of Prince Edward County 203 


Paul T. Atkinson; William Scott Addleman; Henry 
Guthrie Allen. 

*Paul Simpson Barrow; Owen Hall Bliss; Samuel W. 
Bondurant; William T. Bondurant; Charles Richard Bugg; 
K. C. Bliss; J. M. Brightwell; W. R. Berry; John W. Brand- 
on; T. L. Bliss; Everett Bailey; John Barton; J. T. Baker; 
Norman Berry; R. A. Brisentine; W. D. Brisentine; C. H. 
Borum; J. E. Booth; Willie Brooks; Rush W. Bondurant; 
Robert N. Bradshaw; William H. Bondurant; Charles D. 
Beck ; Nathan Baker ; Oscar Borum ; John Clarke Bondurant. 

Charles M. Clarke; Frank B. Chernault; M. B. Coyner; 
T. H. Crenshaw; J. C. Crawley; J. L. Calhoun; H. W. Cov- 
ington; F. B. Cale; *R. C. Cheadle; L. B. Carwile; Baudie 
G. Carter ; Charles Booker Cunningham ; Albert Casey ; John 

D. Cobb: Jasper S. Carter. 

Leon Lonsdale Duncan; L. W. Drummeller; T. B. Daniel: 
Harry S. Durfee; W. M. Davis; Linwood Dalton; Shirley 

E. Dowdy; W. M. Dickerson. 

Claude M. East; Russell East. 

Andrew Jackson Fears; Sam. S. Flippen; J. N. Foster; 
H. Leonard Fulcher ; Roland Scott Franklin ; H. T. Ferguson ; 
John W. Ferguson; *Henry Fowlkes. 

William Gaunce ; James Sherman Goodrich ; Watson Wo- 
mack Gray ; Thomas H. Garnett ; H. A. Glenn ; N. I. Gibson ; 
N. C. Gallier; I. Peyton Glenn; F. T. Glenn; Ulysses O. 
Gunter; Isaac C. Glenn. 

E. H. Herzig; Thos. G. Hardy; W. A. Holt; W. W. 
Hughes; J. C. Hopkins; W. Edward Hines; W. Eleaser 
Hughes ; J. B. Holt ; Harry E. Hamilton ; B. G. Hood ; Henry 
Hancock: Alfred E. Inge; L. P. Inge. 

204 History of Prince Edward County 

R. W. Jones; J. N. Jennings; Ernest L. Jennings; Ed- 
ward L. Jennings. 

G. W. Kennedy. 

W. E. Lee; Berry Lee; J. V. Lewis; Joseph H. Lewis, 
Jr.; Herman Levy. 

Richard Lee Morton; Mark A. Moffett; R. E. Moffett; 
M. R. Mays; T. J. Mcllwaine; W. H. Mason; Charles W. 
Mason; R. F. Mann; William Conway Morris; D. C. Morris; 
John A. Morris. 

C. M. Noel; Finley N. Nelson. 

F. L. Orange ; J. J. Overton ; L. N. Oliver ; Otto Oliver. 

William R. Price ; C. A. Price, Jr. ; Joseph A. Poole ; M. 
M. Ponton; G. D. Pickett; Haywood Pollard; Robert H. 

Gates Randolph Richardson ; Joe Edmund Rogers ; James 
G. Redford ; Sam H. Rodgers. 

Willie Mann Scott; T. B. Scott; Frank Commer Shultz; 
William Thomas Straley; L. D. Simpson; F. G. Shultz; 
*Phil B. Swan; L. A. Snow; G. E. Shorter; C. L. Stuart; 
Hutch Stowe; Nunnally Smith. 

John Daniel Thomas; W. E. Tomlinson; Pitzer S. Turns; 
Oscar Thompson. 

James B. Vaughan. 

Robert Earle Warwick ; Thomas Edward Webster ; Harry 
Eastley Whalley ; John Hugh Whalley ; Lee Carrington Whal- 
ley; Oscar Hamet Whitten; James William Wilson, Jr.; 
Howard F. Weaver; Cecil F. Walker; Charles T. Walker; H. 
E. Walker; G. L. Walker; S. N. Wood; Gene B. Walker: 
Sam M. Weaver; Alfred Wolter. 

* Signifies those who died in Service. 

History of Prince Edward County 205 


Ernest Allen; Jean Anderson; Willie Adams. 

J. P. Bondiirant; Charles Bates; Richard B. Bates; Eu- 
gene Budd; J. Spencer Burger. 

W. G. Carter; James Cowan; Melvin Childress: Robert 
T. Cocks ; Morris Conway ; Leslie Carwile ; Martin Covington ; 
J. G. Crenshaw; Charles B. Crute; A. B. Crawley; A. L. 

Berlin Driskill; W. G. Dunnington; Wallace Duvall; 
A. R. Dunkum; W. C. Davis; E. M. Dickerson; Jack Dun- 

Reid Edmunds; J. Watson Elliott. 

Pierce Farr; H. G. Farley; James D. Fowlkes. 

Ernest Garland; T. A. Gray, Jr.; Thomas D. Glenn; 
Everett Garber. 

T. A. Hubbard; H. J. Hubbard; C. W. Hubbard; C. A. 
M. Hubbard ; Hunter C. Harris ; Willard Hart ; Robert Hund- 

Jack Irving. 

Hicl?s Ligon; Massie Lowe; Hatcher Layne; Haynes 
Lancaster; Clarence F. Lynn; Stanley R. Legus. 

*Dan A. Mcintosh; Henry L. Moore; Percy Moring; 
Cumfy Mottley; McGinnis. 

Bernard Oliver; Walter Overton. 

Walter A. Palmore ; Thomas G. Price. 

J. Maxwell Robeson; Clyde V. Ransom; Robert Richard- 
son; Walter Richardson; *Dewitt Riggins; Floyd Rosser. 

Ed. Shorter; Joel Sheppard. 

Elmer R. Tomlinson ; Henry C. Thompson ; T. A. Tweedy. 

Petit Venable; Reginald Venable; W. A. Vernon; A. 
E. Vaughan. 

Frank Nat Watkins; Sam W. Watkins; Louis Whitlock; 
E. Dixie Wilkinson. 

Earle Homer Young. 

*Sis:nifies those who died in Service. 

206 History of Prince Edward County 




*F. A. Allen; R. W. Bugg; J. S. Q. Carson; G. E. Coff- 
man; K. Drummeller ; T. J. Headlee; J. A. Jones; R. C. 
Moore; J. W. Putney; W. E. Smith; J. M. Watkins. 

* Signifies those who died in Service. 

History of Prince Edward County 207 


William H. Anderson; James Armistead; C. H. Ander- 
son; Luther Allen; J. N. Anderson. 

Wesley Bedford; Leonard P. Bedford; Willis Berry; 
Henry T. Brown; Charles William Brown; Lancaster Brown; 
Fred Baker; John Baker; Phillip Bland; Wesley Brown; 
Floyd Brown; John Brown; Howard Brown; Archer Brown; 
Hunter Brown; R. W. Brown; J. H. Brown; S. J. Brown; 
Eddie Brown; Percy Brown; Royall Brown; Thomas B, 
Blue; Clarence Blanton; Eddie Berry; Edward Beverley; 
Willie Baker; Charles Banks; Waverley Burr; J. C. Berry- 
man; Robert Baldwin; Ernest L. Berryman; William Beas- 
ley ; *Richard Lee Biggers ; A^ernon Bartee ; Cavel Barksdale ; 
Norvel Brown; William Booker. 

Roy Carthorn; John Cheatham; James Clarke; Berkley 
Carthorn; Joe Coles; William Clarke; J. H. Cromwell; Paul 
Coleman; Emmett Crute; James Carter; Albert Casey; Wil- 
lie Clark; Morton Couch. 

Amos Dickerson; James S. Doswell; George Daniel; H. 
A. Dodson; Edgar Durphey; Champ Dupuy; Walter Davis. 

Willie Ellis; Willie Ellis; Tom Evans; Charles Ellis; 
Paul Ellis; Johnny Evans; Alfred Eggleston. 

Fletcher Felton; Clinton Felton; Jeff Foster; Henry 
Foster; Sam Foster; Spencer Flournoy; Peter Freeman; 
Robert Foster ; George Fultz ; William Ford ; Robert Fowlkes ; 
Robert Flournoy; James Ford; John L. Fears; Solomon 
Fore; Lewis Flagg; Frank Farley; W. L. Fowlkes; John 
Freeman; Edward Flagg. 

James Gans; Floyd Glenn; Phillip Alex Green; Lewis 
Washington Green; Ederick S. Green; Wiley Ghee; John 
H. Giles; Herbert Green; Laban Green; Horace Green; John 
Goode ; Frank Gales ; Reese Gordon ; John D. Thomas Galiier. 

208 History of Prince Edward County 

Nathan Harvey; Clarence O. Hilton; Philip Arlie Hil- 
ton; Richard Arthur Hilton; Walter Samuel Hurt; Floyd 
Harris; Vernon Haskins; * Charles Harris; Wiley Haskins; 
Charles Haskins; W. Sanders Hines; James Hicks; John 
Haskins ; Pompey Harrison ; J. W. Holmes ; Randolph 
Harrison; Johnny Hurt; Spencer Hurt; Simie HoUey; Wal- 
ter Hayes; Adam Hicks; John S. Hendricks. 

George James; John Jeffries; John Henry Jordan; 
Mathew Johnson; Tom Johnson; Wiley Johnson; Joe John- 
son; Herman Johnson; Albert Johnson, Jr.; C. T. John- 
son; Henry Johnson; Johnny Johnson; George Johnson; 
Clem Johnson; Elijah Johnson; Benj. F. Jones; Henry T. 
Jones; Henry Jones; Thomas Jones; Jim Jenkins; Nineveh 
Jones ; Eddie Jones ; J. H. Jones ; Alex Jones ; Jasper Jones ; 
Champ Jones; Charles Jones; H. E. Johns; Durvan Jack- 
son; Nelson Jeffries; Lee Jackson; Ulysses Jackson: Clinton 
Jackson; Chester A. Jeffries; Emmett Jackson; J. M. Jack- 

Willie Knight; Homer Kelsor. 

Freebelle I^ee; Lightfoot Lacy; Robert Lacy; Armistead 
Lambert; James A. Lewis; C. Henry Lewis; George Lucas; 
Bascom Ligon; G. H. Ligon; Herman Ligon; Thaniel Lock- 
ett; Frank Lile; Jesse Logan. 

Walter A. Marshall ; Edward Marshall ; Racey Matthews : 
Every Morton; William Morton; Junius Morton; Fred Mor- 
ton; Taze Morton; Floyd Morton; Edward Miles; Clyde 
Mayo ; Vandterbilt Miller ; N. P. Miller ; Ned Marshall ; John 
Marshall; T. H. Matthews; Joe Moore; David E. Moseley. 

John Clarence Paige; Joe Pascal; Richard Payne, War- 
ren P. Pryor; George T. Pryor; Waverley Pry or; James 
Pryor; H. T. Patterson; Oscar Palmore; William Payne. 

HaiT'son Randolph, Frank James Redd; Moses Ran- 
dolph; Ulysses Joe Randolph; Henry A. Redd; Romeo Ran- 

History of Prince Edward County 209 

dall; John Richardson; Robert Rux; C. H. Robinson; Frank 
J. Redd; Flan Redd; James Redd; Thomas Redd; Ed Redd; 
Sam Redd; John Robertson; James H. Reed; Sam Reed. 

Lurtie Scott; Henry Scott; Edward Scott; Albert Scott; 
Prudential Scott; Cleveland Scott; Matthew Scott; Richard 
Scott; Richard Scott; John Smith; George Smith; Sam 
Simms; George Street; Vester Smith; Tom Stith; Oakley 
H. Sanders. 

Ellis Thomas; James Thornton; *Henry Threat; Watt 
Threat; Warren P. Thompson; Fred Taylor; McKinley 
Tucker: John Trent; Robert Terry; John P. Towns; Sam 
Trent; Frank Topp. 

Jimmy Yenable. 

Henry Watkins; Alex Watson; Truly Watson; William 
Whit; Harrison Williams; Percy C. Womack; Willie Wood- 
son; Clevelanld; Walker; Wiley Waller; John Wingfield; 
Monroe Watkins; Walter Watson; Bennie Walden; H. W. 
Walker; Ed Williams: Norfleet Ward; Stardie Ward; Rich- 
ard Woodson; Harrison West; Clem Warren; Emmett War- 
ren; Hilary Wilson; Robert Winston; Edmund Watson; Ed- 
ward Winston; Dennis Walker; Branch Washington; Charles 

Willie Young. 

*Siirnifies those who died in Service. 

210 History of Prince Edward County 


Dorsey Anderson; Paul Anderson; Claud M. Allen. 

Nelson Baker; Charlie Baker; Willis H. Branch; Harvey 
Brown; Anderson Brown; Dominion Brown; Herbert Brown; 
Robert Booker; Wesley Booker; Wayman Brown; John Sim 

Charles Cooper. 

Henderson Davis; Edward Davis; Jack Dupuy. 

W. D. Elam; Robert Anderson Ellis. 

Samuel Fowlkes. 

Levi Green; Burnett Griggs; A. S. Green. 

Norman A. Hairston ; Lindsey Hays ; Spencer Hurt ; Her- 
bert Hines: George Hill; James Hall. 

Ernest L. Johns; Mesles Johnson; Neal Johnson; James 
Johnson; Cleveland Johnson; Nelson Jordan, Jr.; Arthur 

Coley Lewis; Paige Lancaster; Daniel Logan; Wm. H. 
Logan; Paul Layne; Joe Ligon. 

James Miller; Preston Miller; Haskins Mosely; LaFay- 
ette Munford; Sam Matthews. 

Olney Pry or. 

Munford Richardson; Lud Roberts. 

Sam Sims. 

Charles Terry; Alfred Thornton. 

Thomas Watts; Joseph Walker; Shirley Walker; Peniell. 
Watkins; Harry Watkins; Jefferson J. Wilson; Burley Wil- 
son; Leonard Wilson; Nat Ward; *Dick Ward; C. H. Wade; 
Robert Womack; Clyde Woodson; Howard White. 

*Signifies those who died in Service. 

tSt^t (HlfixrtlftB 0f JPrtnr? lE&tttarli Qlountg 

1. The Baptists in Prince Edward County. (General 


The Farmville Baptist Church. 

Pisgah Baptist Church. (Rice.) 

Mount Nebo Baptist Church. 

Sharon Baptist Church. (Sandy River.) 

Spring Creek Baptist Church. 

l^ethpeor Baptist Church. 

2. The Episcopal Church in Prince Edward County. 

(General History.) 

John's Memorial. (Farmville.) 
Five Forks. 

3. The Methodist Episcopal Church in Prince Edward 

County. (General History.) 

The Farmville M. E. Church. 
The Prospect M. E. Church. 
Olive Branch M. E. Church. 
Salem M. E. Church. (Rice.) 

4. The Presbyterian Church in Prince Edward 
County. (General History.) 

The Farmville Presbyterian Church. 

College Presbyterian Church. (Hampden-Sidney.) 

Jamestown Presbyterian Church. (Rice.) 

5. Disciples of Christ. Liberty Church. 
G. Colored Churches. 

History of Prince Edward County 213 



The first Baptist Church established' in Virginia, was the 
Burleigh Church in Isle of Wight County (now known as 
the Mill Swamp Baptist Church), organized in, or about the 
year of 1714. (McClothlin.) 

Long before the Revolutionary War, the Baptists in Vir- 
ginia had reached considerable numbers and had acitdnei 
some prominence and prestige. 

The following from the Manuscript Journal of the House 
of Delegates, 1773-1774, suggests something of the prominence 
they had already attained : 

Thursday, the 12th of May, 14 George III., 1774.— "A 
petition of sundry persons of the community of Christians 
called Baptists, and other Protestant dissenters, whose names 
are thereto subscribed, was presented to the House, and read, 
setting forth that the toleration proposed by the bill, ordered 
at the last session of the General Assembly to be printed 
and published, not admitting public worship except in the 
daytime, is inconsistent with the laws of England, as well as 
the practice and usage of the primitive Churches, and even 
of the English Church itself : that the night session may some- 
times be better spared by the petitioners from the necessary 
duties of their callings, and that they wish for no indulgences 
which ma}^ disturb the peace of Government," etc. 

What action the House took on the Petition is not stated 
in the Journal. 

That they, at that time, interested themselves in questions 
of public moment is evident from an Address presented by 
them to Patrick Jlenry upon the occasion of his first eleva- 

214 History of Prince Edward County 

tion as Governor of Virginia. Of all the congratulatory mes- 
sages received by him at that time, probably none came so 
straight from the heart as did this one from the distressed 
and persecuted dissenters in Virginia, called Baptists, who 
had learned, in many an hour of bitter need, to look upon him 
as their strong and valiant champion, in the Legislature and 
in the Courts. He was not of their persuasion, being him- 
self an Episcopalian, nevertheless, on August 12, 1776, "the 
ministers and delegates of the Baptist churches" of the State, 
being met in Convention at Louisa, sent him the following 
Address : 

advancement to the honorable and important station as Gov- 
ernor of this Commonwealth affords us unspeakable pleasure 
we beg leave to present your Excellency with our most cor- 
dial congratulations. 

"Your public virtues are such that we are under no temp- 
tation to iiatter you. Virginia has done honor to her judg- 
ment in appointing your Excellency to hold the reins of gov- 
ernment at this truly critical conjuncture, as you have al- 
ways distinguished yourself by your zeal and activity for 
her welfare, in whatever department has been assigned to 

"As a religious community, we have nothing to request 
of you. Your constant attachment to the glorious cause of 
liberty and the right of conscience, leaves us no room to doubt 
your Excellency's favorable regards while we worthily de- 
mean ourselves. 

"May God Almighty continue you long, very long, a 
public blessing to this your native country, and, after a 
life of usefulness here, crown you with immortal felicity in 
the world to come. 

Signed by order: Jeremiah Walker, Moderator. 
John Williams, Clerk." 

History of Prince Edward County 215 

To this loving and touching address, the Governor re- 
plied, on the very next day, in an off-hand letter, showing 
deep feeling and a very natural gratification: — 


•'GENTLEMEN, — I am exceedingly obliged to you for 
your very kind address, and the favorable sentiments you 
are pleased to entertain respecting my conduct and the prin- 
ciples which have directed it. My constant endeavor shall 
be to guard the rights of all my fellow-citizens from every 

"I am happy to find a catholic spirit prevailing in our 
country, and that those religious distinctions, which formerly 
produced some heat, are now forgotten. Happy must every 
friend to virtue and America feel himself, to perceive that 
the only contest among us, at the most critical and important 
period, is, who shall be foremost to preserve our religious 
and civil liberties. 

"My most earnest wish is, that Christian charity, for- 
bearance, and love, may unite all our different persuasions, 
as brethren who must perish or triumph together; and I 
trust that the time is not far distant when we shall greet 
each other as the peaceable possessors of that just and equal 
system of liberty adopted by the last convention, and in sup- 
port of which may God crown our arms with success. 

"I am, gentlemen, your most obedient and very humble 
servant, P. Henry, Jun. 

August 13, 1776" 

(American Arch., i. 905, 906.) 

The Baptist churches of Prince Edward county, main- 
tain membership in the Appomattox Association. This As- 

216 History of Prince Edward County 

elation grew out of the old Middle District Association, which, 
at a meeting held at Rice's station (its second) on May 9, 1785, 
sent out the Meherrin, and the Appomattox Associations, 
itself retaining the name of Middle District Association. 

The first meeting of the newly formed Appomattox As- 
sociation was held in Prince Edward county, at Wallrer's 
Church the same year. Four of the churches forming the 
new Association were located in Prince Edward ; viz : Rocks, 
organized 1772; Appomattox, 1773; Sailor Creek, 1781; and, 
Mountain Creek, 1788. Of these four, only Rocks and Ap- 
pomattox remain, but are now, by reason of a later county 
division, both in Appomattox county. 

The meeting house of Sailor Creek Church was located 
about one-half mile from Rice on the road leading to Farm- 
ville. It was destroyed by a cyclone in 1832. On August 15, 
1857, Pisgah Church, (Rice) was formed at Union, and, in 
1881 moved to their present building at Rice's Station. Pis- 
gah is thus the lienal descendant of Sailor Creek Church. 

The Mountain Creek Church has passed out of the 
memory of the present generation. The Church building is 
supposed to have stood about two and a half miles northwest 
of Green Bay station, in Prince Edward county. 

It is considered probable that Sandy River Church, 
(Sharon) formed in 1827, and situated about five miles dis- 
tant, absorbed the membership of the Mountain Creek Church. 

A severe controversy arose in 1832-1834, between the 
Methodists and the Baptists, over the building occupied by 
the Baptists at Sandy River, which ended by the Baptists 
retaining possession. 

The following Baptist Churches are located in Prince 
Edward county: 

History of Prince Edward County 217 

Bagby Memorial. 



Mount Nebo. 

Pisgah. (Rice) 

Sharon. (Sandy River) 

Spring Creek. 

218 Hhtory of Prince Edward County 


For several years prior to 1903 preaching services were 
held at a little schoolhouse hard-by the site upon which stands 
the place of worship of this congregation. It is known that 
J. R. Doan, now pastor of the Baptist Church at South 
Boston, while pastor of the Burkeville Baptist Church, and 
F. W. Moore, now pastor of the Second Baptist Church, 
Petersburg, Virginia, both went time and again to preach at 
this school house. Especial interest was shown in the spirit- 
ual needs of the people of this neighborhood, by Dr. George 
R. Bagby, while he was pastor of the Baptist Church at 
Farmville, Virginia. 

On April 18, 1903, Rev. Dr. W. J. Shipman; Rev. W. 
Moseley Seay ; and F. L. Overton, effected the organization of 
a Baptist Church here, to be known as the Bagby Memorial 
Baptist Church, the name being given in honor of Dr. George 
R. Bagby, of Farmville. Mr. Seay became the first pastor 
of the new Church. The Rev. W. B. Daugherty followed Mr. 
Seay and served during 1904-5. Then followed Rev. Z. J. 
Edge, 1906; Rev. W. T. Woodhouse, 1907-8, returning to 
serve from 1910 to 1917. The Rev. Dr. J. M. Pilcher was 
supply pastor for a term of months in 1909. Beginning No- 
vember 1, 1917, the Rev. Dr. John E. White has been the 

The Church had but few charter members and was ad- 
mitted into the Appomattox Association of Baptist Churches 
in 1904. 

The first deacons were : J. C. Moring; P. N. Jenkins; W. 
V. Clements; and W. T. Gibbs. Its present deacons are: C. 
L. Elliott; G. P. Nunnally; J. R. Moring; E. P. Johnson; 
and A. Lee cook. 

History of Prince Edward County 219 

The present membership of the Church is ninety-nine. 

The Church building occupies a desirable and well lo- 
cated site, about three and a half miles from Burkeville and 
near to the road which leads from that town to Farmville, 
and is valued at about $850. 

The Church was represented by three of its young men 
in the great war. Daniel K. Harris, son of the Kev. D. J. 
Harris, went to Camp Lee, but was soon transferred to a 
hospital suffering with tuberculosis. Later he returned to 
his father's home in Prince Edward county, and early in 
1920, died in Eoanoke, Virginia. 

James Oscar Thompson enlisted at Farmville, September 
10, 1918, and saw service in France. 

J. Grady Redfford entered Camp Lee in September, 
1917. In February, 1919, he was returned from France, 
having been severely wounded in the right shoulder and arm. 
He was discharged from the hospital in August, 1919. He 
was with the 318th Infantry Regiment, 80th Division. 

220 History of Prince Edward County 


The Farmville Baptist Church was organized, Novem- 
ber 25, 1836, by the Rev. William Moore, who remained its 
Minister from that date until 1840. In a brief historical 
sketch by the late Dr. Peter Winston, it is noted that Sam 
and Phil White (colored) were the first members of the 

B. M. Robertson; Frank Robertson; W. Nunnally; and 
G. Nunnally were the first deacons of the Church, and the 
following were registered as charter members: 

Benjamin M. Robertson; 
Mrs. E. R. Robertson; 

C. E. Chappell; 
Mrs. A. B. Chappell; 
Miss Mary Harwood; 
M. Grigg; 

Mrs. Edith Mann; 

Mrs. Jane Williams; 

Granville Nunnally; 

Mrs. Betsy Nunnally; 

Washington Nunnally; 

Mrs. Judith Nunnally; 

Jeremiah Porter; 

Mrs. Jeremiah Porter; 

Reuben Seay; 

Royall Godsey; 

Mrs. Delilah Godsey; 

Thomas J. Valentine; 

Shelton Davis; 

Mrs. Mary Davis; 

Mandy Porter; 

Samuel White; (colored) 

Phil White; (colored). 23 in all. 

The Rev. William Moore, the first pastor, was assisted 

History of Prince Edward County 221 

in the organization of the Church by the Revs. Daniel Witt, 
and Elijah Roach. 

The Church building was finished within a year and in 
1837, was formally dedicated to the worship of Grod, by the 
celebrated Rev. Daniel Witt, whose remains lie buried in 
the little graveyard of the Sandy River Baptist Church, 
some eight miles distant from Farmville. 

The first Church building, a modest structure, continued 
to meet the needs of the new congregation until 1856, when, 
during the pastorate of the Rev. James Hay, a new building 
was erected on the present site, and formally dedicated in 
February of that year by the Rev. Dr. T. G. Jones. 

This second building continued to serve the needs of 
the congregation until 1912, when the present beautiful and 
finely equipped Church building and Sunday School plant 
was erected during the pastorate of the Rev. Willis L. 
Wayts, and formally dedicated to Divine worship on Novem- 
ber 1, 1914, by the Rev. Dr. G. W. Ferryman, of Norfolk, 
Va., who offered' the dedicatory prayer and preached the ser- 
mon of the day. Dr. Ferryman was assisted in these im- 
pressive services by the Rev. H. M. Fugate, a former pastor, 
and by the then pastor, the Rev. Willis L. Wayts. The total 
cost of the plant, according to a minute upon the Church 
Register of January 3, 1915, was $24,033.93, without pipe 
organ and other furnishings. Under the same date there 
is an entry regarding a payment on pipe organ and furnish- 
ings of $1,255.32, in a report presented by Mrs. (Dr.) R. L. 
Hudgins, treasurer of the Fipe Organ Fund. 

From tlie completion of the new Church building, the 
congregation has enjoyed an almost phenomenal growth, so 
that the premises are already too circumscribed for the large 
congregations. The property is situated on Main Street, in 
the very heart of the business section of the city. 

The current issue of the minutes of the Appomattox As- 

222 History of Prince Edward County 

sociation of Baptist Churches gives the following interest- 
ing figures regarding this Church as reported at the As- 
sociational Meeting held with the Maple Grove Baptist 
Church, July 19-20, 1921 : 

Membership of the Church 504 

Baptisms for the year „ „ 56 

Total new members received during the year 101 
Sunday School enrollment 397 

Sunday School income » $ 430.57 

Church income, total from all sources 14,014.00 
Benevolence, (included in above total) 3,755.62 
Per capita, (including all depts.) 27.80 

Value of Church building 35,000 

Value of parsonage 8,000 

Total. $43,000 

The following ministers have served the Church since 
its inception: 

Kev. William Moore, 1836-1840. Organized the Church 
and built the first Church building, 1836. 

Kev. James H. Fox, 1840-1842. 

Rev. Thomas W. Syndor, 1842-44. 

Rev. James W. Goodman, 1844-1846. 

Rev. Robert Nowlin, 1846-1848. 

Rev. Wiliam SedlgwicK, 1848i-1849. Served only six 

Rev. William Tyree, 1849-1852. 

Rev. James Hay, 1852-1858. It was during his pasto- 
rate that the second Church building was erected, 1856. 

Rev. S. C. Boston, 1858-1859. 

Rev. A. J. Huntington, 1859-1862. 

Rev. Robert East, 1862-1865. 

History of Prince Edward County 223 

Rev. S. C. Boston, 1865-1867. Second pastorate. 

Rev. N. W. Wilson, 1867-1869. Died of yellow fever in 
North Carolina. 

Rev. H. J. Handy, 1869-1875. Died in Maryland. 

Rev. James Nelson, D. D., 1875-1885. Was the organizer 
of the State Normal School for women, Farmville, and later 
was President of the Woman's College, Richmond, Va. Died, 

Rev. W. F. Kone, 1885-1891. Died in Kentucky. 

Rev. George F. Bagby, D. D., 1891-1899. Died of cancer. 

Rev. Samuel H. Thompson, 1900-1904. Died of cancer. 

Rev. R. A. McFarland, 1904-1906. Went to Seminary. 

Rev. J. D. Harte, 1906-1907. Served for only four 
months. Resigned; ill-health. 

Rev. Henry M. Fugate, 1907-1911. 

Rev. Willis L. Wayts, 1912-1915. Resigned; ill health. 
It was during his pastorate that the present edifice was 

Rev. Cosby M. Robertson, A. B., B. D., 1916-1918. Re- 
signed to enter Navy as Chaplain during the Great War. 

Rev. C. Edward Burrell, LL. B., D. D., 1919. Came to 
the Church from Camp Lee, where he served as Chaplain 
during the Great War, and is still with the Church. 

The present officers of the Church (1921) are: 

Rev. C. Edward Burrell, LL. B., D. D., Minister. 

Dr. J. H. Cocks, Clerk. 

R. C. Gilliam, Corresponding Secretary. 

L. A. Smith, Treasurer. 

C. A. Kennedy, Financial Secretary. 

E. L. Erambert, Honorary Deacon. 

J. A. Armisted; E. W. Sanford; C. M. Smith; Anderson 
Ligon; Frank Pillow; Dr. J. H. Cocks; W. C. Fallwell; T. 

224 History of Prince Edward County 

H. Fallwell; K. W. Noel; O. S. Mann; S. W. Putney; L. 
A. Smith, Deacons. 

Mesdames J. L. Horner, R. W. Noel; J. L. Putney; E. 
W. Ellington: Colin Stokes; J. A. Armistead; W. P. Gilliam, 

Mrs. W. B. Hobson, Organist. 

T. H. Fallwell, Missionary Treasurer. 

J. L. Putney, Chairman Finance Committee. 

William H. Crenshaw, Chairman Property Committee. 

G. S. Thomas, Chairman Missionary Committee. 

E. W. Sanford, Chairman Music Committee. 

Fred Butcher, Chief Usher. 

M. W. Whitlock, Assistant Chief Usher. 

R. C. Gilliam and S. W. Putney, Auditors. 

W. C. Fallwell, Sunday School Superintendent. 

This Church had sixteen (16) men in the various 
branches of the service during the great war, 1914-1918. 

The Rev. Cosby M. Robertson, B. A.; B. D., pastor of 
the Church at the outbreak of hostilities, resigned his pas- 
torate to become Chaplain in the Navy, in which position he 
served throughout the war, with the rank of Captain. 

Dr. J. H. Cocks, the Clerk of the Church, entered the 
service with the rank of 1st Lieutenant. He was later trans- 
ferred to the dental branch. He received his commission 
as Captain, on the field during the fighting in the Argonne 
Woods, where he was wounded. 

William H. Crenshaw, received his commission as 1st 
Lieutenant, from the Officers Training School but did not 
succeed in getting overseas. 

Henry A. Kelsey was appointed Sergeant. 

Lawrie W. Thompson was made a Corporal. 

The following served as Privates : T. H. Crenshaw : Gtir- 

History of Prince Edward County 225 

land Hurst; Walter S. Overton; Peter Kaymond; Harry S. 
Thompson; Gary M. Smith, Jr.; John W. Webster; M. Guy 
Smith; T. Elbert Osborne; F. L. Magann; J. W. Mottley; C. 
M. Noel. 

All these men, save Lieutenant William H. Crenshaw, 
and private Gary M. Smith, Jr., F. L. Magann, and C. 
M. Noel, saw service overseas. 

Privates Guy M. Smith, and John W. Webster were 
killed in action, and T. Elbert Osborne died of wounds re- 
ceived in battle. 

The present pastor of the Ghurch, the Kev. Gharles 
Edward Burrell, LL. B., D. D., was stationed at Gamp Lee 
during 1918-19 in the capacity of special Gamp Ghaplain. 

One of the women of the Church, Miss L. Wheeler, saw 
service overseas with the Red Gross. 

Throughout the war the general attitude of the Church 
was fervently patriotic. All Federal requests for announce- 
ments and discourses were most heartily responded to. 
Special prayers for soldpers and sailors were continually 
oifered and several patriotic services were held. A service 
flag was erected and there was a formal dedication of the 
same, and the national colors were displayed. The Women's 
Organizations, together with the Men's Bible Class, co- 
operated in welfare work for men in uniform. A special 
memorial service for those who died in service was held. 
Food conservation was urged from the pulpit and practised 
by the membership of the Ghurch in a general way, and they 
participated most heartily in the work of war charities, both 
at home and abroad, by way of special offerings, collections, 

This Church was the first in the county to fittingly com- 
memorate the service rendered by the members of its congre- 
gation in the war. This was done by the erection of a suit- 

226 History of Prince Edward County 

able tablet in the main auditorium of the building. Ex- 
cerpts from the report of the unveiling ceremonies, which 
appeared in the Farmville "Herald" of November 18, 1921, 
follow: "On last Sunday afternoon at 3:80, very appropri- 
ate services were held at the unveiling of the tablet dedi- 
cated to the boys who were in the service durinof the late 
war. A beautiful service was conducted by the American 
Legion, accompanied by the Farmville Silver Band: -^^ 
Farmville Guard being the guard of honor. * * * The 
tablet is made of white Rutland marble, twenty inches wide 
and four and one-half feet long. The names of Millard G. 
Smith, John W. Webster and Thomas Osborne, the three 
boys from the Baptist Church who made the Supreme Sac- 
rifice, are carved in gold. Those in the service were, Revs. 
Robertson and Burrell, J. H. Cocks, W. H. Crenshaw, 
Henry A. Kelsey, Lawrie W. Thompson, Thos. H. Cren- 
shaw, Raymond E. Phillips, Dallas G. Hurst, Walter S. 
Overton, Peter Raymond, Henry S. Thompson, Cary M. 
Smith, Jr., Joel W. Mottley, and Charles M. Noel. 

"The presentation address was delivered by Dr. J. D. 
Eggleston, of Hampden- Sidney College, who paid tribute to 
those who had so nobly served their countrjs and the many 
who had died to save Christianity, Democracy and the world 
from the despotic heel of an unscrupulous beast. * * * 

"The Star Spangled Banner was rendered by the band, 
following which the American Legion Service was continued, 
including acceptance address by Commander J. H. Cocks, 
prayer of dedication by Chaplain Burrell, and dedication by 
Commander J. H. Cocks. The services concluded with the 
benediction by Chaplain Burrell." 

The tablet was unveiled by the Misses Lucy Lee Webster 
and Blanche Smith, sisters of two of the men who were 
killed in battle. 

History of Prince Edward County 227 

Others to take part in the service were, the Rev. Dr. E. 
G. Gammon, the Rev. Dr. George Spooner, and the Rev. 
Frederick Diehl. The Baptist Church Choir, Miss Evelyn 
Barnes, and Joseph A. Poole, rendered special music. 

228 History of Prince Edward County 


Only the most meagre outline of the history of Pisgah 
Baptist Church, Rice, Va., is available, all Church records 
prior to about fifteen years ago being lost. Much of the in- 
cidental history regarding Baptist work in this section of 
the county is, however, given in the general article on Bap- 
test churches in the county. The following brief sketch is 
furnished by Mr. J. R. Weaver, one of the oldest surviving 
members of the Church. 

Pisgah Church was constituted at Union Church, in 
Prince Edward county, about two miles east of Rice Sta- 
tion, in 1857. 

Union Church was known as a free Church, that is, it 
was free to all denominations. The celebrated Daniel Witt, 
D. D., was the pastor until his death in 1871. 

1872. Rev. S. J. Adkins was pastor for five or six years. 

1878. Rev. J. H. Newbill was pastor for two or three 

1880. Rev. J. A. Leslie was pastor for about five years. 
It was during the ministry of Mr. Leslie that the Church 
moved to Rice and erected a new house of worship there. 
They have since then retained the property then purchased. 

1886. Rev. W. B. Haislip was pastor for two or three 

1889. Rev. J. W. Wildman was pastor for about four 

1894. Rev. W. R. D. Moncure was pastor for two or 
three years. 

181)G. Rev. E. M. Dowley was pastor for two or three 

1898. Rev. A. B. Rudd was pastor tor five months, re- 
signing to accept Missionary work in Porto Rico. 

Uistory of Prince Edward County 229 

1898. Kev. G. F. Bagby, D. D., was pastor for about 
two years. 

1901. Rev. W. J. Shipman was pastor until his death, 
August, 1915. 

From 1915 the Church was served by supplies from 
various sources, until 1917, when, January 1st of that year, 
the Rev. Horace J. Parker assumed the pastorate, remain- 
ing until June 30, 1920. The Rev. George F. Cook assumed 
the pastorate on September 1st, 1920 and resigned, Sep- 
tember 26, 1921. 

The present Church officers are: Trustees: J. S. Brad- 
shaw, B. J. Olgers, and J. R. Weaver. Deacons: J. S. 
Bradshaw, S. D. Hubbard, B. J. Olgers, R. B. Walthall, J. 
R. Weaver, and J. W. Bradshaw. 

Treasurer: S. D. Hubbard. 

Apportionment Treasurer: J. S. Bradshaw. 

Sunday School Superintendent: B. J. Olgers. 

Clerk: J. R. Weaver. 

The following report of the war activities of the Church 
was furnished the War History Commission, by the then pas- 
tor, the Rev. H. J. Parker : "There were seven men who served 
in the Army from this Church, and their names are as fol- 
lows: William T. Bondurant, John C. Bondurant, William 
Hester Bondurant, R. Melve Bradshaw, Herbert Guj^ Far- 
lej^ Thomas Howard Gamett, John Edward Gamett. 

The only one in the Navy was James W. Wilson, Jr. 

Herbert Guy Farley saw active service and was slightly 
wounded at Argonne Forest. Thomas Howard Garnett and 
John Edward Garnett also saw active service. 

The general attitude of this Church was one of loyalty 
toward war activities. The members united heartily in the 

230 History of Prince Edward County 

National Prayer Observance and other Spiritual activities. 
Federal requests for anouncements were frequently made by 
the pastor at the regular preaching services. There was 
displayed in the main auditorium, a service flag. 

The Church heartily participated in war charities at 
home and abroad by way of specal collections. Members of 
the congregation strictly observed set rules in order to con- 
serve food and fuel during the war." 

History of Prince Edward County 231 


This Church is situated near the Abilene Post Office, on 
the county line road, between Prince Edward and Charlotte 

A partially successful attempt was made to organize on 
the 29th of November, 1903, but the organization languished 
until a more thorough organization was effected on the 1st 
of July, 1904. 

The following pastors have served the Church: 

Rev. J. B. Williams; June, 1904- July, 1906. 

Rev. George R. Pankey; November, 1906- January, 1910. 

Rev. J. E. Tucker; March, 1910-May, 1911. 

Rev. P. H. Dalton; June, 1911- August, 1911. 

Rev. John E. White; February, 1912- January, 1916. 

Rev. J. A. Barnhardt; April, 1916-March, 1920. 

Rev. W. F. Hunt; May, 1920- August, 1920. 

Rev. G. A. Harris, present supply. 

The Rev. W. E. Warren was serving the field when the 
Church was organized, 1903. 

Deacons: J. R. Pollard; J. W. Pankey; T. B. Yeamen; 
and P. A. Denton. 

Clerk: O. L. Vassar. 

Treasurer: C. E. Bagby. 

These officers are serving the Church at the present time. 

The present membership of the Church is 72. 

The following is the charter membership list of the 
Church as of November 29, 1903: 

T. B. Yeamen, L. J. Yeamen, W. J. Yeamen, E. T. Yea- 
men, J. R. Pollard, J. W. Pankey, J. W. Bagby, J. W. 
Allen, D. C. Allen, Mrs. J. R. Pollard, Mrs. J. W. Bagby, 

232 History of Prince Edward County 

Mrs. Mary J. Driskill, Mrs. Nolia Baker, Mrs. Lizzie A. 
Nelson, Mrs. Bettie Womack, Mrs. J. W. Allen, Mrs. D. C. 
Allen, Mrs. Emma Daniel, Carrie Yeamen, Sallie Yeamen, 
Pearl Yeamen, Mary Sue Yeamen. 

History of Prince Edward County 


Most of the subjoined material respecting this splendid 
old Church was supplied by Professor W. A. Harris of Rich- 
mond University. The old records of the Church have all 
been either lost or destroyed so that recourse had to be had 
to the Baptist archives in Richmond and Dr. Harris under- 
took an exhaustive search of the materials stored there. He 
says : 

"In speaking of Prince Edward county, Jeter says : "The 
eastern, or lower, end of the county was quite destitute of 
evangelical, especially Baptist, preaching. Sandy River 
Church, an old framed, dilapidated, but spacious, colonial 
house of worship, occupied a central position in this region. 
It was open for preaching by all Christian denominations, 
and was occupied alternately by Rev. Jno. H. Rice, D. D., 
of the Presbyterian Church, and Rev. Matthew L. Dance, of 
the Methodist Church. Thither Divine Providence directed 
the steps of Witt. * * * His first sermon at Sandy 
River, as stated in the Memorial Discourse by Rev. T. W. 
Sydnor, D. D., delivered before the Appomattox Baptist As- 
sociation, was preached on the fourth Sunday in February, 
1827."— Life of Daniel Witt, by J. B. Jeter, pp. 146-7. 

"In 1828, Sharon is given, (in the Association minutes, 
for the first time) with Daniel Witt as pastor and 71 mem- 
bers. In 1829 there were 84 members, and in 1831, 226, and 
in 1833, 289 members. The number gradually increased un- 
til, in 1864 there were 606 members, white and colored. From 
then until 1871 the members reduced to 137. (Suggestive of 
the dire results of the war. — Ed.) 

"Daniel Witt was pastor of Sharon from its organization 
to his death, November 15th, 1871. Witt was succeeded in 
the pastorate by Rev. J. H. Newbill in 1872. 

234 Hutory of Prince Edward County 

"Under the caption: 'Concise View of the Churches,' 
I find these entries in the minutes of 1834-35: 

1834 — "Sharon is one of the most respectable churches 
in the upper country. Since its constitution, and the settle- 
ment of Elder D. Witt among them, it has been signally 
blessed. But the sickness of the minister's wife, and the dis- 
agreeable contentions with the Methodists, seem to have 
stopped their onward progress. They report no baptisms, but 
a dtecrease." 

1835 — "They are an active people, forwarding the reli- 
gious enterprises of the day. They have a temperance Society, 
a Domestic Missionary Society, a Foreign Missionary Society, 
and a Sunday School." 

"The following is from Jeter's life of Witt, pp. 160-61: 
''For many years' says Dr. Sydnor, in his Memorial Dis- 
course, 'he was pastor at Jamestown, in Cumberland, and 
at Union in Prince Edward ; and for a few years at Lebanon, 
in Nottoway,' the two latter of these churches, as well as 
the flourishing Church in the town of Farmville, claimed 
Sandy River; or Sharon; as their mother, and Dr. Witt as 
the principal agent in their organization." 

The controversy with the Methodists, referred to above by 
Dr. Harris, occurred in 1832-34, with respect to the building 
in which they had held their services jointly. During this 
dispute a line was surveyed directly through the building, 
the Methodists claiming one-half and the Baptists the other! 
Surely a difficult situation if the brethren were to dwell at 
peace in Zion ! The Baptists retained possession of the prop- 
erty. The matter was fully set out in a pamphlet of the day. 

From this Church there were but three who served in the 
x\rmy or Navy during the world war; viz: Heber Weaver 
and Moncure Weaver in the Army, and Carroll Melvin Bass 
in the Navy. Heber Weaver saw active service in France. 

History of Prince Edward County 235 

The entire membership of the Church responded in a 
most fervent manner to all war appeals, and in observance 
uf all conservation regulations. 

As this Church has been a part of the "field" with Pis- 
gah Church of Rice, ever since the days of the saintly Witt, 
the same pastors have served them both, therefore a list of 
the pastors may be found in the sketch of the Pisgah Church. 

The present pastor of both churches is the Rev. H. P. 
Dalton, who came to them, April 1st, 1922, from Boykins, 
Va., in succession to the Rev. G. F. Cook. 

The officers of the Church are: 

John H. Bruce, Clerk. 

D. J. Weaver, Treasurer. 

W. B. Gates, Sunday School Superintendent. 

J. J. Gilliam, D. J. Weaver, W. M. Gilliam, J. T. Bruce, 
C. M. Bass, and W. B. Gates, Deacons. 

236 History of Prince Edward County 


This Church was organized in 1823. Unfortunately, like 
so many other churches, this organization set so little store 
by its earlier records, that they have either been lost or de- 
stroyed. Amongst its earlier ministers, were the noted 
Daniel Witt, D. D., and E. W. Roach, the last of whom 
served the Church for about forty years. 

From records at present available, the following minis- 
ters have served the Church since 1875: 

Rev. J. H. Newbill, July 3, 1875, to July, 1877. 
Rev. S. J. Atkins, July, 1877, to July, 1880. 
Rev. E. S. Taylor, 1880-1886. 
Rev. S. J. Atkins, (second pastorate) 1887-1888. 
Rev. W. B. Haislip, March, 1899, to October, 1889. 
Rev. S. U. Grimsley, 1890-1892. 
Rev. J. H. Couch, 1892-1903. 
Rev. J. B. Williams, 1903-1910. 
Rev. W. A. Pearson, 1910-1915. 
Rev. Vernon TAnson, 1916-1918. 

Rev. W. W. Hamilton, Jr., April to August, 1919 (Sup- 

Rev. Elbert Y. Poole, 1919-1922. 

During the pastorate of Rev. Vernon I'Anson a com- 
modious parsonage was erected, and during that of the Rev. 
Elbert Y. Poole, a new and modern Church structure was 
built at an expenditure of a little more than $20,000. 

The present officers of the Church are: 

Deacons: E. D. Carwile, B. L. Jordan, Hatcher Layne, 
A. L. Dickerson, H. I. Shorter, S. A. Wilkinson, and D. G. 

HiMory of Prince Edward County 237 

Clerk: Kobert St. John. 

Sunday School Superintendent: E. D. Carwile. 

The present membership of the Church is 303. Total 
amount raised for all purposes in 1921, $10,482.79. 

The Church engaged heartily in all forms of war work 
during the great world war. The following members of the 
congregation served in various branches of the service : Wal- 
ter Chennault, Frank Chennault, Walter Overton, J. J. Over- 
ton, Jr., Paul Layne, Hatcher Layne, D. C. Morris, W. C. 
Morris, Edward Shorter, Jr., Everett Garber, W. A. Wat- 
son, Jr., Edward Roach, H. E. Hamilton, Leslie Carwile, W. 
M. Dickinson, John B. Cobb, Charles W. Putney. There were 
no causalties in the contingent supplied by this Church. 

(Note: The foregoing sketch was furnished by the Rev. 
E. Y. Poole, the then pastor of the Church.) 

238 History of Prince Edward County 


In 1913, the Spring Creek Baptist Church dismissed a 
number of its members to form the new Bethpeor Church, 
under the leadership of the Rev. W. A. Pearson, then pas- 
tor of the Spring Creek Church. Mr. Pearson served the two 
churches until 1915, when he was succeeded by the Rev. 
Vernon I'Anson, who served for two years, when he was 
succeeded by the Rev. Elbert Y. Poole, who resigned in the 
spring of 1922. 

The present membership of this Church is 79. In 1921 
the sum of $1,049.37 was raised by them for all purposes. 
W. H. Gilliam is the Clerk of the Church, and Ray Mickle 
is the Superintendent of the Sunday School. The Chapel 
House is valued at $2,500. 

History of Prince Edward County 239 


The Espiscopal Church of Virginia began with the first 
settlement of the first Colony in 1607. It immediately en- 
countered immense difficulties from the scarcity of ministers of 
and character. The clergy of England were strangely reluct- 
ant to undertake work in the new mission field of America. Of 
those who did come, but few were faithful and dtily qualified 
for the station. Indeed some them were men of very ques- 
tionable character, given to swearing and drunkenness. 

By Act of the Assembly of 1755 the new Espiscopal 
parish of Prince Edward county was established under the 
name of Saint Patrick. The county of Prince Edward had 
been separated from that part of Amelia in which the parish 
of Nottoway was constituted, and the parish of Saint Patrick 
was made to correspond with the bounds of the new county 
of Prince Edward. In 1788 the county of Nottoway was 
established substantially on what are its present lines. The 
Act of the Assembly speaks of two new churches being re- 
cently built in the lower part of Nottoway Parish, and re- 
quires that the Nottoway Parish refund a portion of the 
money which had been raised from the whole parish before 
the division, for the building of these two churches, to the 
new parish in Prince Edward county. Services were held ir- 
regularly until 1779, when for a time, Saint Patrick's had 
no representative, either clerical or lay, in any convention of 
the Church. During this initial period the parish was 
served in turn by the Rev. James Garden, and the Rev. Archi- 
bald McRoberts. During Mr. McRoberts' time there were 
three churches in Prince Edward, viz: The Chapel, or Wat- 
kin's Church, situated about eighteen miles from Prince Ed- 
ward Court House, on the Lynchburg Road; it was this con- 
gregation that followed Mr. McRoberts when he relinquished 
his Episcopal ministry to form an Independent Church in 
1799; French's Church, situated about a mile from the Court 
House ; and Sandy River Church, about eight miles from the 

240 History of Prince Edward County 

Court House on the Petersburg Road. None of these 
churches have survived to the present. Of course, in these 
early days, the Episcopal Church in Virginia occupied the 
same relation to the Government as did the Episcopal Church 
in England; it was the established Church; all others were 
known as Dissenters. 

The decline of the Episcopal Church in Prince Edward 
was no doubt hastened by the defection of McRoberts; the 
questionable character of some of its ministers; and the rise 
of Hampden- Sidney College and the Presbyterian Church. 
Certain family connections made the decline certain. "Thus 
Anne Michaux, daughter of one of the original refugees, and 
who, having fled from France on the revocation of the Edict 
of Nantes, settled at Manikin, married Richard Woodson, 
Esq., of Poplar Hill, Prince Edward, sometimes called Baron 
Woodson, on account of his large possessions. This lady 
lived herself to a great age, but, of a numerous off- 
spring, only two daughters survived, one of whom was mar- 
ried to Nathaniel Venable, son of that Alvan Venable 

one of the vestrymen of a parish in Louisa; — the other to 

Francis Hopkins, Esq., clerk of Prince Edward. Joseph 

Morton, the ancestor of the most numerous branch of the 
Mortons, of Charlotte, married a sister of Richard Woodson. 
The progenitor of the Mortons of Prince Edward and Cum- 
berland, married a Michaux. Other familes of Scots or 
Scotch-Irish and Huguenot race were settled in both coun- 
ties." Thus the intermarriage of Episcopalians with these 
peoples, mostly Presbyterians, was the real basis of the de- 
cline of the Episcopal Church in Prince Edward, at this time. 

The following entry in the minutes of the Assemblv held 
at the capital at Williamsburg, November 22, 1781, is sug- 
gestive of the impending decline: "Sundry inhabitants of 
Prince Edward county pray that all the old vestries may be 
dissolved by the Act of Assembly and new ones elected by 
the body of the community at large. Dissenters to be equally 

History of Prince Edward County 241 

competent with conformists to the post of vestrymen, and the 
sole proviso to be 'attachment to the present form of govern- 
ment.' Referred to the next xVssembly, and, June 9, 1782, 

The following most interesting excerpts are taken from 
an historical sketch contained in the Parish Register of John's 
Memoral Church, Farmville, Va., and written by the Rev. 
Philip Slaughter, Historiographer of the Diocese, of St. 
Patrick Parish, and Witmer Parish, Prince Edward county. 

"Saint Patrick should not be confounded with plain Pat- 
rick Parish, which is in the county of Henry, the latter county 
and parish dividing between them the honors of the name of 
the 'Forest-born Demonsthenes,' Patrick Henry. These names 
are redolent of the Revolution and of a new era: Prince Ed- 
ward and Saint Patrick point to the old regime, when princes 
and saints were above par. Prince Edward county was taken 
from the county of Amelia by Act of Assembly, in 1753, and 
the Parish of Saint Patrick from the Parish of Nottoway, 
in 1755. 

The first vestry met at the Court House, September 9, 
1755. Present : Jno. Nash ; Jno. Nash, Jr. ; David Flournoy ; 
George Walker; Thos Scott; Jno. Leneve; James Wimbish; 
Thos. Hawkins; Peter Legrand; and Charles Venable. These 
(qualified by taking the oaths required by law in Court, sub- 
scribing to the test, and the promise of conformity to the 
Doctrine and Discipline of the Church of England. — — 
Hugh Challis was chosen Clerk and ordered to get a book in 

which to record the proceedings of the Vestry. This 

book lies before me, having been found (among, the papers of 
Nathaniel Venable, a Secretary of the Vestry, in Colonial 
times) by Mr. A. P. Venable, and kindly sent to the writer. 

The next Vestry meeting was at Sandy River Church, 
December 3, 1755. The Rev. James Garden (who, as ap- 

242 History of Prince Edward County 

pears in the 'Lambeth Archives,' was licensed for Virginia 
by the Bishop of London, September 2, 1754), produced a 
letter from the Hon. Thos. Dawson, Commissary for Vir- 
ginia, recommending him to this Parish, 'upon which, and 
upon the knowledge of this Vestry, he is unanimously chosen 

The Wardens were order to pay £250 for 300 acres of 
land for a glebe when they were satisfied with the title, which 
came originally from J. Morton, Patentee. 

In 1757 R. Burk; Philemon Holcombe; Jno. Graham; R. 
Woodson; and Zachariah Leigh were added to the Vestry, and 
Nathaniel Venable made Clerk. 

In 1760 Obadiah Woodson was added to the Vestry, and 
the keys of the Glebe houses were received from P. Legrand 
and delivered to the Rev. Mr. Garden. The following minute 
occurs at this date: ''Whereas, the upper Church is situated 
among the Dissenters, the Vestry think that service should 
cease there from this time.' 

8rd December, 1761, the Vestry ordered new churches on 
the land of Messrs. Buchanan & Co., Merchants of Glasgow, 
near Robin's Spring; the other near where Sandy River 
Church now stands; dimensions 48 ft., by 28 ft., and that 
£100 per year be levied for building these churches. 1762 
a chapel was ordered on O. Woodson's land in the upper part 
of the Parish. Col. John Nash and P. Legrand were given 
leave to build pews in the upper Church with windows. 
John Nash, Jr., was given leave to build a gallery for his 
family in the upper Church, and John Leigh, one in Sandy 
River Church. 

1763. Three acres of land were bought for Sandy River 

1766, Peter Johnston, Vestryman, in place of Woodson, 

History of Prince Edward County 243 

1766. Dials on good posts were ordered at each Church; 
service to begin at 11 o'clock a. m.; April to October, and 
at 12 o'clock the rest of the year; and the Communion ad- 
ministered at Christmas, Easter, and Whitesuntide ; a gallon 
flagon, pint cup, and salver of silver, with table cloth and 
napkin to be provided. 

1772. 'Ordered that Peter Johnston import superfine 
crimson broadcloth, to be made up with silk lace and tassels, 
and proper cushions, for the use of the Church.' 

Kev. James Garden died, I eb., 19, 1773. On the IQth of 
August, the Revs. Moss; Ogilvie; Saunders; and McCart- 
ney's names were before the Vestry, which chose the Rev. 
James McCartney 'in consideration of the character given 
him bj^ gentlemen from North Carolina.' At this date, David 
Rice was Clerk (Lay Reader) of Sandy River Church, which 
was about eight miles from the Court House on the Peters- 
burg Road; Richard Byrd was Lay Reader at French's, 
sometimes called 'Middle Church,' one mile from the Court 
House; and John Crockett of the Upper Chapel (Watkins) 
about eighteen miles from the Court House on the road to 
Lynchburg. "When the minister attended one Church, Lay 
Readers served the others. Buffalo Church had disappeared 
from the record. 

Sandy River Church, after the Revolution, became the 
source of a bitter contention between the Methodists and the 
Baptists, the details of which may be seen in a pamphlet 
of the day. The dispute was referred to Judge Bouldin and 
Mr. Charles Smith. The Baptists, I believe now hold it. 

The latest record in the old Vestry Book is December 
1774; many leaves having been torn out. We know from 
other sources that the Rev. Archibald McRoberts was minis- 
ter of the Saint Patrick, 1777-78. (There is a deed recorded 
in Prince Edward of date, August 14, 1778, from Thos. 
Scott; Benjamin Haskins; Thos. Haskins; John Nash; Peter 

244 History of Prince Edward County 

Johnston; Peter Legrand; Philemon Holcomb; and William 
Bibb, Gentlemen: Vestrymen of Saint Patricks Parish, to 
Archibald McRoberts, conveying 500 acres of land, adjoining 
Nathan Venable and Daniel McGehee.) 

In 1779, when the Church of England was tottering to 
its fall, he deserted the sinking ship, and set up an 'inde- 
pendent' Church at the Upper Chapel, which soon came to 
grief, and he joined the Presbyterians, who were then riding 
the top of the wave in Prince Edward. Many Epis- 
copalians became trustee of Hampden- Sidney College, and one 
(Cushion), at a later period, presided over it. Two Presby- 
terian waves; one from Hanover, and the other from the 
Valley, met and culminated in Prince Edward, and many 
Episcopalians, (sheep without a shepherd) were carried away 
by them. The Episcopalian Church having never been allowed 
to have an American Bishop to watch over and confirm its 
members and ordain its ministers, and having now cut off 
from the Church of England, was in a state of supended ani- 
mation, from which many thought she never would be awak- 

Rev. Devereux Jarrett of Bath Parish, one of the few 
burning and shining lights of that dark day, sought by his 
evangelistic fervor and electrical eloquence to keep alive the 
smouldering embers upon her altar. Outside of his own 
Parish he traversed twenty-nine counties in Virginia and 
North Carolina, lifting up his voice like a trumpet; pro- 
phesying that the old Church was not dead, but sleeping, and 
would again rise from the dust and be a praise in the land. 
In 1781-82 Jarrett preached at Sandy River and French's. 
Saint Patrick's sleep has been long and deep; quite, or nearly 

a century ! One cannot but think that the descendants of 

the Woodsons; Reades; Venables; Wimbishes; Floumoys; 
Scotts; Nashes; Goodes; Haskins; Leighs; Legrands; Hol- 
combes; Byrds; Berkleys; Johnstons; Bulks, and scores of 
other names recorded in this book, whatever may be their 

History of Prince Edward County 245 

present connection, will look with approving eye and 

helping hand at the effort to resuscitate the Church of their 

John's Memorial Church, Farmville, is the only Epis- 
copal Church now surviving within the bounds of Prince 
Edward county. 

Property is still held for Church purposes on the road 
leading from Hampden-Sidney College to Pamplins, on 
which stands a modest meeting house known as Saint Ann's 
Church, or Spring Creek Mission. Occasional service is con- 
ducted by the Rev. Thomas H. Lacy, of Richmond, Viirginia, 
though there is no Church organization and no Church mem- 
bers there now. It appears that a party of English people, 
from Dorsetshire, settled in that part of the county sometime 
shortly prior to 1870, and these gave land for Church pur- 
poses and erected a modest building, and, among them, main- 
tained the Church. They later returned to England and 
from there deeded the property to the Church, as appears 
from a deed recorded in the Clerk's Office at Farmville, in 
Book 31, page 257, the purport of which is that T. A. Homer, 
and W. C. Lacy, Dorsetshire, England, convey to John Sid- 
dons and Henry Jacob of Prince Edward county, Virginia, 
trustees of the Spring Creek Episcopal Mission Fund, one- 
half acre of land in Prince Edward county, and described as 
follows : "Fronting 275 links on the public road leading from 
Hampden-Sidney College to Pamplins depot, and extending 
185 links back on each side, being part of the tract of land 
formerly owned and occupied by Henry CoUett, and now 
occupied by Thomas Homer." The deed was signed by T. A. 
Homer, W. C. Lacy, and was dated May 10, 1874, and ac- 
knowledged by them in England before one. Cam Lyker, a 
Justice of the Peace, on May 23, 1874. 

246 History of Prince Edward County 



The Church known locally as Saint John's Protestant 
Episcopal Church, but properly, John's Memorial Protest- 
ant Episcopal Church, was organized in 1880, in the house 
then occupied by Mr. L. M. Blanton, and now occupied by 
Dr. li. D. Whitaker. For a time, services were held in the 
Court House. During the year of the organization; 1880; 
the present Church property was purchased, as appears by 
deed dated October 1st of that year and recorded on page 
30 of book 34, in the land books in the Clerk's office. As 
there recited, one-half acre of land was conveyed by Ellen 
W. Berkeley, widow, through R. M. Dickinson, Commissioner 
appointed by the Circuit Court of Prince Edward county at 
the September term of the court of that year, to James M. 
Johns, by Avhom it was conveyed to the members of John's 
Memorial Church for purposes of public worship. 

By the same instrument Alfred Moth, L. M. Blanton and 
L. C. Irving were constituted trustees to the use of the Church. 
The price paid for the land was $400. 

The instrument is signed by: 

R. M. Dickinson, Commissioner; 

Ellen M. Berkely; 

J. M. Johns; 

Pauline C. Johns, wife of J. M. Johns. 

The present rectory property was acquired under a deed 
dated March 27, 1883, and appearing on page 198 of book 
35, in the Clerk's office at the Court House. No price is stated 
in the deed. The premises were formerly occupied by Col- 
onel R. A. Booker, and are located at the corner of St. 
George and High Streets. 

Thus the efforts of several years, to establish an Epis- 
copal Church in Farmville were at last being rewarded. 

History of Prince Edward County 247 

In March 1879, the Rev. Frank Stringfellow became 
Kector of the Parish, and it was as a result of his labors that 
the Church was organized and the Church property bought. 
The first building was erected under his supervision. He 
Avas sent to Farmville with the hearty approval of Rt. Rev. 
F. M. Whittle, D. D., Bishop of Virginia, and his short minis- 
try was eminently successful. 

Rev. F. D. Lee was his assistant for a year. Rev. 
Arthur S. Lloyd was placed as Deacon in charge of the 
Parish in 1880. He resigned to go to St. Luke's, Norfolk. 
He was followed by the Rev. J. W. Ware, who resigned to go 
to Saint James, Ashland, Virginia. 

Rev. Baker P. Lee, deacon, was sent to the Parish in 
1896, by the Bishop. In two years he was followed by Rev. 
Walter B. Capers, deacon. 

July 1, 1901. Rev. Stephen O. Southall accepted a call 
to the Parish, and took charge. April 1. 1903, he resigned and 
accepted the Rectorship of Bath Parish, Dinwiddle County. 

In January, 1904, Rev. Randolph Royall Claiborne of 
Forest, Va., (Saint Stephens Church) was called to this 
Parish. March 1st he accepted the call and took up the work, 
which also included the country work; All Saints, Grace, and 
Guinea. December 25, 1906, he resigned to go to Saint 
Francisville, La. 

The Church then remained without a rector until July 
1st, 1908, during the greater part of which time the Rev. 
George G. Matchetts, (perpetual Deacon from the Dioscese 
of Pennsylvania) acted as supply. 

On July 1st, 1908, the Rev. Dudley Boogher, of Saint An- 
drewb Church, Clifton Forge, Virginia, took charge of the 
work in P'armville, (the churches of Cumberland county being 
ministered to by the rector of Powhatan Court House) and 
continued until June 5, 1914, when his resignation was ac- 

248 History of Prince Edward County 

cepted that he might take charge of the Church of the Good 
Sliepherd, Parkersburg, W. Va. 

In November, 1914, Rev. Frederick Diehl, rector of Saint 
I'aul's Church, Wellsboro, Pa., was called. He accepted the 
call and began his rectorship, January 13, 1915. In the mean- 
while the rectory was enlarged and much improved. Mr. 
Diehl left February 1, 1917, to take charge of the Church of 
the Good Shepherd, Rocky Mount, North Carolina. 

The Rev. Charles Pay Holbrook, rector of Saint Andrew's 
Church, Beacon, N. Y., was called on May 6, 1917, and began 
his work in Farmville, June 10, of that year. In 191S two 
flags were placed in the Church; the National Colors on the 
Gospel side of the arch, and a service flag, with ten stars, 
on the Epistle side. These ten stars represent the following 
sons of the Parish: 

Chaplain J. M. Robeson, who was later wounded in battle. 

Lieutenant W. P. Hazelgrove. 

Charles R. Bugg. 

Robert E. Warnick. 

John N. Garland, killed in action, October 1918. 

Robert B. Rogers. 

Guy liancaster, wounded in battle. 

Junius Wilson. 

March Moffett. 

Haynes Lancaster. 

In July, 1918, four more stars were added for 

Roy Moffett. 

Joseph A. Poole. 

M. B. Coyner. 

C. F. Walker. 

In September, 1918, another star was added for 

History of Prince Edivard County 249 

Robert W. Bugg, member of the Student Training Corps, 
o1 Hampden- Sidney College. 

Mr. Holbrook resigned on May 1, 1920, to take charge of 
the new mission work in the suburbs of Norfolk. 

Upon the resignation of the Rev. Mr. Holbrook, the Ves- 
try called the Rev. Frederick Diehl, rector of the Church of 
the Good Shepherd, Rocky Mount, North Carolina, who ac- 
cepted the call, and began his second rectorship of the Farm- 
ville Church on October 1, 1920. 

The value of the property, including both the Church 
and the rectory, is set down as $19,000. 

The membership, in September, 1921, was given as 95, 
and the total income from all sources, as $3,126.()0. 

The following are the officers for the current year, 1921 : 

Vestrymen: Charles F. Bugg; George M. Robeson; J. L. 
Bugg; J. A. Garland; A. T. Gray; Fred. M. Bugg: W. C. 

Senior Warden: Charles F. Bugg. 

Junior Warden : George M. Robeson. 

Treasurer: J. L. Bugg. 

Secretary: J. A. Garland. 

Sunday School Superintendent: J. L. Bugg. 

President, Women's Auxiliary: Mrs. W. C. Duvall. 

President, St. John's Guild: Mrs. J. A. Garland. 

President, Junior Auxilary: Miss lima Von Schilling. 

President, Little Helpers: Miss Virgilia Bugg. 

Organist: Mrs. Roberta Large. 

Choir Mother : Mrs. Munro Gordon Jones. 

President, Ladies' Aid Society: Mrs. Carrie Taliaferro. 

Sunday School Teachers: Miss Virgilia Bugg; Misses 
Edith, Maud and Carrie Taliaferro; Miss Mary E. Peck; Mrs, 
R. E. Duvall. The Rev. Frederick Diehl teaches the Bible 

250 History of Prince Edward County 


Methodism was slow in entering the State, following 
after the Episcopal, the Presbyterians, the Quakers, and the 
Baptists had obtained a more or less secure footing in Vir- 

To the Rev. Robert Williams belongs the honor of 
planting Methodism in Virginia. He was born in England. 
He had labored extensively in Ireland. He received from Mr. 
Wesley a license to preach under the authority of the regular 
Missionaries in the new American Mission field. He was ex- 
tremely poor, so that his passage to America was paid for him 
by a Mr. Ashton, who came over in the same vessel. 

AVilliams landed at New York in the fall of 1769. He 
thus came in advance of Messrs. Boardman and Pillmoor. He 
continued his labors in the city of New York until the close 
of the summer of 1771. In the meantime Boardman and Pill- 
moor had arrived in the new world, having landed at Glou- 
cester Point, in New Jersey, on the 24th of October, 1769, 
from whence they went to Philadelphia. Williams visited 
Philadelphia and received a general license to travel and 
preach, from the hands of Pillmoor. After a visit with 
Strawbridge, the father of Methodism in Maryland, he, in 
the spring of 1771, returned to New York city. 

The date of the beginning of Williams' work in Virginia, 
is 1772, when early in that year, he landed at Norfolk, and 
at once opened his mission. He preached his first sermon at 
the door of the Court House in that city. He mounted the 
steps and sang a hymn, which resulted in a curious crowd 
gathering to see what it was all about. The hymn finished, 
he knelt where he was and prayed. He then announced his 
text and proceeded to preach to a most disorderly crowd of 
people, quite unused to such a spectacle. Owing to the ex- 
treme plainness of his diction, he was charged with "swear- 

History of Prince Edward County 251 

ing." This grew out of his frequent use of the words : "hell," 
"devil," "damned," etc. He was voted "crazy" by the frivol- 
ous people who heard him. 

However, a few hearts were touched, and these sincere 
people received him into their homes and cared for him. 

"The tree of Methodism was thus planted in an uncon- 
genial soil, but, watered from on high, it struck its roots 
deep, and put forth goodly branches, bearing much fruit." 

After this beginning in Norfolk, Williams went over to 
Portsmouth and, under a couple of persimmon trees, preached 
the first Methodist sermon ever heard in that town. Among 
those converted under his ministry in Norfolk, was Isaac 
Luke, a citizen of Portsmouth, and a member of the Epis- 
copal Church, who invited him to come over to Portsmouth, 
and who befriended him in his work in the two cities. 

As to how long Williams continued his labors in Nor- 
folk and Portsmouth, we have no accurate information, but, 
in the fall of 1772, he was joined in his work there by Wil- 
liam Watters, who accompanied him on his return from a 
visit to Maryland. On their journey from Baltimore to Nor- 
folk, the two held a meeting at King William Court House, 
in the home of a Mr. Martin who had kindly entertained them 
overnight. Along the entire route of three hundred miles, 
they preached at every convenient place and opportunity, 
finding everywhere an appalling lack of "experimental relig- 
ion." They were the first Methodist preachers who ever 
passed through this part of the new world. 

Weary and worn with toil, they at length reached Nor- 
folk to take up again the work begun there. They found the 
field a most difficult one. After spending the winter of 1772 
in Norfolk and vicinity, Williams went, in February, of 
1773, to Petersburg, and introduced Methodism officially into 
that town. He was invited there by two citizens of the place 

252 History of Prince Edward County 

whose names will ever remain identified with the beginnings 
of Methodism there; Gl^essett Davis and Nathaniel Young. 
As elsewhere, so here, the other denominations were found 
fairly well entrenched. Williams preached his first sermon in 
the theatre, which had been opened for religious services 
through the instrumentality of Davis and Young. 

After laboring in, and about the town for several weeks 
with but little to encourage him, Williams was furnished a 
horse by his two young friends and set out, in true Methodist 
fashion, to preach in the country round about the city. In 
a short time a generous revival rewarded his work in the 
country, which was destined to spread Methodism over every 
part of the State of Virginia and North Carolina. In this 
part of the State, Williams was much encouraged in his 
work by the sympathy of Archibald McRoberts and Dever- 
eux Jarratt, ministers of the Episcopal Church. 

On the 14th of July, 1773, the first American Conference 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, assembled at Philadel- 
phia, when the whole number of members was reported as 
1160, viz: New York 180, Philadelphia 180, New Jersey 200, 
Maryland 500, Virginia 100. Six circuits were formed and 
ten preachers appointed. Virginia appears in this entry: 
"Norfolk, Richard Wright; Petersburg, Robert Williams." 

The whole of 1773 was spent by Williams in preaching 
and forming Societies in that part of the State south of 
Petersburg, during which time the Lee family was received 
into the Society; Jesse Lee being a conspicuous representa- 
tive of that noble family. 

On the 26th of September, 1775, this splendid "soldier 
of the Cross" entered into "that rest that remaineth for the 
people of God." In his "Journal" Bishop Francis Asbury 
thus refers to the event : "Tuesday 26, Brother Williams died. 
The Lord does all things well; perhaps Brother Williams 
was in danger of being entangled in wordly business, and 

History of Prince Edward County 253 

might thereby have injured the cause of God. So he was 
taken away from the evil." On Thursday, Bishop Asbury 
preached his funeral sermon. Every trace of the burial place 
of this pioneer of American Methodism has been lost. Not 
even the rudest stone is left to mark his resting place. 

Robert Williams preached the first Methodist sermon 
on Virginia soil; formed the first Methodist Society; printed 
the first Methodist book; was the first Methodist Minister to 
marry; aided in building the first Methodist Church build- 
ing; made out the plan for the first Methodist circuit; was 
the first Methodist minister to "locate;" the first to die; the 
first to be buried in Virginia soil; and was the first Metho- 
dist preacher to enter heaven from Virginia! A pioneer in 
things Virginian, surely! 

At the Christmas Conference, held in Baltimore, Decem- 
ber 25, 1784, the Methodist Societies definitely took the form 
of a Church organization, in the strict and proper sense, with 
the title, "The Methodist Episcopal Church." Francis As- 
bury and Thomas Coke were, at this time, elected to the 
office of "Superintendents of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
in America," the first in a long and honorable line. 

The "O'Kelly Schism" that had so long agitated the 
body, and that finally culminated in the "Christian Church;" 
the body possessing the proper legal right to the use of that 
title; came to a head at the Baltimore Conference of Novem- 
ber 1st, 1792, when O'Kelly and his immediate adherents 
withdrew from the Conference to establish the "Republican 
Methodist Church," as it was at the first called. In 1801, 
O'Kelly changed the name of his party, by formally re- 
nouncing the first name chosen and announcing the new 
name to be "The Christian Church." 

The question of slavery agitated the Methodist Church 
long before it became a national question under the impulse of 
northern propaganda, and many efforts were made by the 

254 History of Prince Edward County 

young Church to stamp it out, at least in as far as it affected 
Methodists. The movement that ultimately resulted in the 
emancipation of the slaves, was in reality a southern move- 
ment, in which the Methodists had an high and honorable 
part, later taken up by northern agitators. At the annual Con- 
ference, held at New Bern, N. C, February 10, 1813, the fol- 
lowing series of resolutions were adopted: 

"1. The preachers shall instruct the colored people in 
the principles and duties of religion. 

2. To search out and pay particular attention to all 
the classes of colored people in the bounds of their 
stations and circuits. 

3. If any member of the M. E. Church be found guilty 
of carrying on, directly or indirectly, the trade of 
slave speculation, he or she shall be expelled the 
Church." Bishops Asbury and McKendree presided 
over this Conference. 

The first instance on record of the elevation of a colored 
man to ministerial orders by the Virginia Conference, oc- 
curred at the Petersburg Conference of the 18th of March, 
1824, when David Payne, of Richmond, a free man of color, 
was graduated to the office of Deacon. Payne subsequently 
went to Liberia as a missionary, where Tie died at his post 
of duty. 

Methodism was slow in taking root in Prince Edward 
County. While great progress was being made in virtually 
all the surrounding counties. Prince Edward seemed to re- 
main comparatively neglected until a rather late date. This 
was partly owing to the fact that in the east and west 
journies of the Apostle of Methodism, Francis Asbury, and 
his co-workers, the line of travel seemed to take them either 
to the north, through Dinwiddle, Amelia, Buckingham ; or to 
the south, through Brunswick, Lunenburg, Charlotte. What- 

History of Prince Edward County 255 

ever may have been the cause, it remains a fact that Prince 
Edward Coimty appears but rarely in the earlier records 
of the Church. In 1805, on their journey to the Conference 
at Granville County, N. C, the two veterans, Francis As- 
bury and Richard Whatcoat, passed through Prince Edward 
County, doubtless exhorting the saints on their way. At a 
later date, while Presiding Elder of the Meherrin District, 
the celebrated John Early held a remarkable Camp Meeting 
at Prospect, where, it is said, that in seven days about one 
thousand persons professed conversions. 

In a mere sketch of such a mighty movement, it is ob- 
viously quite out of the question to go into details, hence the 
progress of Methodism in the County will be best followed 
through the brief historical sketches of the local churches 
of the county. 

256 History of Prince Edward County 


The following sketch of the early history of the M. E. 
Church, Fannville, was made by the Rev. Staunton Field, 
November 7, 1846, and is to be found in an old Registry Book 
of the Church : 

"A brief history of the rise and progress of Methodism 
in this place may not be without interest and importance 
for future reference when the present generation shall have 
passed away. 

Up to the year 1833 this was merely a casual preaching 
place for the Methodist Ministry. In that year, under the 
administration of the Gospel, by that evangelical and zealous 
Minister, the Rev. William B. Rowzer, who had charge of the 
Prince Edward Circuit, the first class was formed, and Meth- 
odism formally introduced and established. Frqm this time 
Farmville appeared upon the plan of the Prince Edward 
Circuit, up to the "Great Revival," as it was called, of 1837. 

It seems from the best information we can obtain, though 
it appears somewhat remarkable, that the first house of wor- 
ship was commenced in 1831, and completed in '32; a year 
previous to the formation of the first class. The Rev. John 
Early was at this time Presiding Elder of the District, then 
included in the Lynchburg District, through whose active in- 
strumentality, no doubt, the building was commenced and 

In the year 1837, as above mentioned, under the ministry 
of the Rev. John W. Childs; Dr. A. Penn, Presiding Elder, 
it pleased Almighty God to visit the infant Church here, with 
a powerful and sweeping revival. The meeting was con- 
tinued from day to day successively, for several weeks, and 
resulted in the conversion of many souls. It may be recorded 
as a remarkable fact, that the store doors were closed, and 

History of Prince Edward County 257 

business generally suspended, during the exercises of the 
meeting. This circumstance will go to show the extraordi- 
nary character of that revival, and is a lasting memorial of 
the deep and pervading interest which must have been experi- 
enced by the whole community. Many who are on their way 
to Heaven, and some who have already reached that happy 
place, will, throughout the dateless periods of eternity, look 
back upon that occasion as the brightest era in their existence. 

This revival so fully and firmly established Methodism 
here, that the brethren, believing that it would be important to 
its further prosperity and success, requested to be set off as a 
station, distinct from the Circuit, which was accordingly 
done in the following year, and the Rev. Jesse Powers was 
appointed the first stationed Minister in this place. By his 
zeal and piety as a Christian Minister, and especially as a 
Pastor, the station was sustained, and abundantly blessed of 
the Lord. 

The following year, 1839, the church being too small, in 
the estimation of many, and without a suitable place for the 
accommodation of the colored people, it was thought advis- 
able that a new and more commodious house should be erected. 
Accordingly, the present house of worship was commenced in 
'39 and completed in 1840. 

The Rev. George W. Blain, of precious memory, suc- 
ceeded Bro. Powers, and at the Conference of 1840, which 
assembled in this place, was returned in charge of the station. 
With alternate successes and reverses, the cause of Metho- 
dism moved on, without any great display of Divine power 
in the conversion of souls, up to the year '42, at which time, 
under the administration of the Rev. Jacob Manning, Pastor, 
and the Rev. H. B. Cowles, Presiding Elder, the Church 
was again visited with a "season of refreshing from the pres- 
ence of the Lord." Many valuable members of the Churph 
were brought in at that time, and many, we trust, will remain 
pillars in the temple of the Lord, to go out no more forever. 

258 History of Prince Edward County 

The Rev. Thomas H. Jones succeeded Bro. Manning in 
the charge of the station. Nothing of special interest oc- 
curred during this year. There were some few conversions 
and accessions to the Church. The Rev. J. L. Knight was 
the next preacher in charge of the station for the year 1845. 
There was no revival this year and no incident which we 
have gathered up worth recording. These are some of the 
most prominent circumstances and events connected with the 
gi'owth of Methodism in this place, set forth hastily and in 
the most simple and unvarnished manner, and may serve, 
if for no other purpose, to give some data upon which to con- 
struct a more comprehensive and extended account, by some 
more able or competent pen." g^ FIELD 

Farmville, Nov. 7, 1846. 

In connection with the notable fact, cited by the above 
historian, that the first building was erected before the formal 
organization of the Church, the transfer of the property, lot 
19, in the plan of the Village of Farmville, from James 
Madison and Susan his wife, to Thomas Scott, John A. Scott, 
John Clarke, Nathaniel Jackson, Charles Venable, Joseph E. 
Venable, and Thomas Almond, Trustees of the M. E. Church, 
South, is recorded, under date of February 6, 1833, in Book 
21, at Page 183, in the Registry Office in Farmville. The 
consideration was the sum of $150. The Church has re- 
tained the original site to the present day. 

The membership in 1846 had reached the respectable total 
of 118, many of whom, however, were colored. Both white 
and colored were members of the same Churches in those 
days. Discipline was very rigorously enforced as evidenced 
by notations set opposite many names, such as: "Expelled 
for dancing;" "Expelled for intemperance;" "Withdrawn in 
preference to standing a trial." 

The following note occurs during the ministry of the 
Kev. Frank Stanley, 1860: "I leave Farmville tomorrow for 

Hhtory of Prince Edward County 259 

Conference, and have transferred from the Richmond Church 
Advocate, my letter of 22nd of last March, and have only 
time to record my sense of gratitude to God and my thanks 
to all the members of this Station, and, indeed to all the 
people, for their uniform kindness to myself and family; for 
the ample support they have given us, notwithstanding they 
have this year expended about $4,000 in improving the Church, 
have paid the Conference Collection, and given liberally for 
missions and to the poor. This has been one of the happiest 
and most successful years of my ministry. This book will 
show a large increase of members. May God make them per- 
fect in holiness and keep them all blameless unto the Day 
of Christ. I pray my (unknown) successor not to let the 
numerous Class of colored Catechumens be neglected." 

Farmville, 14, Nov., 1860. 
The membership at this time was 155. 

List of Ministers With Notes 

1838. Jesse H. Powers. 

1839. George M. Blain. 

1840. Benjamin B. Miles. 

1841. Jacob Manning. 

1842. Thomas H. Jones. 

1843. Wm. J. Norfieet. Deceased, Jany. 1881. 

1844. J. L. Knight. 

1845. Stanton Field. 

1846. Wm. H. Rohr. 

1847. J. C. Garlick. 

1848. J. D. Blackwell. 

1849. J. C. Newberry. 

1850. Josephus Anderson. 

1851. Josephus Anderson. 

1852. Oscar Littleton. 

1853. Charles H. Hall. Died, 1872. 

260 History of Prince Edward County 

1854. Wm. W. Berry. 

1855. Joseph J. Edwards. 

1856. Joseph S. E. Clarke. 

1857. Joseph S. R. Clarke. 

1858. John S. Rees. Died in 1861. 

1859. Frank Stanley. 

1860. Nelson Head. 

1861. Nelson Heal. Died in Baltimore Conference 1903. 
1862-1865. Wm. E. Judkins. 

1865-1866. Jacob H. Proctor. 

1866-1867. C. C. Pearson. Left the Church for Epis- 

1867-1869. Oscar Littleton. Died July 31, 1910. Buried 
at Farmville. For 60 j^ears a member of the Virginia Con- 

1869-1870. Wm. E. Edwards. Died in 1902. 

1870-1872. F. M. Edwards. 

1872-1873. George M. Langhorne. 

1873-1876. James F. Twitty, D. D. 

1876-1880. Leonidas Rosser, D. D. 

1880-1882. Joshua Hunter. 

1882-1886. Wesley C. Vaden. 

1886-1889. W. E. Evans, D. D. 

1889-1890. T. McN. Simpson, D. D. 

1891-1894. James Cannon, Jr., D. D. Later Bishop. 

1894. R. H. Bennett, D. D. (3 months.) 

1894-1895. G. W. Wray. 

1895-1899. T. McN. Simpson, D. D. 

1899-1901. J. S. Hunter. 

1901-1903. T. N. Potts, D. D. 

1903-1905. J. B. Winn, D. D. 

History of Prince Edward County 261 

1905-1909. S. C. Hatcher, D. D. 

1909. W. T. Green. 

1910-1911. W. K. Proctor. 

1911-1912. W. G. Porter. 

1912-1913. S. A. Donahoe. 

1914-1916. G. H. Lambeth, D. D. 

1916-1919. Jno. T. Bosman, D. D. 

1919. G. H. Spooner, D. D. 

This Church had in the various branches of the service 
during the Great War, forty men. 

Captain H. IT. Hunt went overseas as Captain of a Com- 
pany from Farmville, served at the front and was made 

Dr. C. B. Crute volunteered, June 21st, 1917, and was 
appointed 1st Lieutenant in the Medical Department, and 
was attached to the British Forces overseas and was promoted 
to be Captain. He saw service in France, Belgium, Italy, 
Egypt and India. After two years service overseas, he re- 
turned to America, and was stationed at Fort Whipple Bar- 
racks in Arizona, and later was transferred to Fort Mc- 
pherson, in Georgia, from whence he received his discharge 
and returned to Farmville to re-enter his profession as a 
private citizen. 

Dr. T. G. Hardy volunteered in June, 1917, and saw ser- 
vice overseas as 1st Lieutenant in the Medical Department 
in France, both at the front and in hospital work. He was 
discharged in January 1919, and resumed his private practice 
in Farmville. 

Dr. J. S. Burger enlisted in the Medical Department with 
the rank of 1st Lieutenant, and served at Camp Meade 
throughout the war. 

262 History of Prince Edward County 

Paul Barrow enlisted in the Navy and died in Hampton 
Roads of pneumonia. 

Walker Paulett enlisted as private, and was promoted 
to be 1st Lieutenant and, in the fight in the Argonne Woods, 
led his company for many days with conspicuous bravery. 

Edward Davis enlisted as a private, was promoted to 
be Sergeant and, when all his superior officers were killed, 
wounded or captured, led his Company, reduced to a hand- 
ful, for days in the thickest of the fight. 

Emerson Jarman volunteered early and was assigned to 
the regular army, and promoted to be 1st Lieutenant. He 
did not get overseas. 

Joseph Jarman, James Cowan, Mack Cowan, F. Law- 
rence Orange, James Lipscomb, Henry Wood, Zenas Chap- 
pell, Walker Drummeller, and Howard Whitlock, saw ser- 
vice in the ranks overseas. 

Willard Hart saw service overseas as an expert marks- 
man with the Marines. 

T. A. Gray, Jr., C. B. CoUyer, R. H. Paulett, and Gates 
Richardson, saw service with the Aviation Corps, but did 
not get overseas. 

John Foster saw service with the Wireless Department 

Walter Gray got as far as England, but did not succeed 
in getting to the trenches. 

E. A. Chappell, J. H. Lewis, Jr., F. L. Carter, Harry 
Mottley, John A. Morris, Wallace Duvall, Lewis Whitlock, 
and C. B. Cunningham saw service in the homeland. 

Womack Gray was detained in America in preparation 
for work in the Medical Department. 

History of Prince Edward County 263 

O. H. Whitten saw service in the navy but did not suc- 
ceed in getting overseas. 

Among the Student Army Training Corps, were W. P. 
Vienable, Jr., J. B. Wall, Jr., Archer Paulett, Reginald Ven- 
able, and Ernest Garland. 

Judge J. M. Crute, from whose article this sketch is made, 
says: "At this late date (March 19, 1920), with all the 
records turned in, it is impossible to give a correct report. 
Several of those across the sea were promoted to Sergeants 
and Corporals, who enlisted as privates." 

Dr. T. G. Hardy, Dr. J. L. Jarman, Mrs. J. L. Jarman, 
Mrs. T. G. Hardy, E. S. Martin, and Dr. J. M. Lear, were 
prominent in the work of the Red Cross in the county. 
The work of Mrs. Jarman with the women of the county was 
a notable contribution to the work of the Prince Edward 
Chapter of the American Red Cross. 

264 History of Prince Edward County 


This is the oldest M. E. Church organization, in what is 
now Prince Edward county and is composed of two preach- 
ing appointments in the county, viz: Prospect and Olive 
Branch. It is the mother of Methodism in the county. Orig- 
inally it was attached to the Lynchburg Circuit. 

The Church organization was in existence for some con- 
siderable time before the property was secured, as a meet- 
ing house was already upon the land purchased for Church 
purposes by the Society in Prospect, July, 14, 1820. The 
land then purchased consisted of one acre and was conveyed 
by Robert Venable to Charles Venable, William Johnston, 
David, Anderson, Jesse Bradjey and Samuel Yenable, in 
trust for the M. E. Church, for Church purposes. (See Deed 
Book IIT, page 139, in the Clerk's Office at Farmville.) 

Approximately the same situation obtained at Olive 
Branch appointment, a meeting house being alread}?^ upon 
the property, and in use for Church purposes, prior to the 
actual acquisition of the land by the Society. The property, 
one acre and building, was conveyed by Benjamin Boatwright 
and his wife, Mary W. Boatwright, to Rev. William Johnson, 
Rev. James McNeal, Edwin Gray, Thomas Andrews, Joel 
Elam, John C. Owen, Charles W. Wilkerson, James Martin 
and Charles Venable, in trust for the M. E. Church for relig- 
ious purposes, July 9, 1829. (See Deed Book 20, page 242, in 
the Clerk's Office at Farmville.) An additional piece of 
property was subsequently obtained for the use of the So- 
cietyi adjoining tjhe first parcel, from the salne pairties, 
January 17, 1834, making up the present property. (See 
Deed Book 21, page 196, in the Clerk's Office at Farmville.) 

The present Parsonage property at Prospect was con- 
veyed by James D. Crawley and his wife, Amanda M. Craw- 

History of Prince Edward County 265 

ley, in trust, to Joseph W. Gills, Thomas H. Crawley, Thomas 
H. Glemi, Joseph B. Glenn, George M. Gillespie, Kobert N. 
Wilkerson, and W. E. H. Durphy, trustees, July 30, 1877, 
the consideration being the sum of $1,125. (See Deed Book 
33, page 140, in the Clerk's Office at Farmville.) 

There is a singular lack of available data relating to 
these early days of Methodism in this part of the county, 
the minute books of the Society being either lost or destroyed. 
AVhat information there is available serves to indicate that 
the work of the Circuit was pressed with great earnestness 
and with a gratifying measure of success. 

For 1920-21 the Prospect Church raised for all purposes, 
the sum of $4,175.56, while, for the same period of time, 
the Olive Branch Church raised $1,845.92. 

The present officers of the Prospect Church are : 

Minister: Rev. R. S. Baughan. 

Stewards: T. S. Tweedy, I. H. Glenn, J. R. Glenn, 

B. T. Taylor, C. H. Rucker, C. W. Crawley, 

C. E. Chick, T. R. N. Cocks. 

Trustees : G. R. Glenn, R. J. Carter, E. S. Taylor. 

Sunday School Supt. : B. T. Taylor. 

President of the Woman's Missionary Society; Mrs. R. 
S. Baughan. 

The present officers of Olive Branch Church are : 

Stewards: J. Hopkins Wilkerson. J. Henry Wilkerson, 
W. W. Vaughan, R. H. Wilkerson, H. C. 
Elam, W. B. Binford, H. L. Moore, J. R. 

Trustees: E. H. Gilliam, I. O. Reynolds, Emery Chick, 
G. D. Warriner, R. Lee Price, J. W. Davis. 

266 History of Prince Edward County 

Sunday School Supt.: W. B. Binford. 

President, Woman's Missionary Society; Mrs. J. D. 

The circuit was organized in 1870 with three churches, 
viz., Olive Branch, Prospect, and Pamplin. In 1873 Smyrna 
was added to the circuit, and later on Piney Ridge. In the 
year 1914 Pamplin and Piney Ridge were transferred to an- 
other circuit, leaving Olive Branch, Prospect, and Smyrna, 
which compose the present charge. The first pastor of Pros- 
pect Circuit was Rev. Alfred Wiles, who was succeeded by 
Rev. J. Wiley Bledsoe. Revs. J. S. Hunter, W. C. Vaden, 
G. H. Ray, H. C. Cheatham, T. J. Taylor, J. E. Potts, R. 
W. Watts, and J. H. Proctor were others of the early pastors. 

With the passing of the years this charge has grown and 
kept pace with the progress of the times. It now has three 
good Sunday Schools open every Sunday throughout the year, 
three flourishing "Woman's Missionary Societies," with one 
young lady from Olive Branch preparing for work in foreign 
fields. The charge over-subscribed the Centenary quota by a 
good margin, and raised the full quota in the Educational 

The budget system has been adopted enabling the 
Stewards to meet all obligations promptly. The pastor is paid 
monthly and presiding elder quarterly. 

Recently, a copy of the Advocate has been put in every 
home on the charge, totaling 175 subscriptions. 

The village of Prospect was named for the original 
Church, which stood on the site of the present cemetery. This 
building was burned in 1860, at which time it was being used 
as a school house. 

The present building was erected in 1859. During the 

History of Prince Edward County 267 

War between the States the Federal soldiers camped on the 
Church grounds and pitched one of their tents on the north- 
east side of the building. Needing a place to hang their 
clothing, they bored holes in the weather boarding and in- 
serted Tvooden pins for clothes racks. These holes still re- 

The following constituted the first official board : Samuel 
T. Clark, Henry J. Venable, Thos. W. Crawley, J. W. Gills, 
James D. Crawley, and Robt. V. Davis. Records show that 
at this time there were only 96 members on roll. 

In 1919 the old Church building was remodeled. Eight 
Sunday School rooms were built and equipped, an attractive 
recess pulpit put in, furnace installed, and an imposing 
colonial front added. 

An Epworth League has recently been organized, which 
gives promise for splendid w^ork in the future. 

268 History of Prince Edward County 


Smyrna Church is located at Sheppards in Buckingham 
county, about ten miles from Prospect. Prior to 1873 it was 
on the Buckingham Circuit. Since that time it has been a 
member of Prospect Charge. 

History of Prince Edward County 269 

The following article was supplied by the Rev. J. M. 
Moser, then pastor of the Prospect M. E. Church: 

"The two churches, Prospect, and Olive Branch, of our 
Prospect Charge, sent twenty-one men into the various 
branches of service in the world war. 

Husie Glenn to Camp Taylor, and oversea. 

Peyton Glenn to Camp Lee, was made Sergeant, and 
saw duty oversea. 

Watkins Brisentine and his brother Allen were in Camps 
Lee, and Hancock. 

Hunter Ferguson to Camp Lee, and made Sergeant. 

Norwood Gallier was in Camp Lee, and was in action 

Frank Glenn was in Camp Lee, and made Sergeant. 

Leonard Fulcher in Camp Lee, and saw service oversea. 

Claude East in Camp Lee, and saw action oversea. 

Russll East first in Camp Eustis, and later in school and 
was training at University of Virginia. 

Robert Cocks to Navy, and made storekeeper. 

Robert Cheadle in Camp Lee. He died of pneumonia, 
following influenza. 

Warren Tomlinson in automobile training, and saw ser- 
vice oversea. 

Elmer Tomlinson, helper in war shops, up east some- 

Jake HopS;ins in Camp Lee. 

Isaac Glenn in school and war training at University of 

Bascom Taylor in school and war training at Randolph 
Macon College, Ashland, Virginia. 

Phil Swan to Camp Lee, saw action oversea, and was 
killed in battle there. 

270 History of Prince Edward County 

John Fore, saw action oversea, and, after Armistice, did 
police duty in Germany. 

Ernest AVoodall, in action oversea, and was seriously 

Henry Moore in the Navy. 

Both these churches were, without exception, warmly 
patriotic. All seemed bent and determined to do their part 
in all the war activities without hesitation or stint. 

During the whole time our boys were in camp and over- 
sea there was not a single service in our churches without 
fervent, faithful prayer for them, that in body they might 
be protected by the Great, Good Lord of Hosts; that in soul 
they might be kept pure, in life clean, and that after they 
had won the victory and set the world free, they might re- 
turn to us the same pure boys they were when they went away. 

We had no service flag, but we all kept and carried a 
service heart. 

Our boys were sent away with a farewell prayer service 
— a real overflow community prayer ineeting. And, on their 
return, we called them together in the same Church in a 
gracious service of thanksgiving to our Father for His won- 
derful goodness and mercy to our boys, and to us and our 

Our people were quite active and very generous in rais- 
ing all war funds, even the children catching up the patriotic 
spirit, both buying, and soliciting War Saving Stamps with 
a zeal that called out our best praise; so that in Ked Cross 
work, Y. M. C. A. work, Liberty Loans, and War Saving 
Stamps, our people truly excelled. We are not able to give 
the figures, but verily they were far into the thousands. We 
feel safe in making the statement that our people never 
turned down a single call for War Charities. Our men, our 
women, our children, were always ready to give, and to do, 
for the war and for relief." 

March 6, 1920. 

History of Prince Edward County 271 


This article was contributed by the Rev. O. M. Clarke, 
present pastor of the Church. 

Salem M. E. Churth, South, was organized in the fall of 
1884, as the outgrowth of a Sunday School organized in 
1883, at the home of Mr. C. L. Overton, by Mr. A. W. Drum- 
meller, of Farmville, and a revival meeting conducted at Rice, 
by Rev. J. S. Hunter of Farmville. 

There were fourteen charter members, as follows: 

Mrs. M. J. Hubbard, Mrs. M. R. Watson, Miss Betty 
Wade, John T. Branch, Mrs. M. B. Price, J. W. Garrett, 
Mrs. V. C. Garrett, W. H. Hubbard, J. E Hubbard, S. D. 
Hubbard, Miss Nannie B. Hubbard, (now Mrs. Amos, of 
Roanoke,) Miss Mary Watson (now Mrs. Smith, of Cumber- 
land) Miss Mary Watson (now Mrs. J. A. Hillsman,) Miss 
Anna Watson (now Mrs. John Morrissette). 

The Church was assigned to Burkeville Circuit, with 
Rev. J. B. Askew as its first pastor, who served until 1887. 

The following ministers have since served this Church: 
J. E. White, 1887, (died); W. E. Bullard, supply, 1887; T. 
M. Beckham, 1888-1890; F. B. Glenn, 1890-1892; R. L. Wing- 
field, 1892-1894; R. S. Baughan, 1894-1897; W. F. Hayes, 
1897-1899; J. E. Oiler, 1899-1900; Dr. Leek Spencer, 1900-. 
1903, (died) ; J. E. McCullough, supply; W. L. Jones, 1903- 
1907; T. E. Johnson, 1907-1909; W. A. S. Conrad, 1909-1911; 
R. G. James, 1911-1913; W. A. S. Conrad, 1913-1917; T. H. 
Stimson, 1917-1918 ; O. M. Clarke, 1918, to the present. 

Present officers: 

Rev. O. M. Clarke, Postor. 

J. E. Hubbard, Superintendent Sunday School. 

W. D. Mason, Treasurer. 

272 History of Prince Edward County 

Stewards: J. E. Hubbard; George Frank; M. T. Gar- 

Assistant Stewards: W. D. Mason; H. H. Hubbard; W. 
H. Price. 

Trustees: J. E. Hubbard; George Frank; W. D. Mason; 
W. H. Price; H. H. Hubbard. 

The gross income for last year, for all purposes, was 

History of Prince Edward County 273 


Somewhere about the year 1740, reports came to Virginia 
of awakenings and revivals of religion occurring in the North, 
and some books, differing from those in common use, found 
their way for the first time into Virginia, and disturbed the 
minds of many persons in the counties of Hanover, Louisa, 
and thereabouts. Finding nothing corresponding with these 
teachings in the sermons of the clergy of the established, or 
Episcopal Church, and deeming them to be Scriptural, as 
opposed to that of the clergy, some of these people of the laity, 
separated themselves from the usual services, which by law 
they were bound to attend, and read sermons in private 

These things came to the ears of the then Governor of the 
State, Governor Gooch, and he became much offended, and, 
summoning a general court, delivered a charge complaining of 
the conduct of those laymen and preachers who, professing to 
be Presbyterians, yet utterly disregarded the Act of Tol- 
eration, and produced much discord in the colony. This 
charge was laid before the Synod of Philadelphia, by a mes- 
senger for Virginia. 

The Synod, having considered the matter, sent the fol- 
lowing address to the Governor: — 

"May it please your Honour, the favorable acceptance 
which your Honour was pleased to give our former address, 
and the countenance and protection whix^h those of our per- 
suasion have met with in Virginia, fills us with gratitude, and 
we beg leave on this occasion with all sincerity to express 
the same. It very deeply affects us to find that any who go 
from these parts, and perhaps assume the name of Pres- 
byterians, should be guilty of such practices, such uncharit- 
able and unchristian expressions, as are taken notice of in your 

274 History of Prince Edward County 

Honour's charge to the Grand Jury. And, in the meantime, 
it gives us the greatest pleasure that we can assure your Hon- 
our that these persons never belonged to our body, but are 
missionaries, sent out by some, who, by reason of their divi- 
sions and uncharitable doctrines and practices, were, in May, 
1741, excluded from our Synod, upon which they erected them- 
selves into a separate society, and having industriously sent 
abroad persons whom we judge ill qualified for the character 
they assume, to divide and trouble the churches. And, there- 
fore, we humbly pray, that while those who belong to us, and 
produce proper testimonials, behave themselves suitably, they 
may still enjoy the favor of your Honour's countenance and 
protection. And, praying for the divine blessing on your 
Honour's person and government, we beg leave to subscribe 
ourselves your Honour's, etc. etc. 


These persons, thus complained of, are identified by an 
address to the House of Burgesses, sent at about this time, 
as follows: 


'''To the Worshipful the Speaker and Gentlemen of the Hou^e 

of Burgesses. 

"The humble petition of some of the clergy of this Domin- 
ion showeth: 

"That there have been frequently held in the counties of 
Hanover, Henrico, Goochland, and some others, for several 
years past, numerous assemblies, especially of the common 
people, upon a pretended religious account, — convened some- 
times by merely lay enthusiasts, who, in these meetings, read 
sundry fanatical books and use long extempore prayers and 
discourses, — sometimes by strolling, pretended ministers, and 
at present by one Mr. Samuel Davies, who has fixed himself 
in Hanover; and, in the counties of Amelia and Albemarle, 

History of Prince Edward County 275 

by a person who calls himself Mr. Ceimick, well known in 
England by his intimac^y with Mr. Whitelield. 

"That though these teachers and their adherents (except 
the above-mentioned Cennick) assume the denomination of 
Presbyterians, yet we think they have no just claim to that 
character, as the ringleaders of the party were, for their 
erroneous doctrines and practices, excluded from the Presby- 
terian Synod of Philadelphia in May, 1741, (as appears from 
an address of said Synod to our Governor;) nor have they, 
since that time, made any recantation of their errors, nor 
have been readmitted as members of that Synod, which 
Synod, though of many years standing, never was reprehended 
for errors in doctrine, discipline, or government, either by 
the established Kirk of Scotland, the Presbyterian Dissen- 
ters in England, or any other body of Presbyterians what- 
soever. Whence we beg leave to conclude, that the dis- 
tinguishing tenets of these teachers before mentiond are of 
dangerous consequences to religion in general, and that the 
authors and propagators thereof are deservedly stigmatized 
with a name (New-Lights) unknown till of late in this part 
of the world. 

"That your petitioners further humbly conceive that, 
though these excluded members of the Synod of Philadelphia 
w^ere really Presbyterians, or of any of the other sects toler- 
ated in England, yet there is no law in this Colony by vir- 
tue whereof they can be entitled to a license to preach, far 
less to send forth their emmissaries, or to travel themselves 
over several counties, (to many places without invitation) to 
gain proselytes to their way; 'to inveigle ignorant and un- 
worthy people with their sophistry;' and, under pretence 
of greater degrees of piety among them than can be found 
among the members of the Established Church, to seduce 
them from their lawful teachers and the religion hitherto 
professed in this Dominion. 

276 History of Prince Edward County 

"Your petitioners therefore, confiding in the wisdom and 
piety of this worshipful House, the guardians of their reli- 
gious as well as their civil privileges, and being deeply sensible 
of the inestimable value of the souls committed to their charge, 
of the infectious and pernicious tendency, nature, and conse- 
(](uences of heresy and schism, and of the sacred and solemn 
obligations they are under 'To be ready with all faithful dili- 
gence to banish and drive away all erroneous and strange doc- 
trines contrary to God's word, and to use their utmost care 
that the flock of Christ may be fed with the sincere milk of 
the word only,' humbly pray that the good laws, formerly 
in that case made and provided, may be strictly put in execu- 
tion; particularly that entitled 'ministers to be inducted.' And, 
as we humbly think this law still retains its primitive force 
and vigour, so we pray that it may on this occasion effectual- 
ly exert the same, to the end that all novel notions and per- 
plexing, uncertain doctrines and speculations, which tend to 
the subversion of true religion, designed by its admirable 
Author to direct the faith and practice of reasonable creatures, 
may be suitably checked and discouraged. And that this 
Church, of which we are members, and which our forefathers 
justly esteemed a most invaluable blessing, worthy by all 
prudent and honourable means to be defended and supported, 
being by us in the same manner regarded, may remain 'the 
pillar and ground of truth,' and glory of this Colony, which 
hitherto hath been remarkably happy for uniformity of re- 

"And your petitioners, as in duty bound, shall ever pray, 

®^^* "D. MossoM, 

"John Brunskill, 
"Pat. Henry, (Rev.) 
"John Robertson, 
"Robert Barrett." 

History of Prince Edward County 277 

The result of this protest from these five clergymen, was 
that Mr. Davies was summoned to appear before the House 
and plead his own cause, which he did with such ability that 
he appears to have secured recognition, though not to the 
extent that he had hoped for. He was allowed to continue 
his work with some restrictions. His labors were confined 
to the Hanover Presbytery which embraced the territory after- 
wards composing Prince Edward county, most of his efforts 
being concentrated on that section of his territory. His zeal 
and eloquence attracted great crowds, and drew many from 
the Episcopal churches, which stirred up continual opposi- 
tion to him. He was more or less directly instrumental in 
the establishment of the Academy of Prince Edward, now 
Hampden-Sidney College. He was afterward President of 
Princeton College, New Jersey. How he obtained recogni- 
tion from the Synod of Philadelphia does not appear, nor 
does it appear that he was amongst those originally expelled 
by that body. 

The progress of the Presbyterians in Prince Edward 
county has been co-existent with the growth of Hampden- 
Sidney College and the reader is directed to the chapter deal- 
ing with that institution for further information, as touch- 
ing those early days of the Church. 

Another factor in the decline of the Established Church 
that did so much to accelerate the growth of the Presbyterians 
in Prince Edward, was the defection of the Rev. Archibald 
McRoberts from the Episcopal Church and his adherence to 
the Presbyterian Church. This good man was ordained in 
1763, and continued a minister of the Episcopal Church untU 
1779. When he withdrew, he was located in a parish in 
Prince Edward, and lived at Providence, on the glebe near 
Prince Edward Court House, from whence, on July 13, 1780, 
he wrote his friend Mr. Jarratt, regarding the change he had 
made. In that letter he says: — 

278 History of Prince Edward County 

•'Upon the strictest inquiry it appears to me that the 
Church of Christ is truly and properly independent; and I 
am a dissenter under that denomination. Ecclesiastical mat- 
ters among the Presbyterians I find every day verging toward 
my sentiments, and will, I believe, terminate there. There is 
very little that divides us even now. They constantly attend 
my poor ministry. Several of Mr. Sankey's people have joined 
my congregation, and I have lately had a most delightful 
communion-season at Cumberland, where I assisted Mr. 
Smith, at the urgent request of himself and the elders. Soon 
after my dissent, as my concern for the people had suffered 
no change, I drew up a set of articles including the essential 
parts of natural and revealed religion, together with the Con- 
stitution and Discipline of the Christian Church, and pro- 
posed them to their consideration; since which they have 
formed a congregation at the chapel, and a few have acceded 
at French's and Sandy River. I preach at the churches by 
permission, and intend to continue, God willing, until the 
first of January, at which time, if congregations should not 
be formed at the lower churches, my time wdll be confined to 
the chapel, and such other places as Providence may point 
out and the good spirit of God unite his people at." 

He was a Scotchman by birth. The following incident is 
related of him: "Most of the able-bodied men of Prince 
Edward were off with the army, on duty elsewhere, when 
Tarleton, with his troops of cavalry made a foray through that 
and the neighboring counties. He visited sundry houses in 
Prince Edward, attempted to frighten women and children, 
destroyed much furniture, and otherwise did much wanton 
mischief. A detachment was also sent to the glebe, and Mr. 
McRoberts had hardly time to escape. They ripped open- 
feather-beds, broke mirrors, etc., and went off, having set fire 
to the house. It burned slowly at first, but the building 
would have been consumed had not a shower of rain come 
up suddenly and extinguished the flames. Mr. McRoberts, 

History of Prince Edward County 279 

who regarded this as a special interposition of providence, 
called the place PROVIDENCE." 

The name stuck, and such it was known ever after. 
Later on, the glebe became the property of Colonel Venable. 
(Meade, Vol. I, 448.) 

It would appear that two of Mr. McRoberts' sons gradua- 
ated with the first class from Hampden- Sidney College. 

The Rev. Richard Sankey, ordained in 1739 by the Pres- 
bytery of Donegal, in Pennsylvania, moved to Prince Edward 
county with his entire congregation, establishing his work at 
French's, a little to the northeast of Kingsville. He was the 
first regularly installed Presbyterian minister in the county. 
Other Presbyterian churches of these early days of the county, 
now extinct, were Briery, 1748; Buffalo, 1759; and Watkins, 

280 History of Prince Edward County 


There is a tradition that the Farmville Presbyterian 
Church was organized in 1828, but that is not borne out by 
the facts, as the following paper discloses : 

"Petition of the members of Hanover Church, worship- 
ping at Farmville, Va., to West Hanover Presbytery, ask- 
ing a division of Hanover Church, October 8th, 1844. 

Farmville, Va., Oct. 8th, 1844. 
The Memorial and Petition of members of the Hanover 
Church, (Prince Edward county) usually worshipping at 
Farmville, to AVest Hanover Presbytery: 

Your petitioners respectfully request that the Presbytery 
would divide Hanover Church, organizing one of the divis- 
ions at Farmville. The records of the proceedings of Han- 
over Church in reference to the desired division will ac- 
company this petition, and we ask that the same be considered 
a part of this memorial. The representatives of the Hanover 
Church in Presbytery will give the necessary explanations in 
reference to the wishes of the memorialists. 

We are not advised that it will be contrary to the con- 
stitution, or form of Government of the Presbyterian Church, 
to permit the present pastor of the Church to have charge of 
the two churches and, as your memorialists do not desire a 
change in our pastoral relations, they ask that a division 
be made contemplating such an arrangement. 

Your memorialists will only add, that the members of 
Hanover Church, usually worshipping at Farmville, are near- 
ly, if not entirely unanimous in the request herein presented. 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. N. Watkins, M. A. Watkins, C. R. Barksdale, Ed. M. 
Barksdale, John Dupuy, Ann Dupuy, Wm. C. Flournoy, (by 

History of Prince Edward County 281 

F. N. W.), M. W. Flournoy, M. R. Flippen, Caroline Flip- 
pen, Wm. M. Womack, N. D. Price, M. T. Price, M. E. 
Venable (by F. N. W. by permission), Mary C. Womack, 
Jacob W. Morton, Mary Jane Morton, Wm. C. Chappell, A. 
W. Millspaugh, C. C. Read, A. E. Read, Mary P. Venable, 
Charles T. Carrington, C. Scott Venable, E. G. Venable, 
Mary E. Venable, Sarah S. Venable." 

This paper, the original of which is now in the hands 
of Mrs. Henry Edmunds of Farmville, Va., reveals the fact, 
that the Church was organized in 1844 with twenty-seven 
charter members, and was set off from the College Church, 
which was then known as Hanover Church, and was served 
by the same minister as the College, or Hanover Church. 
The minister was Rev. Wm. C. Scott, who seems to have 
served the Church till 1854. He was succeeded by Rev. 
Michael Osborne, who, served till 1863. Then followed in suc- 
cession. Rev. Richard Mcllwaine, 1864-1870; Rev. H. H. 
Hawes, 1871-1885; Rev. W. H. Neel, 1885-1888; Rev. E. H. 
Harding, 1891-1908; Rev. J. G. McAllister, 1903-1905; Rev. 
H. T. Graham, 1905-1909; Rev. W. E. Hill, 1909-1912; Rev. 
Andrew Allen, 1912-1916; and Rev. Charles F. Rankin, to 
the present time. 

At the time the Farmville Church was organized. West 
Hanover Presbytery was composed of thirteen churches, the 
oldest of which was Cumberland, organized in 1754, having 
had a history of nearly a century when the infant Farmville 
Church was born. The Presbytery now has forty-eight 
churches on its roll. 

The present house of worship at Farmville, is the origi- 
nal building, and the lot on which it stands, is said to have 
been given by Col. James Madison, grandfather of Mr. Wil- 
liam G. Dunington. To the original building has been added 
the portico, and the Sunday School annex, which was built 
during the pastorate of the Rev. W. H. Neel, and just now 

282 History of Prince Edward County 

the congregation is preparing to add another wing to the 
building, containing eighteen class rooms, for the purposes of 
a modern Sunday School. 

During its seventy-eight years of history, the Church has 
grown from a membership of twenty-seven, to an enrollment 
of three hundred and sixty; and, from the modest contribu- 
tions of those early days, to an annual budget of about $12,- 
000, and is now the second largest Church in the Presbytery, 
Charlottesville ranking first. 

It would appear that the Farmville Church, before the 
War between the States, had an endowment, as was true of 
some other churches in this section, and that this endow- 
ment consisted largely in slaves; of course the Church lost 
its endowment with the close of the war. This perhaps, 
seemed a great loss to the congregation at that time, but, 
doubtless, was a great blessing in disguise, as has been pro- 
ven in so many other cases where a Church has lost its en- 

Many of the names of those twenty-seven charter mem- 
bers still appear on the roll of the Church, in their descend- 
ants, as officers and members of the Church, who are worthily 
carrying on the work which their fathers and mothers so 
bravely began. And this old Church, which has waxed 
stronger as the decades have gone by, bids fair to render a 
more glorious service in the future than it has in the past; 
for, to the manhood of old age, it adds the lustiness of youth. 

(Note: With some unimportant alterations, the above 
most excellent record was furnished by the Rev. C. F. Rankin. 
It would appear that some substantial grounds for the tradi- 
tion that this congregation was formed in 1828, exists in the 
probability that that date is meant to mark the time when 
Presbyterian services were first held in Farmville in connec- 

History of Prince Edward County 283 

tion with the Cumberland, Hanover (or College) Churches; 
the erection of the independent Church taking the place in 
1844, as stated above. — Editor.) 

The following compose the official membership of the 
Church at the present time: 

Pastor; The Rev. Charles F. Rankin. 

Elders: Dr. P. A. Irving, Clerk of Session. W. D. M. 
Stokes, E. A. Richardson, Joel Watkins, Judge George J. 
Hundley, Judge Asa D. Watkins, J. J Adams, W. T. Clark. 

Deacons: Capt. S. W. Watkins, Chairman and Treasurer 
of the Church; George Richardson, Assistant Treasurer of 
Church; R. B. Cralle, F. H. Hanbury, C. W. Blanton, C. 
W. Harrison, Charles Scheffield, Horace Adams, R. B. Johns, 
A. V. Wade, J. T. Thompson, F. W. Mcintosh, E. W. Husted, 
F. S. Blanton, B. M. Cox. 

Superintendent of Sunday School: F. S. Blanton. 

Officers of Women's Auxiliary: 

President: Miss Carrie Bliss. 
Vice-Pres. : Mrs. A. B. Armstrong. 
Secretary: Mrs. E. S. Shields. 
Treasurer: Mrs. P. A. Irving. 

Circle Leaders of Women's Auxiliary: 

Mrs. George Richardson. 
Mrs. Henry B. Smith. 
Mrs. C. A. Price. 
Mrs. George Rex. 
Mrs. S. W. Watkins. 

284 History of Prince Edward County 



This Church was first organized under the name, "Han- 
over Church," which name was subsequently changed by the 
Presbytery to "College Church," and is located at Hampden- 
Sidney, in the immediate vicinty of the College, and is, of 
course, the College Church. 

On the 20th of October, 1835, "Hanover Church," (the 
present "College Church") was organized under orders of 
Presbytery, by a division of "Cumberland Church," which 
formerly embraced the territory and the membership of the 
present "Cumberland Church," the "College Church," and the 
Farmville Church, with the following officers: First pastor, 
the Rev. Benjamin M. Staunton, D. D., who was ordained in 
1835; ruling elders: Major James Morton, Dr. Goodrich 
Wilson, Moses Tredway, Armistead Burwell, James Madison, 
John Rice, Silas Biglow, Clement C. Read, Samuel Lyle, 
Samuel C. Anderson. 

This new organization included ruling elders. Dr. Good- 
rich Wilson, Col. James Madison, Col. John Rice, Clement 
Read, Samuel Lyle, and Samuel C. Anderson. 

The Church thus organized embraced "College Church" 
proper, and the Farmville Church, and so continued until the 
21st of December, 1844, when a portion of the members of 
this Church was organized as a Church to be known as the 
Farmville Church. 

On the 1st of May, 1840, the following were elected rul- 
ing elders: Henry E. Watkins, Dr. Peyton R. Berkeley, 
Nathaniel E. Venable, and Thomas Flournoy, Mr. Flournoy 
subsequently removed to the neighborhood of Farmville, and 
it is believed, never acted as elder in the College Church. 

On the 1st day of March, 1845, at a meeting of the Han- 

History of Prince Edward County 285 

over congregation, held at College Church, agreeable to 
previous notice, the following were elected as ruling elders: 
Asa D. Dickinson, John Hughes, Dr. B. F. Terry. 

In September of 1856, the following were elected deacons 
in this Church, being the first of that class of officers : Robert 
C. Anderson, James A. Womack, John A. Dalby. At the 
same time Abraham C. Carrington was elected ruling elder. 

In December 1859, Edwin Edmunds, Henry C. Guthrie, 
and Henry Stokes, were elected ruling elders. 

In May, 1860, A. R. Venable and Charles Baskerville 
were elected deacons. On the 12th of August, 1871, Louis L. 
Holladay and Andrew R. Venable were elected to the elder- 
ship, while Henry W. Edmunds and John M. Venable were 
made deacons. 

The following have served the Church as pastors: 

Rev. B. M. Staunton, D. D., 1835-1840. 

Upon the death of Dr. Staunton, Rev. James W. Alexan- 
der of Princeton, N. J., was called but declined. 

Rev. Patrick I. Sparrow, D. D., June 26, 1841-1847. 

Rev. Benjamin H. Rice, D. D., ordained, June, 1848- 
1858, when he died. 

Drs. R. L. Dabney and B. M. Smith, joint pastors, 1858- 

Drs. Smith and Peck, supplied, 1874-1875. 

Rev. Charles A. White, D. D., 1875-1891, when he died. 

Rev. Richard Mcllwaine, D. D., 1891-1895. 

Rev. James Murray, D. D., 1895-1907. 

Rev. W. J. King, 1907-1917. 

Rev. Edgar G. Gammon, D. D., 1917. 

286 History of Prince Edward County 

The following are the officers for the current year, 1921. 

Session : The Rev. Edgar G. Gammon, D. D., Moderator. 
A. W. McWhorter, Clerk; E. L. Dupuy, J. D. Eggleston, P. 
T. Akinson, R. E. Stokes. 

Deacons : J. H. Rodgers, Allan Stokes, John Allen, T. J. 

Church Treasurer: E. L. Dupuy. 

The total income of the Church for the current year, 
(1921) was $12,040.16. 

The value of the Church property, including the fine 
new manse, erected in 1920, is approximately $50,000. 

The Church has made marked progress under the pas- 
toral charge of the Rev. Dr. Gammon, a sketch of whom will 
be found in the chapter on "Who's Who in Prince Edward," 
in this work. 

Hutory of Prince Edward County 287 

War Record. 

This Church had but one representative in the Great 
War, Private James Blanton V^ughan, who trained at Camp 
Lee and served overseas. He was discharged on March 1st, 
1919, from Camp Dix. The Church as a whole, responded 
to all calls throughout the war period, including war chari- 
ties. Prayers were offered for the success of the Allies, and 
a fervent patriotism was in evidence. The minister of the 
Church, the Rev. F. W. Osborn, led his people in all their 
war activities. 

288 History of Prince Edward County 


The following article respecting Liberty Church, was 
furnished by the Rev. F. W. Berry, present pastor of the 
Church : 

This Church was first organized in 1847. Its first loca- 
tion was near the Richmond and Danville R. R., three miles 
N. E. from Green Bay. There were twenty-three charter 
members, with two elders: S. H. Wootton, and William Wal- 

In the year 1881 the Church was moved to Green Bay, 
its present location. Since locating at Green Bay, the Church 
has furnished the charter membership for three Churches, 
namely, Beulah, at Rice; Bethel, in Lunenburg Co.; and 

The present membership is one hundred and four. The 
officers are: 

Elders: L. D. Jones; F. W. Berry. 

Deacons: F. H. Jones; S. C. Coleman; G. W. Palmer. 

Secretary-treasurer: F. H. Jones. 

The total income for aU purposes in 1921 was $450. 

The following men from the congregation served in the 
world war : R. W. Jones ; L. A. Snow ; W. R. Berry ; Thomas 
Weaver, overseas; S. S. Flippen and O. C. Bonner, at home 

History of Prince Edward County 289 


The author is indebted for the following very excellent 
sketch of the colored churches of the county, to the Rev. P. 
W. Price, who, besides serving a group of colored Baptist 
churches, is the principal of a large colored school in Farm- 
ville. The sketch is presented almost verbatim as prepared 
by him. 

There are at present in the county of Prince Edward, 
twenty colored churches, with an approximate membership of 
5,665; namely: Alabama; Beulah A. M. E.; Calvary; First 
Baptist, Farmville; First Rocks; High Bridge; High Rock; 
Levi; Mercy Seat; Mount Zion; Mount Moriah; Monroe; 
New Hope; New Witt; Peaks; Prospect A. M. E. ; Race 
Street, Farmville; Sulphur Springs; Triumph; and Zion 

The oldest of these, and the churches from which most 
of the others sprang, are. First Baptist, Farmville; Mount 
Zion; Sulphur Springs; Triumph; and New Hope. These 
were organized by colored members from white churches of 
which they were memlDers before the jemancipation, and 
in some instances with the aid and advice of the white friends 
who were members of the churches from which they ob- 
tained their letters of dismission to form the exclusive col- 
ored churches. 

The value of the colored church property is about $37,- 
000. These churches pay to their pastors about $5,300 an- 
nually. To Foreign Missions they pay about $300, and to 
Home Misssions (most of which is used in the county to 
help build schools and pay teachers,) about $19,000. 

A few of the consecrated pioneers who havte nursed 
these churches during their earlier years, often men of 
limited education, but men with fixed faith in God, were 
Revs. John White ; Carter Braxton ; Robert Watkins ; Armis- 
tead Burkley; and Nelson Jordan. 

1. Hampden-Sidney College. 

2. Union Theological Seminary, Richmond. 

3. State Female Normal School, Farmville. 

4. Colored Schools. 

History of Prince Edward County 293 



This institution, a College for men, originated as an 
Academy, established by the Presbytery of Hanover, 1774- 
1775, and known as "Prince Edward Academy," and for- 
mally opened, January 1, 1776. 

The circumstances leading up to its establishment were 
briefly these: 

Virginia was at the first settled by Englishmen, most of 
whom were members of the Church of England, now called 
the Episcopal Church. Dissenters were very few in number, 
but grew steadily, so that some years previous to the Revo- 
lutionary War, they had become a rather considerable body. 
They possessed no independent institution of higher learning, 
William and Mary, then the only College in the state, being 
under the control of the Episcopalians. 

At about this time, the Rev. Samuel Davies, of Hanover 
county, with other of like mind, formed the Hanover Pres- 
bytery of the Presbyterian Church. The bulk of the Presby- 
terians in the lower part of the state, were then residing in 
Prince Edward and the nearby counties. This newly formed 
Presbytery determined to found an institution more in sym- 
pathy with their ideals than William and Mary, and did 
so at about the above date. 

The Academy was organized into a College and chartered 
in 1783. It received its name from those two valiant cham- 
pions and martyrs of liberty John Hampden and Algernon 
Sidney. When established, it was dependent upon private 
munificence, and has continued from its inception to be sup- 

294 History of Prince Edward County 

ported by private benefactions. Next to William and Mary, 
it is the oldest College in the South. 

The many fine buildings of the College, occupy an ele- 
vated, healthy, aoid attractive situation seven miles from 
Farmville and about eighty miles from Richmond. The vil- 
lage of Hampden-Sidney and the College buildings are 
lighted by electricity supplied from Farmville. At the 
present time there are seventeen buildings in the College 
group, residences included, and the grounds comprise some 
two hundred and twenty-six acres, with one hundred and 
thirty and six-tenths acres still to come from the Venables' 

It is said that more instructors have come from this insti- 
tution, than from any other in the Southern States. 

The Presidents of Hampden-Sidney College, since its 
inception, are as follows: 

Rev. Samuel Stanhope Smith, D.D., LL.D., 1775-1779. 

Rev. John Blair Smith, D.D., 1779-1789. 

Rev. Drury Lacy, D.D., 1789-1797. 

Rev. Archibald Alexander, D.D., LL.D., 1797-1806. 

Rev. Moses Hoge, D.D., 1807-1820. 

Jonathan P. Cushing, A.M., 1821-1835. 

Rev. Daniel Lynn Carroll, D.D., 1835-1838. 

Rev. William Maxwell, LL.D., 1838-1844. 

Rev. Patrick J. Sparrow, D.D., 1845-1847. 

Rev. Lewis W. Green, D.D., 1848-1856. 

Rev. John M. P. Atkinson, D.D., 1857-1883. 

Rev. Robert Mcllwaine, D.D., LL.D., 1883-1904. 

Rev. James Gray McAllister, D.D., 1905-1908. 

History of Prince Edward County 295 

Rev. Henry Tucker Graham, D. D., 1908-1917. 
Joseph DuPuy Eggleston, A.M., LL.D., 1919. 

The broken periods in the above line were filled by Com- 
mittees and Acting Presidents, the following serving in one 
or other of these capacites: William S. Reid, D.D., 1807; 
Messrs. M. Lyle, James Morton, William Berkeley, John 
Miller, J. P. Wilson, 1820-1821; George A. Baxter, D.D., 1835; 
S. B. Wilson, D.D., F. S. Sampson, D.D., 1847-1848; Charles 
Martin, A.B., 1848-1849, 1856-1857; Rev. Albert L. Holladay 
(Died before taking office), 1856; James R. Thornton. A.M., 
1904; William H. Whiting, Jr., A.M., 1904-1905, 1908-1909; 
J. H. C. Bagby, Ph.D., 1906; Ashton W. McWhorter, A.M., 
Ph.D., 1917-1919. 

Amongst the notable names in the long and honorable 
history of Hampden-Sidney, none shine with greater bril- 
liance than that of the Rev. Samuel Stanhope Smith, to whom 
is given the credit for the founding of the original Prince 
Edward Academy. He was a native of Lancaster county, 
Penna., and a graduate of the College of New Jersey, of the 
class of 1769. He subsequently united with the Presbytery of 
Hanover, Virginia, and so pressed the cause of education as 
to make his name historic in the early annals of the Common- 
wealth. He was the first Rector of the Academy, and, under 
his control and direction, and stirred by his almost magical 
influence, it attained a remarkable prosperity. He resigned in 
October, 1779, in order to accept the professorship of Moral 
Philosophy in his Alma Mater in New Jersey, and his broth- 
er, the Rev. John Blair Smith, was appointed to succeed 
him. He was the last Rector of the Academy, and the first 
President of the College proper. These two remarkable men, 
brothers, exerted a permanent and lasting influnce upon the 
religious and the educational life of the Commonwealth. 

It is worthy of note that not so much respect for "moral 

296 History of Prince Edward County 

suasion" was entertained at Hampden- Sidney in those early 
days, as to exclude at least occasional recourse to corporeal 
punishment. This form of punishment was generally re- 
served for the members of the grammar school, but the su- 
perior dignity of the Sophomores and the Juniors was not 
always safe from invasion, though the Collegiate classes were 
usually exempt. 

It is also worthy of note that in the early financial prob- 
lems of the institution, the trustees did not hold back from 
accepting the friendly aid of the lottery schemes, at that 
time flourishing. At so late a date as 1797, at a meeting of 
the Board, upon the occasion of the installation of Dr. Archi- 
bald Alexander, afterwards the founder of the Theological 
School of Princeton, as President of the College, a petition 
to the General Assembly of the state for a lottery to be 
conducted in favor of Hampden-Sidney, was most gravely 
approved and recorded ! 

From 1776, through to 1820, the Academy, and later the 
College, were enabled to exist through the union of the pas- 
toral office with the Presidency of the school; the President 
of the College being later installed as Pastor of the Prince 
Edward and Cumberland Churches. In 1820 that union was 
permanently dissolved. 

The Hanover Presbytery was determined in its choice of 
the site for the school, by the liberality of Peter Johnston of 
Prince Edward county, who donated about one hundred 
acres of land in his county for the purposes of Prince Ed- 
ward Academy. The land was situated in the tobacco-grow- 
ing section, where money currency had but limited circula- 
tion. This Peter Johnston, of Longwood, was a Scotchman, 
and a member of the Scottish Episcopal Church. He was 
the friend and correspondent of the father of Sir Walter 
Scott, and was the adjutant of General Lighthorse Harry 
Lee's famous Legion during the Revolutionary War. His 

History of Prince Edward County 297 

son, Peter Johnston, was a member of the first class of the 
institution, and was the father of the famous Gen. Joseph 
E. Johnston of Virginia fame. 

Among the Trustees of the original Academy may be 
noted the names of James Madison (1751-1836) fourth Presi- 
dent of the United States, and Patrick Henry (who is be- 
lieved to have drafted the college charter) subsequently Gov- 
ernor of Virginia. These names, amongst others, indicate 
that the institution was a product of the struggle for reli- 
gious and civil liberty. 

The legislative government of the College was originally 
vested in twenty-seven Trustees, who had authority to fill 
all vacancies occurring in their own body. The following is 
a partial list of the original incorporators and trustees : Rich- 
ard Sankey, John Todd, Samuel Leake, Caleb Wallace, 
Peter Johnston (donor of the land), Col. Paul Carrington, 
Col. John Nash, Jr., Capt. John Morton, Capt. Nathaniel 
Venable, Col. \Thomas Read, James Venable, Francis N. 
Watkins. The following were subsequently added to this 
number: Rev. David Rice, Col. Patrick Henry, Col. John 
Tabb, Col. William Cabell, and Col. James Madison, Jr. 

The College succeeded the Academy in 1783 by Act of 
the General Assembly, of that date, and the following were 
noted as the incorporators: Rev. John Blair Smith, Patrick 
Henry, William Cabell, Sr., Paul Carrington, Robert Law- 
son, James Madison, John Nash, Nathaniel Venable, Francis 
Watkins, John Morton, Thomas Reade, William Booker, 
"Hhomas Scott, Sr., James Allen, Charles Allen, Samuel 
Woodson Venable, Joseph Parke, Richard Foster, Peter John- 
ston, Rev. Richard Sankey, Rev. John Todd, Rev. David Rice, 
Rev. Archibald McRobert, Everard Meade, Joel Watkins, 
James Venable, and William Morton. 

By an Amendment to the Charter, secured February, 

298 History of Prince Edward County 

1919, the number of trustees was reduced to twenty-five, and 
vacancies occurring in the Board to be filled by the Synod 
of Virginia. 

The following constitute the Board of Trustees at the 
present time (1921) : J. B. Bittinger, D.D., Charles A. 
Blanton, M.D., J. E. Booker, D.D., W. C. Campbell, D.D., 
A. B. Carrington, A. B. Dickinson, Hon. Don P. Halsey, J. 
Nat Harrison, Hon. H. R. Houston, Hon. F. B. Hutton, 
Paulus A. Irving, M.D., Hon. C. P. Janney, Col. C. C. Lewis, 
Jr., F. T. McFaden, D.D., H. W. McLaughlin, D.D., W. W. 
Moore, D.D., LL.D., J. Scott Parish, Col. John H. Pinner, 
W. H. T. Squires, D.D., Ernest Thompson, D.D., Hon. James 
L. Treadway, Hon. E. Lee Trinkle, A. L. Tynes, M.D., 
Hon. A. D. Watkins, B. F. Wison, D.D. 

The literary degrees conferred under the Charter, were 
first bestowed, September 22nd, 1786, at which time the de- 
gree of A. B. was awarded Kemp Plummer, David Meade, 
James Watt, Ebenezer McRoberts, Thomas McRoberts, Nash 
lieGrand, and John W. Eppes, seven in all. The last two 
distinguished themselves in after life, the one as an Evangel- 
ist, the other as a member of Congress. 

The following compose the Faculty of the institution at 
the present time : 

Joseph DuPuy Eggleston, A.M., LL.D., President. (See, 
"Who's Who in Prince Edward.") 

A. W. McWhorter, A.M., Ph.D. Dean. 

Henry Clay Brock, B. Lit., Professor Emeritus of Greek. 

J. H. C. Bagby, M.A., M.E., Ph.D., Professor of Physics 
and Astronomy. 

J. H. C. Winston, A.B., B.S., PhD., Professor of Chem- 
istry and Geology. 

William H. Whiting, Jr., A.B., A.M., Professor of Latin 
and Spanish. 




i ° 

o 3i 
o t/3 









History of Prince Edward County 290 

Ashton W. McWhorter, A.M., Ph.D., Professor of Greek. 

John A. Clarke, A.B., M.A., Professor of French and 

Asa D. Watkins, A.B., B.D., Professor of English. 

James S. Miller, B.S., C.E., Sc.D., Professor of Mathe- 

J. B. Massey, A.B., B.D., D.D., Professor of Bible, Phil- 
osophy, and Psj^chology. 

Thomas Gary Johnson, Jr., B.A., M.A., Professor of 
History and Economics. 

Thomas Smyth, B.S., Professor of Biology. 

Benjamin D. Painter, A.B., B.S., Assistant in Mathe- 
matics and Modern Languages. 

F. T. McFaden, Instructor in Mathematics. 

Despite the fact that repeated efforts have been made 
to secure an adequate endowment, it is a fact that Hampden- 
Sidney has today the smallest endowment of any standard 
College in the whole Southland. 

Founded in faith and prayer, it makes a confident appeal 
to the aid and loyalty of its constituency; the whole of the 
United States of America! 

The usual Societies and Fraternities flourish among the 

Athletics also flourish, a fine athletic field of some five 
or six acres — Venable Field — immediately adjoins the college 

A fine library of some 15,000 volumes is available to 
the student. 

The present enrollment of the College is one hundred and 

Some four hundred former students of Hampden- Sidney 
saw service during the Great World War, eleven of whom 
made the Supreme Sacrifice. 

300 History of Prince Edward County 


This institution originated in the efforts of the Han- 
over Presbytery and the Synod of Virginia, to give the can- 
didates for their ministry a more complete theological train- 
ing than was then available. Such efforts were put forth as 
early as 1812, but it did not get into regular operation until 
1824. It was located in the immediate vicinity of Hampden- 
Sidney. It had a very successful history but was moved to 
Richmond in 1898. Many of the most successful ministers of 
the Presbyterian Church look back with fond recollections to 
the years spent at the Union Theolgical Seminary while it 
was located in Prince Edward County. 

To the Rev. John Holt Rice, D.D., born November 28, 
1777, and who died in Prince Edward County, September 
2, 1831, belongs the credit for the founding of this institution. 
He was then an instructor at Hampden-Sidney. It was at 
the head of the Seminary that he passed his last years. He 
was famous as an orator of unusual powers and as a writer 
of ease, fertility and force. 

History of Prince Edward County 301 


On March 5th, 1839, the Legislature of Virginia incor- 
porated "The Farmville Female Seminary Association." 
Messrs. W. C. Flournoy; James E. Venable; Thomas Flour- 
noy; William Wilson; George Daniel; Willis Blanton; and 
James Ely were the incorporators. The capital stock was 
$30,000, to be divided into 300 shares each, of the par value 
of $100: {Acts of 1839, page 120). 

By deed dated May 26th, 1842, George Whitfield Read 
and Charlotte his wife, in consideration of $1,400, conveyed 
to "The Farmville Female Seminary Association," lots Nos. 
105 and 107 containing one acre of land. These lots were 
the same which James Madison, trustee for Josiah Chambers, 
had, in consideration of $1,250, conveyed to George W. Read 
by a deed dated April 3rd, 1836. For these deeds see Deed 
Book 22, page 56, and Deed Book 23, page 384. 

While excavating for the foundation of a new building 
that was erected for the State Female Normal School, in 
1897, the Corner Stone in the old building of the Farmville 
Female Seminary, above referred to, was dug up and opened. 
There was no box in the stone, but a hole about 4 by 5 inches, 
and 3 inches deep. Across the top of this hole was a silver 
plate, bearing the following inscription: 

Farmville Female 


Built by Joint Stock 

Company, A. D. 1839. 

Inside of the hole was a copy of the New Testament, a 
newspaper, three silver coins — 5, 10, and 25 cent pieces — and a 
Masonic emblem or badge. The back was all that remained 
of the New Testament, and the letters on that faded away 
a few minutes after being exposed to the air. A piece of the 
newspaper about an inch square could be read. 

302 History of Prince Edward County 

This original building was completed in 1842 and was at 
once occupied and used for the purposes for which it was 
erected. It was at this time that the final payment of the 
purchase price of the property was made. 

Solomon Lee, Esq., was first in charge as Principal. He 
was followed after a few years by his brother, Rev. Lorenzo 
Lee. A northern man named Coburn, and remembered main- 
ly as the possessor of a very long nose, succeeded him. Then 
in 1850 Mr. John B. Tinsley succeeded to the office of Princi- 
pal, and was succeeded in rather rapid succession by two 
men named Gould and Lamont, respectively. About 1860 
Mr. A. Preot, Esq., assumed the reins and remained some nine 
or ten years, which included the difficult years of the war 
and the more difficult years of the Re- Construction Period that 
succeeded. A Rev. Mr. Crawley conducted a school there 
for one year during 1871 or 1872. He was succeeded by 
the Rev. Paul Whitehead, who was followed for a short term 
by a Miss Carter. 

By an Act of the Legislature, passed May 24th, 1860, the 
charter of the company was amended, and the name changed 
to "The Farmville Female College." This corporation held 
the property until Janaury 15th, 1873, when it was con- 
veyed by deed to Mr. G. M. Bickers, pursuant to a resolution 
adopted by the stockholders in a meeting held July 1st, 1870, 
when they determined to sell and, after paying its debts, dis- 
tribute the proceeds amongst the stockholders. By deed 
dated May 29th, 1882, Mr. Bickers conveyed the property to 
the Rev. Paul Whitehead and others, Mr. Whitehead being 
the Principal of the College at that time. 

By deed dated April 7th, 1884, "The Farmville College," 
a corporation of which the aforementioned Rev. Paul White- 
head was President, conveyed it to the town of Farmville, 
and, by a deed of the same date, the town of Farmville con- 

History of Prince Edward County 303 

veyed it to the State of Virginia, in consideration that the 
State would establish on it a Female Normal School. 

"A system of free schools for Virginia was established, 
July 11, 1870, by the first Legislature to assemble after the 
War between the States. As these schools struggled year 
after year for a stable footing, it became more and more evi- 
dent that they must be supplied with specially trained teach- 
ers before they could reach the desired efficiency. To make 
provision for this pressing need, the Legislature at its regu- 
lar session in March, 1884, passed the following Act estab- 
lishing the Normal School : 

"Be it enacted by the General Assembly of Virginia: 

1. That there shall be established, as hereinafter provid- 
ed, a normal school expressly for the training and education 
of white female teachers for public schools. 

2. The school shall be under the supervision, manage- 
ment and government of W. H. Kuffner, J. L. M. Curry, John 
B. Minor, K. M. Manly, L. R. Holland, John L. Buchanan, 
L. A. Michie, F. N. Watkins, S. C. Armstrong, W. B. Talia- 
ferro, George O. Conrad, W. E. Gaines, and W. W. Herbert, 
as a board of trustees. In case of any vacancy, caused by 
death, resignation, or otherwise, the successor shall be ap- 
pointed by the Governor. The Superintendent of Public In- 
struction shall be ex-officio a member of the board of trustees. 

3. Said trustees shall, from time to time, make all need- 
ful rules and regulations for the good government and man- 
agement of the school, to fix the number and compensation 
of the teachers and others to be employed in the school, and 
to prescribe the preliminary examination and conditions on 
which students shall be received and instructed therein. They 
may appoint an executive committee, of whom the Superin- 
tendent shall be one, for the care, management and govern- 
ment of said school, under the rules and regulations prescribed 

304 History of Prince Edioard County 

as aforesaid. The trustees shall annually transmit to the Gov- 
ernor a full account of their proceedings under this act, to- 
gether with a report of the progress, condition and prospects 
of the school. 

4. The trustees shall establish said school at Farmville, 
in the County of Prince Edward; provided said town shall 
cause to be conveyed to the State of Virginia, by proper 
deed, the property in said town known as the Farmville Fe- 
male College; and if the said property is not so conveyed, 
then the said trustees shall establish said school in such other 
place as shall convey to the State suitable grounds and build- 
ings for the purpose of said school. 

5. Each city of five hundred inhabitants, and each coun- 
ty'' in the States shall be entitled to one pupil, and for each 
additional representative in the House of Delegates above 
one, who shall receive gratuitous instruction. The trustees 
shall provide rules for the selection of such pupils and for 
their examination, and shall require such pupil selected, to 
give satisfactory evidence of an intention to teach in the pub- 
lic schools of the State for at least two years after leaving 
the said normal school. 

6. The sum of five thousand dollars is hereby appro- 
priated to defray the expenses of establishing and continuing 
said school. The money shall be expended for that purpose 
under the direction of the trustees, upon whose requisition 
the Governor is hereby authorized to draw his warrant 
on the treasury. 

7. There shall be appropriated annually, out of the treas- 
ury of the State the sum of ten thousand dollars to pay inci- 
dental expenses, the salaries of officers and teachers, and to 
maintain the efficiency of the school, said sum to be paid out 
of the public free school fund; provided, however, that the 
Commonwealth will not in any instance be responsible for 

History of Prince Edward County 305 

any debt contracted, or expenditure made by the institution 
in excess of the appropriation herein made. 

8. The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall ren- 
der to the Second Auditor an annual account of the expendi- 
tures under this act." 

It was not until 1886, however, that the institution was 
incorporated by the Legislature, under the name of the State 
Female Normal School. 

That Farmville secured the school was owning to the 
fact that the town offered to give to the State a building 
formerly used as a girls' school, and this offer was warmly 
supported by such influential men as Dr. W. H. Kuffner, Dr. 
James Nelson, then pastor of the Baptist Church at Farm- 
ville, and Dr. W. H. H. Thackston, at that time mayor of 
Farmville and most anxious to promote its interests. 

The first meeting of the Board of Trustees was held in 
Richmond, April 9, 1884, and organized by the election of 
Dr. J. L. M. Curry, president. Dr. J. L. Buchanan, vice- 
president, and Judge F. N. Watkins secretary and treasurer. 

The Board was confronted by a serious difficulty at the 
outset in the shape of the seventh section of the law establish- 
ing the school. This provided that the money set apart for 
the support of the school should be taken from the public 
free school funds. The question was at once raised as to its 
constitutionality. It was the opinion of the Attorney-Gen- 
eral, and, later, of the Court of Appeals, that the seventh 
section was "unconstitutional and void" in so far as it at- 
tempted to divert the public school funds. 

The Board of Trustees thus found itself without funds for 
the proposed w^ork, until an extra session of the Legislature 
amended the section, August 23, 1884, by passing a law re- 
quiring that the ten thousand dollars be paid out of the treas- 

306 History of Prince Edward County 

ury of the State, "which was just what should have been done 
at first." 

At the first meeting of the Board, Dr. W. H. Ruffner 
was unanimously chosen president. At the same meeting a 
committee composed of Dr. Ruffner, Dr. Curry, and Dr. Buch- 
anan, was appointed to formulate a plan of organization 
of the school. The committee made its report June 10, 1884, 
but, because of the delay in getting the funds to run the 
school, the report was not adopted until September 17, 1884. 
The school was then ordered to be opened October 30th, fol- 
lowing, although, to quote Dr. Ruffner's words, all they had 
was "a principal, an appropriation, a rough scheme, and an 
old academy building, — not a teacher, nor a book, nor a 
piece of apparatus or furniture." 

The school was opened promptly at the appointed time, 
however, with Dr. Ruffner as president; Miss Celeste E. 
Bush, of Connecticut, as vice-president; Miss Clara M. Brim- 
blecom, of Boston, for vocal music; and Miss Lillian A. 
Lee, of Connecticut, for drawing and mathematics. To this 
number were later added Miss Pauline Gash, of North Caro- 
lina, teacher of English; and Mrs. Clara Bartkowska, of Rich- 
mond, Va., to have charge of the preparatory school. These 
six persons formed the first Faculty of the school. During 
the first year Mr. Beverly H. Robertson was added to this 
faculty as teacher of science, Latin, and algebra; and Miss 
Belle Johnson, as teacher of piano music. In this first ses- 
sion there were enrolled one hundred and ten students, of 
whom forty-four were accommodated in the building. There 
were three graduates, viz: Annie Lydia Blanton; Lulu M. 
Duncan; and Lulu O. Philips. 

To Dr. W. H. Ruffner, and to Dr. J. L. M. Curry, un- 
doubtedly belongs the credit for the Normal School idea in 
Virginia, and the State was fortunate indeed in securing the 
services of two such able men to launch and guide the new 

History of Prince Edward County 307 

undertaking. By this means the new venture set out on 
correct Normal School lines and the vexations, due to con- 
stant experimentations, were thus avoided. Thus the pioneer 
school of its kind in the Southland was assured a proper 
foundation, and Farmville Female Normal School was a suc- 
cess from the very start. 

A more extended note respecting these two remarkable 
men will be found in chapter thirteen, on biography. 

The school had in turn, the following to serve in the office 
of President : Dr. William Henry Ruffner, 1884-1887. James 
Atkinson Cunningham, LL.D., 1887-1896. Robert Fraser, 
LL.D., 1898-1902. Joseph L. Jarman, A.B., LL.D., 1902, to 
the present time. (See further, Chapters on Biography and 
Who's Who). 

When Dr. Jarman assumed the presidency of the in- 
stitution, the entire plant; grounds, buildingSj^^ etc.j, were 
valued at only $90,000; the present valuation exceeds $500,- 
000. During Dr. Jarman's regime, twenty-eight separate pieces 
of property have been purchased, so that the school grounds 
now comprise some twelve acres all told. 

For thirty-seven years Mr. Benjamin M. Cox has served 
the institution as Business Manager. His daughter, Miss 
Mary White Cox, is the efficient Head of the Home Depart- 

Mrs. Bessie G. Jamison is the housekeeper. 

Miss Lillian V. Nunn is the supervisor of the laundry 

Mr. William Marshall Atkinson is the college constable. 

308 History of Prince Edward County 

Statistics of Growth 


1884-1885 121 1899-1900 ...351 

1889-1890 248 1909-1910 616 

1921-1922 637 


1884-1885 8 1899-1900 13 

1889-1890 9 1909-1910 32 

1921-1922 42 

Home Department 

1884-1885 .- 1* 1899-1900 3 

1889-1890 2 1909-1910 12 

1921-1922_...L 13 

Lady Principal 

History of Prince Edward County 309 


This sketch of the colored schools of the county, like the 
sketch of the colored churches, was furnished by the Rev. 
P. W. Price, a most excellent colored preacher, who, in ad- 
dition to his pastoral duties (he serves a group of colored 
Baptist churches) is also the principal of the splendid col- 
ored school at Farmville, with an enrollment of about 400 
children under his care. The sketch is given almost verbatim. 
The attention of the careful reader will be arrested by the 
statement of the exceedingly short and inadequate school 
term, and by the beggarly salary paid the teachers of these 

A few years after the Civil War, when the days of the 
re-construction were well over, the doors of a few public 
schools were opened to colored people. These schools, about 
six to begin with, were taught by white people for some 
years, until some of the colored students became qualified to 
assume the task of teaching. 

The real thirst for an education on the part of the colored 
community has added very greatly to the school advantages 
presented to colored students and, at the same time, created 
a deep sympathy in the hearts of many white friends. 

Hundreds of those who attended these colored schools 
of the county, have finished higher schools, returned to their 
homes, and through strenuous effort, and with the co-operation 
of the school authorities, have increased the number of colored 
schools in the county to thirty-three, with a teaching force of 

The average length of the school term is from five to six 
months, and the average monthly salary of the teachers, be- 
tween $35 and $40. 

l^xime lEhmarh (Eaxad^ l&laQtufif^ 


Henry Watkins Allen. 


J. L. M. Curry. 


John Atkinson Cunningham. 


Asa D. Dickinson. 


Walter Gray Dunnington. 


Kobert Fraser. 


Patrick Henry. 


Joseph Eggleston Johnson. 


John Peter Mettauer. 


James Nelson. 


William Henry Kuffner. 


Francis N. Watkhis. 


Peter Winston. 


Daniel Witt. 

History of Prince Edward County 313 


HENRY WATKINS ALLEN: Brigadier-General, Confed- 
erate States Army, and Ex-Governor of Louisana. 

Henry Watkins Allen was bom in the county of Prince 
Edward, near Farmville on the 29th day of April, 1820. 

His father, Dr. Thomas Allen, a graduate of Hampden- 
Sidney College, was of Scotch extraction. His mother, Ann 
Watkins, was descended from a Welsh family. 

The first mention of a "Watkins" in the history of Vir- 
ginia, was of one "James Watkins," a companion of "Captain 
John Smith," in his expeditions of 1607-8. The Watkins are 
related to many of the best Virginia families; the Finchards, 
Carringtons, Venables, etc. In the Revolutionary War a 
troop of horse, known as "Watkins Troop," raised in Prince 
Edward county, fought with conspicuous bravery; their 
leader, Thomas Watkins, grandson of Thomas Watkins of 
Chickahominy, at the battle of Guilford Court House, 
March, 1781, was distinguished for his gallantry; winning 
laurels in single combat. 

Henry W., the subject of this sketch, was the fourth son 
of Dr. Allen. A biographer (Sarah A. Dorsey) describes 
him as "rash, but true; quick, but not malignant; flashing 
with sudden ire, but sweet and sound in temper; with noth- 
ing hidden, nothing mean, heartfelt warmth, earnest affec- 
tion, constancy, generosity, no revenge, with a softness and 
tenderness of soul almost feminine." 

In 1833, Mrs. Allen having previously died, Dr. Allen, 
with his motherless children, moved into Kay county, Mis- 
souri, leaving the remains of the gentle wife and mother to 
rest beneath the green sod of "Old Virginia." 

314 History of Prince Edward County 

With the subsequent history of Allen we may not deal in 
detail in so short a sketch, save to note the fact that in 1861 he 
re-visited Virginia, and spent a short time with his relatives 
in Prince Edward county. Whilst there he went to the family 
cemetery to see his mother's grave. "Never," says his cousin, 
the late Honorable Francis N. Watkins, father of Judge Asa 
D. Watkins, present Commonwealth's Attorney, a sketch of 
whose life appears elsewhere in tjhis work, "did I wit- 
ness such uncontrollable emotion as seized him as he ap- 
proached that hallowed spot." 

Henry Watkins Allen died in exile, in the city of Mexico, 
on Sunday, April 22nd, 1866, at 11 o'clock in the morning. 


See Page 320. 

History of Prince Edward County 316 

DK. J. L. M. CUREY. Born in Georgia, 1825. Died in 
Asheville, N. C, February 12, 1903. 

His father was a prominent landholder and slaveowner 
of Georgia, but the subject of this sketch spent his early 
life on a plantation in Alabama. He graduated from the 
University of Greorgia at the early age of eighteen, then 
studied law at Harvard University, graduating when twenty 
years of age. At the age of twenty-one he became a member 
of the United States Congress from 1857 to 1861, when his 
fine gifts of oratory attracted much favorable attention. 

In 1866-67 Dr. Curry served as President of Howard 
College, Alabama. For thirteen years he was Professor in 
Kichmond College and also President of the Board of Trus- 
tees of that institution. He often occupied the pulpit as 
preacher, although he had no regular charge. He was at 
one time President of the Foreign Mission Board of the 
Southern Baptist Convention. 

For twenty-two years as agent of the Peabody Fund, 
and for twelve years of the Slater Fund (which was used 
exclusively for the education of the negro) he had more to do 
with the organization of the common school system of the 
south than any other man. While agent for these two funds. 
Dr. Curry was twice sent to represent his country at a for- 
eign court; first as Minister Plenipotentiary to Spain by ap- 
pointment of President Cleveland, and afterwards as repre- 
sentative at the Coronation of the Spanish king. , 

It was under Dr. Curry's leadership that the establish- 
ment of State Normal Schools was inaugurated in the South. 
It was he who originally drafted the bill for the Virginia 
School at Farmville. He was elected the first President of 
its Board of Trustees. 

Before coming to his work in Farmville, he was already 
distinguished as a statesman, diplomat, educator, and author. 

He died at seventy-eight years of age, at Asheville, N. 
C, on February 12, 1903. 

316 History of Prince Edward County 

1846. Died, Octoher 9, 1898. 

The subject of this sketch, the second President of the 
State Female Normal School of Farmville, Va., was born in 
Richmond, Virginia, June 24, 1846. His paternal grandfath- 
er, Edward Cunningham, came from Ireland, to Virginia in 
1770, and made a large fortune through establishing iron 
works that were situated near the present site of the Trede- 
gar mills in Richmond, and, through a chain of country stores 
which extended from Virginia nearly to Ohio. The father 
of the subject of this sketch, bearing the same name, received 
his schooling at William and Mary, at Harvard, and at the 
University of Pennsylvania, from which latter institution he 
graduated in medicine in 1825. He married Miss Mary John- 
ston, a granddaughter of Peter Johnston of Longwood, near 
Farmville, and donor of the land on which now stands Hamp- 
den-Sidney College. 

John Atkinson Cunningham, Junior, was the only child 
of this union. He was very delicate in health and received 
most of his early education from a French governess. After- 
wards he attended private schools, but immediately before the 
breaking out of the War between the States, he was a pupil 
at New London Academy, Bedford County. 

At the age of seventeen he entered the Confederate Army 
and served as a private to the end of that struggle. After 
the war he pursued his studies at the University of Virginia, 
where he graduated in chemistry, Latin, moral philosophy, 
natural philosophy, pure mathematics, and French. He after- 
wards receive his Master's degree from the University of 
Nashville, and in 1896 Hampden- Sidney College gave him the 
honorary degree of LL.D. 

In 1874 Mr. Cunningham married Miss Florence Boyd, 
of Nashville, Tenn., who lived for not more than a year 

History of Prince Edward County 317 

afterwards. In 1887 he married Miss Martha Eggleston, 
daughter of Mr. Stephen Eggleston, of Cumberland county, 

For a short time after leaving Nashville, Tennessee, where 
he had taught in the University of Nashville, Mr. Cunning- 
ham was in business as a druggist in Richmond, Virginia. 
In 1877 he was made Principal of Madison School in that 
city, where he taught with great success until he came to 

The ten years of Dr. Cunningham's Presidency of the 
Normal School at Farmville, were years of steady and sub- 
stantial growth. In his first year ninety-three students were 
enrolled in the Normal School department; in his last there 
were two hundred and fifty. 

He died, October 9, 1898, at Farmville, Va., aged 52 

318 History of Prince Edward County 

JUDGE ASA D. DICKINSON. Born, 1817. Died, 1884. 

Asa D. Dickinson was born in Nottoway County, Va., in 
1817, the son of Robert Dickinson and Mary Pumal Dupuy. 
His father was a prominent farmer and citizen of Nottoway 
County, while his mother sprang from the Huguenot family 
of that name. Two brothers of his mother, Colonels Asa and 
Joseph Dupuy, were for many years representatives of Prince 
Edward County in the Virginia Legislature. Judge Dickin- 
son's mother was a niece of General William Purnal. 

The subject of this sketch received his collegiate educa- 
tion at Hampden- Sidney College, from which institution he 
graduated with high honors, in 1836. He afterwards studied 
law at William and Mary College, and commenced the prac- 
tice of his profession in 1840. 

He was twice married. His first wife was a Miss Mi- 
chaux of Prince Edward county. His second wife was a 
Miss Irvine of Campbell county. His- family consisted of 
five sons; two, R. M., and Purnal, by the first marriage; 
and four daughters. 

In 1857, Judge Dickinson was elected to represent the 
county of Prince Edward in the State Legislature and again 
in 1859. He subsequently served two terms in the State 
Senate. He also was a member of the Confederate Congress 
from the district composed in part of the county of Prince 
Edward. He was disfranchised by reason of this connection 
with the Confederacy, but his disability was removed by the 
Congress of 1870, at which time he was elected Judge of the 
Third Judicial Circuit, in which position he continued for 
fourteen years; until his death, which occurred, July 22, 1884, 
as a result of an apoplectic seizure which attacked him while 
bathing in the Rapidan River. 

During the strenuous days of the War between the States, 

History of Prince Edward County 319 

Judge Dickinson won, and retained, the favor and the con- 
fidence of President Jefferson Davis. 

For thirty-seven years, Judge Dickinson was a member 
and a ruling Elder in the Presbyterian Church. He was also 
a Trustee of Hampden- Sidney College. He lived most of 
his long life near Worsham, where he commenced the practice 
of law. 

He was buried in the College Church Cemetery at Hamp- 
den- Sidney, the burial service being conducted by his pastor, 
the Rev. Charles White, D. D. 

Mr. Blair M. Dickinson, a grandson of Judge Dickin- 
son, is the honored Principal of the Farmville Public School. 
Another grandgon is Mr. A. B. Dickinson, a prominent lawyer 
of the City of Richmond, Va. 

320 History of Prince Edward County 


Bom, Farmville, February 12, 1849 

Died, Farmville, August 2, 1922. 

Walter Gray Dunnington was, for many years, one of 
the most prominent tobacco merchants of the entire South. 

He was born in Farmville, /February 12, 1859, and died 
in the county in which he was bom, August 2, 1922. He was 
the son of James W. Dunnington and Sallie Madison. He 
was, on his mother's side, the grand-son of Col. James Madi- 
son. The Dunningtons, were originally Maryland people. On 
both sides of the house, Mr. Dunnington came of English 
ancestry. The habitat of which was the county of Berkshire, 
in England. 

Soon after growing up Mr. Dunnington went West, and 
for some time lived in the vicinity of Kansas City, Mo. Af- 
ter about two years he returned to his old home in Farmville 
and went into the tobacco business, in which business his father 
also had been engaged. 

His operations in tobacco were of such magnitude that 
they extended into Norway, Sweden, Germany, France, Eng- 
land and Holland. While he conducted his business chiefly 
from Farmville, he had very large interests in Louisville, Ky., 
and spent a considerable part of his time there. He also con- 
ducted many of his business operations in New York City. 
In his own line of business, he was one of the "big men" of 
the State, and, for that matter, of the nation as well. He 
was the means of making Farmville one of the leading ex- 
port tobacco markets of the State. 

Mr. Dunnington never held political position of any kind, 
having no inclination in that direction. At one period, how- 
ever, he had been a member of the Town Council of Farm- 
ville. For many years he served as a member of the board 

History of Prince Edward County 321 

of trustees of Hampden-Sidney College, at which institution 
his three sons were educated. He w^as a man of simple tastes, 
modest and unassuming, yet, at the same time, aggressive and 
full of energy, alert in speech and bearing, and possessed of 
remarkable business acumen. 

Mr. Dunnington was married, October 12, 1876, to India 
W. Knight, daughter of Capt. John H. Knight, a gallant 
soldier of the Confederate Army, who survives him. Their 
family consisted of six children, five or whom survive him. 
They are Walter Gray Dunnington, Jr., a prominent lawyer 
of New York City; Dr. J. H. Dunnington, an eye specialist of 
New York City; Mrs. A. G. Clapham, of Washington, D. 
C, Mrs. E. Southall Shields, of Farmville, Va.; and J. W. 
Dunnington of Farmville, for many years associated with 
his father in the tobacco business in that place. His youngest 
child, named for his Norwegian friend, Conrad Langaard, 
died in infancy. 

Mr. Dunnington was devoted to his family. He was a 
most loyal friend and, while he consistently shrank from 
publicity, his deeds of kindness to those in distress were 
multitudinous. His death brought a remarkable career to a 
a close. His remains were laid to rest in the cemetery at 

322 History of Prince Edward County 


Robert Frazer was the third President of the State Fe- 
male Normal School at Farmville. He became President in 
February, 1898. He was intended by his father for law. 
His academic course at the University of Virginia was in- 
terrupted by the War between the States. Disabled from 
wounds, he returned to the University in the fall of 1863, 
and took up the study of law with Professor Minor. He 
was never satisfied with that step, preferring the profession 
of teaching to that of the law. Later he took up teaching and 
the law was abandoned. 

In 1871 he bought the Fauquier Institute, a good board- 
ing school for girls, at Warrenton. Here he remained until 
1882, when, under the urging of Dr. J. L. M. Curry, he ac- 
cepted the Presidency of Judson Institute, at Marion, where 
he remained five years, and had a phenomenal success. Over- 
work at Marion, broke his health, so that he had to devote 
three years thereafter to recuperation. 

In 1891 he was called to the Industrial Institute and 
College of Mississippi, at Columbus, to serve as its President. 
Here he remained for seven sessions, and made the school 
the pride of the State. 

He came to Farmville with a mind richly stored with 
knowledge, a broad vision of life, and a varied and extensive 
experience in schools of many types. His four years' work 
in Farmville was characterized by the same zeal and earnest- 
ness that he had displayed in other places. He was extremely 
conscientious in his convictions of duty. 

When Dr. Frazer resigned the Presidency of the State 
Normal School in 1902 in order to enter upon the duties of 
Feld Agent of the Southern Educational Board, he left be- 
hind him many grateful memories of a courteous, cultured, 
sympathetic, Christian gentleman of earnest purpose and un- 
bending principle, staunchly loyal to his lofty ideals of duty. 

History of Prince Edward County 323 


After his final incumbency of the Governorship of the 
State (1784), the celebrated Patrick Henry made his resi- 
dence for a time in Prince Edward County, dwelling upon 
the banks of the Appomattox from the latter part of 1786, 
until 1794. 

Entries in the Registry Office at Farmville on page 187, 
book 9, under date of, October 13, 1792, show that he. on that 
day, conveyed to Augustus Watson of Nottoway, and holding 
of 936 acres, on the Appomattox River, for 936 pounds "cur- 
rent money of Virginia.*' The property was described as 
follows : "Beginning at Tarlton Woodson's line on the Sandy 
Ford road, thence along his line, north seven and one-half de- 
grees west two hundred and twenty poles to pointers. Thence 
north, eighty-one degrees east twenty poles on Venable's line, 
to a branch. Thence down the said branch as it meanders to 
Appomattox river. Thence down th^ said river one hundred 
and fourteen poles, to a corner on the banks of the said river. 
Thence south five degrees, west one hundred and fifty poles 
to pointers. Thence south twenty-four degrees east eighteen 
poles, to a poplar fell down. Thence south sixty-four and a 
half degrees east three hundred and fifty poles to pointers, 
hence south sixty-three degrees west one hundred and twenty- 
four poles, to a white oak. Thence thirty-three degrees west, 
to the road. Thence up the said road as it meanders, to the 
beginning, with all houses, woods and under woods, ways, 
waterance, water courses, etc." 

Signed, Patrick Henry, 

Dorothea Henry, (his wife) 

And witnessed by: Tarlton Woodson, 
John Miller, 
Woodson Allen, 
John Watson. 

324 History of Prince Edward County 

A second deed to the same property, by the same persons, 
is recorded in book 9, on page 327, as being given shortly 
after the first one. 

In connection with the same transaction, a commission to 
privately examine Dorothea Patrick, who was then at Char- 
lotte Court House, was appointed, as recorded in book 10, on 
page 442, in the same registry office. 

A further instrument, constituting "James Fontain, of 
Kentucky" his attorney, to close a certain estate, is recorded 
in the same registry office, in book 8, page 212, in 1790. 

The exact location of the house in which Henry lived 
in Prince Edward county has been a matter of considerable 
dispute, but, after exhaustive research, Mr. Roy Mathewson, 
realtor, of Farmville, writes as follows: "Mr. Henry's first 
purchase of land in Prince Edward was twenty acres, con- 
veyed to him by his friend Venable, who was known as 
Abraham Venable, T., and T distinguishing him from several 
others of the same name. ******** rpj^^ recorded deed 
does not so state, but, by a comparison of the metes and 
bounds of the 20 acres first conveyed, with other descriptions, 
it is probable that the house in which Patrick Henry lived 
was built by the father of Abraham Venable T, who was 
also Abraham Venable, but known as Abraham of Prince 
Edward. ******* Xhe house in which Mr. Henry 
lived was burned in the seventies. There are a few people 
living today who have seen it. Their descriptions agree that 
it was a large two story frame dwelling with a high brick 
basement. A two story portico running along half of the 
front, was supported by high columns. There was a double 
row of large locust trees from the house to the road, a dis- 
tance of several hundred feet, and the usual office building 
at the road end of the row of locusts. ********* its 
location is near the Farmville-Lynchburg Highway, about 
five miles west of Farmville and about half a mile north of 

History of Prince Edward County 325 

Appomattox Church. It is also about ,!four miles from 
Hampden- Sidney . 

The farm was known as "Cliffside," but that name seems 
to have gone out of use about fifty years ago and does not 
serve to identify the property now." 

The above description means that the place was about 
one mile N. W. from the present Tuggles station on the 
Norfolk and Western K. K. The present owner is L. H. 

Patrick Henry was, soon after taking up his residence in 
the county, elected as one of its delegates in the Assembly, 
where he reassumed his old position as leader. He con- 
tinued to serve in every session of the Assembly until the 
end of 1790, at which time, because of increasing physical 
disability, he finally withdrew from all further official con- 
nection with public life. He however, continued to practice 
law within the county. 

Writing concerning him in connection with this law work. 
Dr. Archibald Alexander, then of Hampden-Sidney College, 
says : 

"In executing a mission from the Synod of Virginia, in 
the year 1794, I had to pass through the County of Prince 
Edward, where Mr. Henry then resided. Understanding that 
he was to appear before the Circuit Court, which met in 
that county, in defense of three men charged with murder, 
I determined to seize the opportunity of observing for myself 
the eloquence of this extraordinary orator. It was with some 
difficulty that I obtained a seat in front of the bar, where I 
could have a full view of the speaker, as well as hear him 
distinctly. But I had to submit to a severe penance in grati- 
fying my curiosity ; for the whole day was occupied with the 
examination of witnesses, in which Mr. Henry was aided by 
two other lawyers. In person, Mr. Henry was lean rather 

326 History of Prince Edward County 

than fleshy. He was rather above than below the common 
height, but had a stoop to his shoulders which prevented him 
from appearing as tall as he really was. In moments of ani- 
mation, he had the habit of straightening his frame, and 
adding to his apparent stature. He wore a brown wig, which 
exhibited no indication of any great care in the dressing. 
Over his shoulders he wore a brown camlet cloak. Under 
this his clothing was black, something the worse for wear. 
The expression of his countenance was that of solemnity and 
deep earnestness. His mind appeared to be always absorbed 
in what, for the time, occupied his attention. His forehead 
was high and spacious, and the skin of his face more than 
usually wrinkled for a man of fifty. His eyes were small 
and deeply set in his head, but were of a bright blue color, 
and twinkled much in their sockets. In short, Mr. Henry's 
appearance has nothing very remarkable, as he sat at rest. 
You might readily have taken him for a common planter, 
who cared very little for his personal appearance. In his 
manners, he was uniformly respectful and courteous. Candles 
were brought into the Court House, when the examination of 
the witnesses closed; and the Judges put it to the option of 
the bar whether they would go on with the argument that 
night or adjourn until the next day. Paul Carrington, Jun- 
ior, the attorney for the State, a man of large size, and un- 
common dignity of person and manner, and also an accom- 
plished lawyer, professed his willingness to proceed imme- 
diately, while the testimony was fresh in the minds of all. 
Now for the first time I heard Mr. Henry make anything of 
a speech; and, though it was short, it satisfied me of one 
thing, which I had particularly desired to have decided: 
namely, whether like a player he merely assumed the ap- 
pearance of feeling. His manner of addressing the Court 
was profoundly respectful. He would be willing to proceed 
with the trial, "but," said he, "my heart is so oppressed with 
the weight of responsibility which rests upon me, having the 

History of Prince Edward County 327 

lives of three fellow-citizens depending, probably, on the 
exertions which I may be able to make in their behalf (here 
he turned to prisoners behind him), that I do not feel able 
to proceed tonight. I hope the Court will indulge me, and 
postpone the trial till the morning." The impression made 
by these few words was such as I assure myself no one can 
ever conceive by seeing then in print. In the countenance, 
action, and intonation of the speaker, there was expressed 
such an intensity of feeling, that all my doubts were dispelled; 
never again did I question whether Henry felt, or only 
acted, a feeling. Indeed I experienced an instantaneous sym- 
pathy with him in the emotions which he expressed; and 
I have no doubt that the same sympathy was felt by every 
hearer. As a matter of course, the proceedings were deferred 
till the next morning. I was early at my post; the Judges 
were soon on the bench, and the prisoners at the bar. Mr. 

Carrington opened with a clear and dignified speech, and 

presented the evidence to the jury. Everything seemed per- 
fectly plain. Two brothers and a brother-in-law met two 
other persons in pursuit of a slave, supposed to be harbored 
by the brothers. After some altercation and mutual abuse, 
one of the brothers, whose name was John Ford, raised a 
loaded gun which he was carrying, and presenting it at the 
breast of one of the other pair, shot him dead, in open day. 
There was no doubt about the fact. Indeed, it was not 
denied. There had been no other provocation than oppro- 
brious words. It is presumed that the opinion of every juror 
was made up from merely hearing the testimony, as Tom 
Harvey, the principal witness, who was acting as constable 
on the occasion, appeared to be a respectable man. 

"For a clearer understanding of what follows, it must be 
observed that the said constable, in order to distinguish him 
from another of the same name, was commonly called Butter- 
wood Harvey, as he lived on Butterwood Creek. Mr. Henry, 
it is believed, understanding that the people were on their 

328 History of PHnce Edward County 

guard against his faculty of moving the passions and through 
them influencing the judgment, did not resort to the pathetic 
as much as was his practice in criminal cases. His main ob- 
ject appeared to be, throughout, to cast discredit on the testi- 
mony of Tom Harvey. This he attempted by causing the 
law respecting riots to be read by one of his assistants. It 
appeared in evidence that Tom Harvey had taken upon him 
to act as constable, without being in commission; and that, 
with a posse of men, he had entered the house of one of the 
Ford's in search of the negro, and had put Mrs. Ford, in her 
husband's absence, into a great terror, while she was in a 
very delicate condition, near the time of her confinement. 
As he descanted on the evidence, he would often turn to Tom 
Harvey — a large, bold-looking man — and with the most sar- 
castic look, would call him by some name of contempt; "this 
Butterwood Tom Harvey," "this would-be constable," etc. By 
such expressions, his contempt for the man was communicated 
to the hearers. I own I felt it gaining on me, in spite of my 
better judgment; so that before he was done, the impression 
was strong on my mind that Butterwood Harvey was unde- 
serving of the smallest credit. This impression, however, I 
found I could counteract the moment I had time for reflec- 
tion. The only part of the speech in which he manifested his 
power of touching the feelings strongly, was where he dwelt 
on the eruption of the company into Ford's house, in cir- 
cumstances so perilous to the solitary wife. This appeal to 
the sensibility of husbands — and he knew all the jury stood 
in this relation — was overwhelming. If the verdict could 
have been rendered immediately after this burst of the pa- 
thetic, every man, at least every husband, in the house, would 
have been for rejecting Harvey's testimony, if not for hang- 
ing him forthwith." — J. W. Alexander, "Life of Archibald 
Alexander," 183-187. 

In the year 1794, being then fifty-eight years of age, 
and possessing a reasonable competence, Patrick Henry de- 

History of Prince Edward County 329 

cicled to withdraw from his profession and resolved to spend 
his remaining days in retirement. He therefore, removed 
from Prince Edward county, to Long Island in Campbell 
county, and there, in 1795, he finally established himself on 
an estate in the County of Charlotte, called Red Hill, where 
he continued to reside for the rest of his life ; which gave him 
his burial place; and which remains in the possession of his 
descendants. This considerable description of his residence 
within the county of Prince Edward is given because the 
people of the county are naturally proud of the fact that they 
were honored by the residence amongst them of so great and 
so good a man. He was born at Studley, in the county of 
Hanover on May 29, 1736, and died at Red Hill in the county 
of Charlotte on June 6, 1799. 

330 History of Prince Edward County 


Joseph Eggleston «Tohnston was the eighth son of Peter 
Johnston and Mary Wood, who was the daughter of Colonel 
Valentine Wood, of Goochland County, whose wife was Lucy 
Henry, sister to Patrick Henry. He was born at Cherry 
Grove, Prince Edward county, February 3, 1807. He was 
named after Joseph Eggleston, a military associate of his 
father, and the Captain of the company of Lee's Legion of 
which his father, Peter Johnston, was Lieutenant. 

In 1811, Peter Johnston, with his family, removed to a 
place which he named "Panecillo," on the edge of Abingdon. 
This removal was consequent upon Johnston's appointment 
as a judge of the General Court of Virginia. 

His education was begun by his parents, both of whom 
were distinctly competent to give it. This was the custom 
in those days, amongst the "gentry." This work was carried 
on by the parents until the lad was old enough to enter the 
Academy at Abingdon ; a fairly good classical school. Young 
Johnston was a good student, and made the most of the op- 
portunities afforded him, both at home and at school. He 
ever maintained a fondness for the classics. Homer was his 

In 1825, when he was eighteen, he secured, through the 
influence of James Barbour, L^nited States Senator from Y%v- 
ginia, and Secretary of War under President John Q. Adams, 
the appointment to the Military Academy at West Point as 
a cadet. He thus obtained an entrance into the field of his 
cherished ambition, for he had long desired to be a soldier. 
He was descended from a long line of Scottish Clansmen. 

In the above year, having successfully passed the neces- 
sary examinations, Joseph E. Johnston was admitted as a 
cadet at West Point. He was one of the one hundred and 

History of Prince Edward County 331 

five who were so fortunate as to enter in that year. Kobert 
E. Lee, slightly older than himself, and the son of the com- 
mander of Peter Johnston, young Joseph's father, in the 
War of the Revolution, was one of his fellow students. Their 
tastes and habits being of the same character, they soon be- 
came fast friends, which friendship continued throughout 
their lives. Seven other young Virginians were fellow stu- 
dents of the two friends, all of whom dropped out, leaving 
young Johnston and Lee to pursue their studies together as 
the sole representatives of their beloved State. They gradu- 
ated together, the only remaining representatives of the Old 
Dominion, in 1829, Lee standing second to Charles Mason, of 
New York, in the class of forty-six. Johnston, hindered in 
his studies by a serious affection of the eyes that precluded 
his studying at night, stood thirteen. 

Young Johnston's first military service was as second 
Lieutenant in the Fourth Artillery; the next, in garrison at 
New York; which was followed by similar duty at Fortress 
Monroe. This period extended from 1829 to 1832, when his 
actual active campaigning began in the Black Hawk expedi- 
tion of 1832, under General Scott. 

In so brief a sketch as this must of necessity be, it is 
manifestly impossible to follow, in any detail, the stirring 
military career of this favorite son of old Prince Edward 
county, and no effort will be made to do so. 

On July 10, 1845, when he was 38 years of age, John- 
ston, having attained the brevet rank of Captain, was mar- 
ried to Miss Lydia McLane, a young woman of remarkable 
beauty, and great personal accomplishments. The family to 
which Mrs. Johnston belonged is one greatly distinguished 
in the annals of Delaware and Maryland. The union was a 
singularly happy one, and the fact of the absence of off- 
spring seemed but to draw them the closer together. 

During the progress of his military career it was the 

332 History of Prince Edward County 

misfortune of General Johnston, that a serious estrangement 
subsisted between himself and President Jefferson Davis, of 
the Confederate States, which caused him to be often super- 
seded, so that he was ever preparing campaigns from which 
others reaped much of the glory and most of the reward. He 
possessed a singular ability to subordinate himself for the 
good of his beloved Southland, and a patience that finally 
reaped its just reward in the esteem of his contemporaries, 
so that, scarcely second to the immortal Lee, he is entrenched 
in the affectionate regard of the peoples of the South, and 
respected by the erstwhile enemies of his people, as one of 
the great Generals of all time. 

At the conclusion of the hostilities, that marked the de- 
feat of the South in the War between the States, General 
Johnston took service with a railroad, and later with an ex- 
press company. Later still he engaged in the insurance busi- 
ness in Savannah, where he remained for nearly a decade. 

In 1877 he returned to his native State, taking up his 
residence in Richmond. In 1878 he received the nomination 
of the Democratic party and was triumphantly elected to 
Congress where he served for one term as a member of the 
House of Representatives. He seldom spoke in the House, 
but was an honored and influential member throughout his 
term, at the close of which he was appointed as Commissioner 
of Railroads under President Grover Cleveland, retaining 
his residence in Washington. 

On February 22, 1887, his beloved wife died at their 
residence in Washington. This was a crushing blow, so 
that he could never afterward trust himself to speak her 
name, and his house remained from the time of her death 
exactly as she had left it. A union of singular happiness 
was thus brought to a pathetic close. Mrs. Johnston had, 
for a long time, been a martyr to suffering, during which her 
husband's attentions were as unremitting as those of a youth- 
ful lover. 

History of Prince Edward County 333 

From the time of the death of Mrs. Johnston, the old 
General gradually became weaker, though he still maintained 
his upright posture and steady gait. On the night of March 
21, 1891, he peacefully passed away at his residence, 1023 
Connecticut Avenue, in the city of Washington. The imme- 
diate cause of his death was heart failure. He was in his 
eighty-fourth year when he died. He was buried in the 
Greenmount Cemetery, Baltimore, beside the wife he loved 
so dearly. 

Nothing marks his resting place save the simple inscrip- 
tion, selected by himself: 


Son of 

Judge Peter & Mary Johnston of Va., 

Born at 

Longwood, Prince Edward C, Va., 

February 3, 1807. 

Died March 21, 1891. 

Brigadier General, U. S. A. 

General, C. S. A. 

334 History of Prince Edward County 

DR. JOHN PETER METTAUER. Bom 1787, Died 1875. 

The father of John Peter Mattauer, was a surgeon, who, 
with a brother, followed the fortunes of Lafayette. After 
the battle of Yorktown, the French army was quartered at 
various points in Virginia. With one regiment, sent to Prince 
Edward county, were the two brother surgeons. Francis 
Joseph Mettauer, one of these brothers, obtained permission 
to remain in Prince Edward county, rather than return to 
France. Later on he married Eliza Gaulding and to them 
was born in 1787, John Peter Mettauer. 

Comparatively little is known of his early childhood or 
of his youth, save that he was raised in an atmosphere of 
surgery. He very early imbibed a love for surgery and re- 
solved to make that work his profession. 

The embryo surgeon was sent to the neighboring college 
of Hampden-Sidney for his literary training; from which 
institution he graduated with the degree of A.B. in 1806. 
He then w^ent to the LTniversity of Pennsylvania for the 
study of medicine and graduated with the degree of M. D. in 
1809. Young Mettauer was exceedingly fortunate in select- 
ing this University, for medical work was then being con- 
ducted under the most favorable auspices at Pennsylvania. 
The ablest instructors then obtainable were on the staff of 
that institution. He also was so fortunate as to enjoy a very 
extended practice in the Philadelphia Dispensary during his 
stay in that city. 

Returning to Prince Edward county, the young doctor 
at once entered upon the practice of general medicine. Soon, 
however, his preference for surgery and his marvelous skill 
in that branch of his work, attracted wide attention and pa- 
tients from great distances began to seek him out. From 
all parts of the United States they came, some even from 
abroad. Into Prince Edward Court House (Worsham), a 

History of Prince Edward County 335 

representative village of "ye olde time," came pouring an 
ever increasing stream of the sick and the ailing, in quest 
of the skillful aid of the young surgeon. These were suffi- 
cient, with their varied retinue of personal attendants, to 
tax to the utmost the modest accommodations afforded by the 
private hospital operated by Dr. Mettauer, and by the two 
houses of entertainment at Kingsville and Worsham, referred 
to in the terms of that day, as commodious' "taverns." 

In 1837 Dr. Mettauer organized his Medical Institute, 
which later on, became a part of Randolph-Macon College. 
Most of these young students were from points in Virginia 
and numbered amongst them, many who in later life attained 
eminence in the practice of medicine. This Institute was 
kept up until 1848, when it became the Medical Department 
of Randolph-Macon College, located in Mechlenburg county. 

Dr. Mettauer was a voluminous writer, though many of 
his most valuable works were never published. He was a 
daring inventor of surgical instruments, making many of 
them at old Peter Porter's shop in Farmville with his own 

He was a man of striking appearance, being tall, well- 
formed, and robust. Unlike most of the young physicians 
of those days who rode horseback in making their rounds, 
young Mettauer used a carriage for that purpose. His most 
striking pecularity was his insistence on wearing a prepos- 
terously tall "stove pipe" hat, upon any and every occasion. 
He never attended services in the churches, doubtless be- 
cause that would necessitate the removal of his head-gear. 
He even objected to removing his hat when testifying in a 
case in court. He even left instructions that he was to be 
buried with his hat on, with the result that it required a spe- 
cial coffin of a trifle over eight feet long to contain his re- 
mains with this favorite article of head-dress and the con- 
siderable number of special instruments and the large parcel 

336 History of Prince Edward County 

of letters from his first wife, which, by his special direction, 
were buried with him. He even wore this hat at meals it is 
said ! 

Piercing black eyes, were over-shadowed by an heavy 
over-hanging brow, above which rose a high and most intel- 
lectually shaped forehead. 

Eccentric in action and commanding in appearance he 
was a marked man in any assemblage. 

His passion for his home county of Prince Edward 
amounted to almost an obsession. He tried a brief settle- 
ment at Norfolk and engaged as professor of surgery at 
Baltimore, in Washington University, but the pull of "home" 
soon had him back in Prince Edward county where he stayed 
until he died. 

In November of 1875, being then eighty-eight years of 
age. Dr. Mettauer was called to attend a case of morphine 
poisoning. A short walk through wet snow made his feet 
wet. As a result he developed a deep cold, which soon re- 
solved itself into pneumonia, from which, in two days, he 
died. Alert and erect, he laid down his work while still 
in the harness. A most useful life was thus crowned with 
an heroic death. Close to the scenes of his useful endeavors 
for his fellows he lies buried, a strong, unselfish soul, tak- 
ing a well-earned repose. Prince Edward county is justly 
proud of her surgeon son. 

History of Prince Edtoard County 337 

JAMES NELSON, D.D., LL.D. Bom, August 23, 1841; 
Died, November 13, 1921. 

Although Doctor Nelson was not a native of Prince Ed- 
ward County, so much of his labor was done in, and for, the 
county, that it is fitting that this notice shall be taken of him 

He was born in Louisa county, Virginia, on August 23, 
1841. The War between the States began when he was still 
at school. He joined the Confederate Army and was for 
four years Chaplain of the Forty- fourth Virginia Kegiment. 
What was known as "the great revival" began in the bri- 
gade to which young Nelson was attached, and it is said that 
hundreds of Confederate soldiers were converted through his 

With the close of the war he entered Columbian Col- 
lege, Washington, and graduated at the head of his class. 
He then served as pastor of a church in that city, and later 
became general evangelist for the Baptists of Maryland. In 
1875 he accepted the pastorate of the Farmville Baptist 
Church and began at once to establish a Normal School for 
women there. He repeatedly appeared before the Legisla- 
ture and the Governor and finally won out in his project and 
the Female Normal School of Farmville, the progenitor of 
like schools at Radford, Fredericksburg, and Harrisonburg, 
came into being. 

In 1881 he went to London, England, as a delegate to 
the World's Sunday School Convention, and while in that 
city, preached in the church of the famous Charles Haddon 

In 1885 he left Farmville to accept the pastorate of the 
Baptist Church at Staunton, Virginia, where he lectured be- 
fore the Staunton Female Seminary and other schools in 
addition to his duties as pastor of the Staunton Church. 

338 History of Prince Edward County 

After leaving Staunton, he was for nearly thirty years 
President of the Woman's College of Richmond. The 
school, when he took charge of it, was near extinction. Its 
long history, its old prestige, and its multitude of alumnae 
alike seemed unable to save it. Dr. Nelson, in a few brief 
years, re-established it on a sure footing, made it for many 
sessions a most useful agency and, at the proper time, most 
generously stood aside and closed the college that AVest- 
hampton College might be opened. 

In choosing his teachers. Dr. Nelson was guided by a 
sure instinct that even he could not explain. Dr. J. A. C. 
Chandler, now President of the College of William and 
Mary, was picked by Dr. Nelson while still a very young 
man, as one of his teachers. Among other of his teachers, 
were Hiss Lenora Duke, later Mrs. Chandler; Dr. M. A. 
Martin; Dr. W. A. Shepherd; Dr. F. C. Woodward; Dr. 
Emory Hill; Christopher Garnett; Miss Mary Carter An- 
derson, now Mrs. Charles S. Gardner; Miss Marian Forbes; 
Miss Addie Garlick; and Miss Catherine Ryland, now Mrs. 

Dr. Nelson was the despair of every college executive, 
for it was said of him that he could do more work with 
less money than any college president in Virginia. He had 
a marked spiritual influence over the student body of the col- 

Dr. Nelson died on Sunday, November 13, 1921, at 904 
Grace Street West, Richmond, Virginia, and was buried at 
Hollywood Cemetery in that city. 

History of Prince Edward County 339 


He was the son of Dr. Henry Ruffner, a distinguished 
Presbjrterian preacher, who was, for many years President 
of Washington College, now Washington and Lee Univer- 
sity. Thus, the subject of this sketch was reared in a home 
of culture. From the college of which his father was Presi- 
dent he, in 1845, received the degree of M.A. He afterward 
studied theology at Union Theological Seminary, and at 
Princeton, New Jersey. He was at one time Chaplain of the 
University of Virginia, and later became pastor of Seventh 
Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia. In 1853, on account of 
broken health, he withdrew from the ministry. 

He wrote much on educational and agricultural sub- 
jects, and was at one time editor of the Virginia School 
Journal, and of the New England Journal of Education. He 
was State Superintendent of Public Instruction in Virginia, 
from 1870 to 1882. This office had just been created and he 
was the first to occupy it. His difficulties were multiplied 
from the fact that he had to provide for two distinct races 
of people at a time when feelings were apt to run high; 
moreover the War between the States, that presented that 
problem, had left his constituency almost too poor to be taxed 
for education. - In founding the new system he wrote, trav- 
eled, lectured, visited schools, held meetings, and organized 
teachers' institutes, until 1882, when a change in the politics 
of the Administration brought about his retirement. It was 
from this retirement and with his vast experience behind 
him, that he was called in 1884 to undertake a new pioneer 
work, and he became the first head of the State Female Nor- 
mal School of Virginia, located at Farmville. He was also 
helpful in founding the Agricultural and Mechanical Col- 
lege, and Miller School, and was at one time a member of 
the Board of Hampton Institute (Colored). 

340 History of Prince Edward County 

What Horace Mann, thirty-three years before him, had 
done for Massachusetts, Dr. Euffner did for Virginia. 

He lived to a good old age and died November 24, 1908, 
beloved and honored by all. 

History of Prince Edward County 341 


April 14, 1813. Died 1885. 

Judge Watkins was born in 1813, and spent his entire 
life in Prince Edward county. He was a member of the 
Virginia Legislature in 1867-1868, and Judge of the County 
Court of Prince Edward for fourteen years. He was Secre- 
tary and Treasurer of the Board of Union Theological Semi- 
nary for forty years, of Hampden- Sidney College fourteen 
years, and of the State Normal School for the first year of 
its existence, when his valuable and active life was brought 
to a close in 1885. He was an ardent friend of education, 
especially of the common school system. 

842 History of Prince Edward County 

DOCTOR PETER WINSTON. Born in Richmond, Va., 
June 5, 1836. Died at FarmviUe, Virginia^ January 30, 
1920, and buried at Farmville^ Virginia, 

Doctor Peter Winston was born at Richmond, Virginia, 
June 5, 1836. He was graduated from Hampden- Sidney Col- 
lege, Prince Edward county, with the degree of A.B. ; at- 
tended the University of Virginia for one year, and also the 
University of New York, where he graduated in Medicine. 
Then he was for one year a student in Paris at the Univer- 
sity of France, from whence he returned, in obedience to his 
country's call, in 1861, to become a surgeon in the Confeder- 
ate Army, whicli position he held through the period of the 
War between the States. Pie afterwards located in Farm- 
ville, Virginia, where he practiced medicine to the time of 
his death in 1920. He was mayor of Farmville in 1873-1874, 
and was a Delegate to the State Legislature in 1914, 1916, 
1918 from Prince Edward County. 

He was Moderator of the Appomattox Association of 
Baptist Churches in 1873 and 1874, and again in 1914 and 
1915. He was a prominent and deeply interested member 
of the Farmville Baptist Church for many years. 

He was for twenty-four years physician to the State 
Female Normal School, at Farmville, Virginia, and was a 
trustee of Hampden- Sidney College for a great many years, 
as well as of the State Board of Correction. 

He had reached the ripe age of eighty-four when he died. 

On September 15, 1868, he married Miss MoUie Emma 
Rice in Farmville, Va., and she survived him at his death. 

History of Prince Edward County 343 

KEV. DANIEL WITT, D.D. 1801-1871. 

This noted divine was the son of Jesse Witt and Alice 
Brown, then living in Bedford county, near to what is now 
Bedford City, then known as liberty. He was born, No- 
vember 8, 1801. As a result of hardships endured during the 
Revolutionary War, his father was compelled to use crutches 
and found it §, difficult matter to care for his large family 
on the small farm that he had managed to purchase. He 
was a man of vigorous and rather remarkable intellect. Both 
father and mother were ardent Baptists. Under the circum- 
stances of the family, the boy Daniel, received but limited edu- 
cational advantages, his early school days extending but little 
over three years. Of a rather delicate physique, the outdoor 
life made necessary by demands of the little farm and the 
large family, was a most fortunate thing for him, as it 
gave the needed strength for the work of the after years. 

Until the fourth Sunday in August, 1821, nothing par- 
ticularly striking occurred in the life of the young man. On 
this day, however, a "section meeting"; a religious gathering 
much after the fashion of the "protracted meeting" of later 
days, but conducted by a designated section of the Baptist 
Association of Churches, held at Hatcher's Meeting House, and 
at which Elders Davis, Leftwich, Harris, and Dempsey were 
the preachers, was being held. The meeting lasted all day and 
resulted, on October 21, 1821, in his avowal of conversion. 
To get to this meeting he journeyed farther from his home 
than he had ever before done; some twenty miles. 

On the second Sunday in December, 1821, with the ice 
on the water, the subject of our sketch, and his older brother 
Jesse, were baptized and received into the fellowship of the 
Little Otter (now Bedford City) Church. Almost imme- 
diately he began to preach and met with much acceptance, 
although it is said that he then possessed but ONE sermon. 
On April 13, 1822, his Church licensed him to preach. He 

344 History of Prince Edward County 

was soon preaching throughout the counties of Henry, Pat- 
rick, Pittsylvania, and Campbell. Upon the organization of 
the General Association of Baptist Churches in 1823, young 
Witt, with Jeremiah B. Jeter, his lifelong friend, were desig- 
nated its first missionaries and set apart for work in the 
western part of the State, included in their field being the 
counties of Franklin, Henry, Patrick, Montgomery, Gray- 
son, Giles, Wythe, Monroe, Greenbrier, Pocahontas, Alle- 
ghany, Bath, Rockbridge, and Botetourt. 

He was formally ordained to the ministry, in his home 
Church, Little Otter, on August 7-8, 1824. 

In February, 1827, he preached at an Associational meet- 
ing of the Appomattox Association of Baptist Churches, held 
at Sandy River, Prince Edward county, in Sharon Bap- 
tist Church, and this led to his acceptance of a call to that 
Church. And thus began a ministry, unique in many ways, 
that was to extend over a term of forty-five years, to he termin- 
ated only by the death of the devoted pastor. He pur- 
chased a modest home near to his Church where he spent 
the rest of his years and in which he died, Novmber 15, 

The honorary degree of D.D. was conferred on Mr. Witt 
by Columbian College, Washington, D. C. He was the Mod- 
erator of the Appomattox Association of Baptist Churches 
for eleven of its sessions, and was President of the General 
Association, at its Petersburg session in 1861. 

He was thrice married. In 1829 he was married to Miss 
Mary C. Cocke, of Cumberland county, who died in 1834. 
In 1836 he was married to Miss Mary A Woodfin, who died 
in 1842. In 1849 he was married to Mrs. Mary Ellen Temple, 
who survived him. 

His family consisted of four sons. 

History of Prince Edward County 346 

Upon the wish of his Church, Dr. Witt was buried near 
the pulpit where for so many years he had proclaimed the 
message of life eternal. Shortly after his death, a handsome 
marble shaft, suitably inscribed, was erected by Sharon 
Church and other friends, and there he sleeps! 

JAMES A. DAVIDSON, Mayor of FarmvUle, Va. 

See Page 35 2. 

1. Robert Kincaid Brock. 

2. Edward Taylor Boiidurant. 

3. James Augustus Davidson. 

4. Joseph Dupuy Eggleston. 

5. Edgar Graham Gammon. 

6. George Jefferson Hundley. 

7. Joseph L. Jarman. 

8. Asa D. Watkins. 

History of Prince Edward County 349 


Someone has said that "history is but the lengthened 
shadow of the human race.'' That is the reason for this, and 
the preceding chapter on "Biography." 

The men who are cited in this chapter, though still 
living, have already rendered such service in their respective 
spheres, for the good of their fellow citizens of Ptince Ed- 
ward county, as to mark them out for distinction. 

To the lasting discredit of humanity let is be said that 
we are all too prone to wait until after the obsequies, be- 
fore doing justice to those who have served us. 

Of course it is not intended to intimate that these alone 
have served their fellows faithfully and well, but they stand 
in a representative capacity in their several callings, in that 
service which every robust citizen feels to be incumbent upon 
those who enjoy the privileges of our democratic institutions. 

And that is the reason for these two chapters. These 
men have either made, or are making, history. 

350 History of Prince Edward County 


The subject of this sketch was born in Buckingham coun- 
ty, Virginia, May 29, 1878. His father was Henry C. Brock, 
for thirty-two years a professor at Hampden- Sidney Col- 
lege; and his mother, Mary Carter Irving, daughter of the 
late Robert Kincaid Irving, at one time a member of the 
Virginia House of Delegates; of the State Senate, and Clerk 
of the County of Buckingham. He is a nephew of the late 
Robert A. Brock of Richmond, for many years Secretary of 
the Virginia Historical Society, and of the Southern His- 
torical Society. 

He graduated from Hampden- Sidney College in 1897 
with the degree of A.B. He then taught for one year in Surry 
County, and for one year in Halifax County. For four years 
he conducted a private school in Charleston, West Virginia. 

He received his legal education at the University of Vir- 
^nia. Is a member of the Chi Phi Fraternity. Was at 
one time the president of the Alumni Association of Hamp- 
den- Sidney College. 

He began the practiqe of law in Farmville in 1904 where 
he soon formed a partnership with Judge A. D. Watkins, 
which has continued to the present time. 

He was elected to the Senate of Virginia in 1912, where 
he served for four years as a member of the Committees of 
Finance; Schools and Colleges; Courts of Justice; and Fish- 
eries and Game, of that body. 

He was a delegate to the State Democratic Convention 
in 1908, 1912, 1916, and 1920, and was the alternate delegate 
to the National Democratic Convention in St. Louis in 1916. 

He was Chairman of the Prince Edward Chapter of the 
Red Cross from the time that the Chapter was organized dur- 
ing the Great War, which office he still holds. He was 

History of Prince Edward County 351 

Chairman of the Legal Advisory Board of Prince Edward 
County during the War. 

He is Secretary of the Prince Edward Public Health 
Association; and of the Electoral Board of the County; Ex- 
aminer of Records for the Fifth Judicial Circuit since 1918; 
and Secretary- Auditor of the Virginia Normal School Board 
since October 1919, 

He volunteered for service in the Great War in the spring 
of 1918, making application for admission to the Third Offi- 
cers' Training Camp, but was rejected. He applied again 
to the Fourth Officers' Training Camp, and received appoint- 
ment to Camp Lee; was inducted into the service before 
the local Draft Board; and was ordered to report, Novem- 
ber 13th, 1918. Through the signing of the Armistice on 
the 11th of that month, this appointment was cancelled. 

Mr. Brock stands high in the estimation of his fellow- 
citizens of Prince Edward county for his splendid public 
spirit and devotion to duty. 

352 History of Prince Edward County 


The subject of this sketch was born in Prince Edward 
county, near Rice, October 22, 1864, and has lived in the coun- 
ty all his life. 

In 1881 he professed religion and united with the Christ- 
ian (Disciples of Christ) Church in April of that year. 

When sixteen years of age, owing to the death of both 
father and mother, and being the eldest of the boys of the 
family, he was forced to leave school and assume the manage- 
ment of the home farm, which he did so successfully that all 
the debts against it were paid off, and in 1893, by decree of 
the Circuit Court, his father's farm was sold to him by the 

He married Agnes Leigh Clark, October 20, 1886. Side 
by side they have fought the battle of life, with the hope that 
their children might have a good education and prove a bless- 
ing to the world. 

Having been a tobacco grower practically all his life, he 
very early became very much interested in the promotion of 
an organization for securing better prices for that commodity 
for the growers of it. In 1905 he led in a movement to that 
end. Failing at that time to secure sufficient strength to 
accomplish the hoped-for results, that organization went into 
the loose warehouse business. He was made manager and 
continued to serve in that capacity for eight years with a 
marked degree of success. During all these eight years he 
continued to attend to the managment of his farm as well. 
In 1913 he was sent by the U. S. Government to Austria, 
to investigate the conditions under which Virginia tobacco 
was being bought by foreign governments. The war coming 
on soon afterwards, his mission proved abortive of results. 

In 1920 he was sent to the Legislature in succession to 

History of Prince Edward County 353 

the late Dr. Peter Winston. He was re-elected in 1922 with- 
out opposition. 

Mr. Bondurant is deservedly popular amongst all classes 
of people in the county, but it is amongst the farmers that 
he enjoys his greatest popularity. 

354 History of Prince Edward County 


The subject of this sketch, is the son of William Meade 
Dan^idson and Julia Wiltse Davidson, and was born at 
Farmville, Virginia, May 31st, 1877, and has lived in Farm- 
ville all his life. 

He attended the public schools of his native town, finish- 
ing his course in February 1892. 

On the 28th of October, 1903, he was married to Miss 
Birdie Waddell Cox, of Richmond, Virginia, and has a fam- 
ily of three Children: James A., Jr.; Paul William; and 
Frances Wiltse. 

He served two terms as a memberof the Farmville Town 
Council ; from September 1, 1916, to September 1, 1920, when 
he was elected Mayor for the term of two years; from 
September 1, 1920, to September 1, 1922, winning by a sub- 
stantial majority over his fellow-councilor, Mr. E. W. San- 

He is the junior member of the firm of Stokes and David-- 
son, wholesale and retail grocers of Farmville, which firm 
occupies the finest grocery premises in the town, situated 
on Main street; a new and handsome structure, erected in 

Mr. and Mrs. Davidson are prominent socially, through- 
out the county and are deservedly popular amongst the host 
of their friends, whom they frequently entertain in their 
beautiful home on Third street. 

History of Prince Edward County 355 


Dr. Eggleston began life as a country boy near Wor- 
sham, in Prince Edward county. He was graduated from 
Hampden- Sidney College in 1886, was prepared for college 
at old Prince Edward Academy at Worsham, Va., under Pro- 
fessor J. R. Thornton, and, at eighteen, was at work in a 
one-room school in Missouri, at $15 a month. He was soon 
promoted to a two-room school in Prince Edward, his native 
county, and, a little later, to a three-room school in Georgia. 

Teaching was then given up temporarily because of ill- 
health, and he went to work in a drug store. In eighteen 
months he had worked up from a twenty-five-dollar a week 
clerk, to the head of the business. 

He then returned to the school-room, and for two years 
taught in a High School in Asheville, N. C, twice during 
that time declining the office of principal of it. He then 
succeeded Mr. Claxton as Superintendent of the Asheville 
schools. He filled this position most successfully for seven 
years, finding time also to become one of the organizers of 
the Asheville and Buncombe County Good Roads Associa- 
tion, and was an active member of the executive committee of 
the Asheville Business Men's Association. At the end of nine 
years work in Asheville he returned to Virginia in order 
to be near his father, who was in failing health. 

He was on the editorial staff of the B. F. Johnson Pub- 
lishing Company only a short while before he was asked by 
President Dabney, of the University of Tennessee^ to help 
in organizing the Bureau of Publicity and Information of 
the Southern Educational Board. 

Upon the death of Mr. T. J. Garden, shortly after, 
Mr. Eggleston was appointed to fill his unexpired term as 
County Superintendent of the schools of Prince Edward. 

Then he was elected State Superintendent of Public 

356 History of Prince Edward County 

Instruction in Virginia, which office he filled with character- 
istic energy and conspicuous success for seven years. 

As State Superintendent of Education, he was ex-officio, 
a member of the Board of Visitors of the State Normal 
School for Women, at Farmville. At the request of United 
States Commissioner of Education, P. P. Claxton, he resigned 
the State Superintendency in order to become Chief Special- 
ist in Rural Education for the United States, but in six 
months, was unanimously called as President of Virginia 
.Polytechnic Institute, where he remained for six years. 
In that period, 1913-1919, the enrollment of V. P. I. in- 
creased from 460 to 781. 

Asked to take the Presidency of his Alma Mater, Hamp- 
den-Sidney College, he declined unless it should become the 
property of the Synod of Virginia. When the College came 
under the control of the Synod, he accepted the Presidency 
and assumed office, July 1, 1919. 

Dr. Eggleston has written extensively for leading pa- 
pers in Virginia and North Carolina; is a member of Beta 
Theta Pi, and Phi Beta Kappa Clubs, and author, with 
R. W. Bruere, of "The Work of the Rural School." 

Farmville and Prince Edward county are greatly hon- 
ored in the work of this distinguished son of theirs. 

History of Prince Edward County 357 


The subject of this sketch is the present Pastor of Col- 
lege Presbyterian Church, at Hampden- Sidney, Virginia. 

His father was the late Rev. James Polk Gammon. His 
mother's maiden name was Susan Southall Langhorne. 

He first saw the light of day, September 10, 1884, at 
Asheville, North Carolina. 

When about two years of age his parents moved to Vir- 
ginia, where he was reared. He entered Hampden- Sidney 
College in 1902, and graduated in 1905, with his A.B. degree. 

Upon his graduation he taught school for three years, 
and, in 1908, entered Union Theological. Seminary in Rich- 
mond, from which institution he graduated in 1911 with his 
B.D. degree. 

His first ministerial labors were at Clarksburg, West 
Virginia, where he remained for only one year, resigning to 
take up mission work at Harlington, Texas, on the Mexican 
border. Here he did aggressive and successful Home Mis- 
sion work for a period of five years. 

From Harlington, in the fall of 1917, he came to his 
present work at Hampden- Sidney. 

During the war he did Y. M. C. A. work at Hampden- 
Sidney College, with the Student Army Training Corps, and 
was deservedly popular with the young men with whom he 

He received his D.D. degree from Hampden- Sidney Col- 
lege, which institution takes pride in the splendid work he 
is doing with the student body of the college, with whom 
he is extremely popular. 

358 History of Prince Edward County 


The subject of this sketch was bom on the 22nd day of 
March, 1838. He is the son of Josiah Hundley and Cornelia 
Jefferson Hundley, both of whom were born and reared 
in Amelia county, Virginia. His mother died when he was 
three years old, and his father, when he was ten. After 
his mother's death George was taken to the home of his 
grandmother, Mrs. Nancy Jefferson, the widow of John Gar- 
land Jefferson, and was raised by her. He lived in the coun- 
ty of Amelia till he grew to manhood. He received his edu- 
cation in the private schools of that day, in Amelia county. 
He was put out to business when quite young, but before he 
was full grown, managed by his own efforts and with the 
help of his mother's sister, Mrs. Nicholas Carrington, to con- 
tinue his education at Fleetwood Academy in Nelson county, 
Va., and at Hampden- Sidney College, and his legal educa- 
tion at Judge Jno. W. Brockenbrough's Law School in Lex- 
ington, Ya. He had to borrow money to enable him to com- 
plete his education, but paid it all back by his individual 
efforts afterwards. 

He obtained his license to practice law in April 1861, 
being examined by Judges R. C. L. Moncure, Wm. J. Robert- 
son and William Danniel, three Judges of the Court of Ap- 
peals of Virginia, said court being then in session in Rich- 
mond. Returning then to the home of his cousin, Wm. C. 
Carrington of Howardsville, Albemarle County, with whom 
he had read law before going to law school, young Hundley 
volunteered in the Howardsville Blues, a company then be- 
ing organized to enter the War between the States, on the 
side of the south; was elected a Lieutenant in the company 
and joined our army at Manassas Junction. This com- 
pany formed a part of the 19th Virginia Regiment and took 
part in the first battle of Manassas. 

In 1862, in company with his cousin. Lieutenant Car- 

History of Prince Edward County 359 

rington, he "joined the cavalry" being attached to the 5th 
Virginia cavaflry, and served until the end of the wa.r. 
He was severely wounded in 1863 and performed his last 
service at Appomattox Court House in 1865. 

After the surrender, the courts being closed, young 
Hundley organized a private school at Howards ville, Va., 
and taught school until February 1866, when he settled at 
Buckingham Court House, Va., to practice law. When he 
went there, after purchasing some civilian clothes, he had 
exactly $15 left in cash, but soon got a good practice, and 
with the proceeds, paid off his debts then remaining un- 
paid. He took an active part in the struggles of the best 
people against the oppressions and outrages of the enemies 
of the South, in the days of the Re- Construction Period. 

Young Hundley was nominated for the Virginia Senate 
from Buckingham district, twice. The first time he was de- 
feated by a small majority, in a district with an overwhelm- 
ing negro majority. The second time he was nominated by 
the Conservatives, or Democrats, of that day, during his 
absence from the district, without solicitation on his part, 
and was elected by a good majority, and served in the Senate 
for four years. 

At the close of his term in the Senate, he declined re- 
election and moved to Richmond to practice his profession. 
He had enough of political office holding, but, whilst still in 
the Senate, and also subsequent to his retirement from poli- 
tics, he championed the cause of white supremacy, and can- 
vassed the State in every election for the cause of democ- 
racy and white rule. While he was still in the Senate, a 
bill was passed re-organizing the Militia of the State and 
he was appointed a Brigadier-General of Militia, by Gov- 
ernor Walker. , 

While in Richmond he purchased an estate near Amelia 

360 History of Prince Edward County 

Court House and, having married, he moved to his home 
county of Amelia and practiced law there and in adjoining 
counties, and sometimes argued cases in other States. In 
1895 an attempt was made to repeal the Walton Law, which 
was, at that time, the only protection the people of south- 
side Virginia had against negro domination, by a proper 
restriction of suffrage, and General Hundley, as he was then 
known, was appealed to by the Democrats of Nottoway and 
Amelia, to stand for election to the Legislature. This he 
refused to do at first, but being assured that he would be 
elected without opposition, he consented and was returned. 
Some leading Democrats from the white sections otf the 
State, who had been leaders in the Legislature for many ses- 
sions, championed the repeal of the Walton Law. Mr. 
Hundley led the defenders of that law and, after the hardest 
fight of his life, succeeded in defeating the repeal of the law, 
thereby saving white supremacy in south-side Virginia, until 
the new Constitution established it permanently by Consti- 
tutional restrictions of Suffrage. 

In 1898 Governor Tyler appointed Mr. Hundley Judge 
of the 3rd Judicial District of Virginia, composed at that 
time of nine counties : viz : Amelia, Powhatan, Cumberland, 
Buckingham, Appomattox, Prince Edward, Charlotte, Lunen- 
burg, and Mechlenburg. Under the new Constitution, Judge 
Hundley having removed to Farmville, the circuit was di- 
vided, and he became Judge of the present 5th Judicial Dis- 
trict, composed of five counties. He has been on the Bench 
for twenty-four years, during which time he has tried many 
important and celebrated cases. 

Judge Hundley is descended, on his father's side, from 
Josiah Hundley, who emigrated from England in 1759 and 
settled in Williamsburg, Va., and through his mother, Cor- 
nelia Jefferson, from the Jeffersons of the Revolution. His 
grandfather was George Jefferson, who was the first cousin, 

History of Prince Edward County 361 

intimate friend, and boyhood playmate, of Thomas Jeffer- 
son, President of the United States. Through his mother, 
he is descended also, from Elizabeth Giles, the only sister of 
Governor Wm. B. Giles, of Virginia. His grandfather, John 
Garland Jefferson, of Amelia, was a protege of President 
Jefferson, who took him to Monticello, to read law under 
his supervision, and in President Thomas Jefferson's works. 
Vol. 4, page 388, there is published a letter to George Jeffer- 
son. In Vol 5, of the same work, there is published a letter 
to John Garland Jefferson, son of George Jefferson. Both 
of these letters are couched in the most affectionate terms. 

Judge Hundley's ancestors have fought for their coun- 
try in every war. Colonial or National, that this country 
has been engaged in. He, himself, served throughout the 
War between the States, during which he was severely wound- 
ed. His father Josiah Hundley the 3rd, served under Gen- 
eral Taylor, in the Mexican war. 

Judge Hundley's son, Kobert Garland Hundley, was 
trained at Fort Meyer, and commissioned as Lieutenant of 
Infantry when barely old enough to receive a commission, 
and sers^ed through the Great World War in France, during 
which he was severely wounded. He is now practicing law 
in Richmond. 

362 History of Prince Edward County 

JOSEPH L. JARMAN, A.B., LL.D., President State Fe- 
male Normal School^ Farmville^ Va. 

Dr. Jarman, fourth President of the State Female Norm- 
al School, Farmville, Virginia, was bom in Charlottesville, 
Virginia, on the 19th of November, 1867. His father, Wil- 
liam Dabney Jarman, served in the Confederate Army, in 
the War between the States. His mother was Catherine 
Goodloe Lindsay, of the well known I-^indsay family of 
Albemarle county. 

His early education was obtained in the public schools 
of Charlottesville. At the early age of fourteen (having 
been left an orphan) he was sent to the Miller Manual Labor 
School, where he remained from 1881 to 1886. In competi- 
tive examination he won the Miller Scholarship at the Uni- 
versity of Virginia, where he was a student from 1886 to 
1889, devoting himself especially to the natural and physical 

Upon the completion of his course at the University of 
Virginia, he returned to Miller School as a member of the 
faculty, but remained there for only one year, as, at the 
end of that time, he was called to the chair of natural science 
at Emory and Henry College. He remained at Emory and 
Henry for twelve years, leaving ther'e in January 1902, 
to take up his present position at Farmville. 

During his stay at Emory and Henry College the degree 
of A.B., was conferred upon him by that institution, and, 
since he has been in Farmville, Hampden-Sidney College 
has honored itself by conferring upon him the degree of 

Dr. Jarman is a member of the American Chemical So- 
ciety ; the American Society for the Advancement of Science ; 
and the Virginia Historical Society. He was a member of 

Fifth Judicial District 

See Page 35 6. 

History of Prince Edward County 363 

the State Board of Education for eight years, viz: from 
1906 to 1914; and was Chairman for the Red Cross; the 
Y. M. C. A.; and the United War- Work campaigns during 
the World's War, securing from Farmville and Prince Ed- 
ward County the splendid total of approximately $25,000, 
for these interests. 

Notwithstanding his multitudinous duties. Dr. Jarman is 
very active in the work of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
in Farmville, of which he is a loyal and consistent member, 
beinor Chairman of the Official Board of that Church. 

364 History of Prince Edward County 


Judge Watkins was born in 1856 and has lived in Prince 
Edward county all his life. He is one of the most influ- 
ential and best esteemed citizens of Farmville, in that coun- 
ty, having been officially intimately acquainted with the pub- 
lic affairs of the county since he was twenty-one years of 

He was Judge of the County Court from 1886 to 1891, 
and Attorney for the Commonwealth from 1891 to the pres- 
ent time. 

He was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates, 
1897-98y and of the State Senate from 1899 to 1904. 

He succeeded his father, the late Judge F. N. Watkins, 
in 1885, as Secretary-Treasurer of the Board of Trustees of 
the State Female Normal School, at Farmville. 

He has also served as a member of the Board of Trustees 
of Hampden-Sidney College for the past twenty-nine years. 
He is a member of the Board of Visitors of the Negro Nor- 
mal and Industrial Institute of Petersburg, Virginia, and is 
a member of the State Inter-Racial Commission at the pres- 
ent time. 

He is an ardent friend and an active exponent of educa- 
tion for the masses. 

He is a member of the Presbyterian Church in Farm- 
ville where he served, first as Deacon, and later, as Elder, 
which latter office he still holds. 

In 1886 he married Miss Nannie E. Forbes, daughter of 
Col. W. W. Forbes, of Buckingham county. His family con- 
sists of four sons and four daughters. 

t3i\e Jinlimarg of Entire lEitmarb (Haaatg 

History of Prince Edward County 367 


No inconsiderable part of such an historical sketch of 
the count\' as we are endeavoring to give, must rest in tra- 
dition. Tradition, properly substantiated, forms a legiti- 
mate source of history generally, because actual documentary 
evidence is not available in respect to many vital items of the 
history of the changeful conditions that have been the lot 
of the Southern States. 

This is true in a very large measure respecting the Judici- 
ary of Prince Edward county. 

Much of the subjoined matter Avas furnished by Judge 
George J. Hundley, from a peculiarly retentive memory, but 
in the material facts it has been verified by such document- 
ary evidence as is available. 

Subsequent to the Revolutionary War, and prior to the 
War between the States, the Juduciary of the County, in 
the main, followed the subjoined plan: 

The Court of Appeals, the highest State Court, was com- 
posed of five Judges, who were elected by the people under 
a restricted franchise. This system resulted in the election 
of men of high repute, so that this court was held in great 
respect. It had general jurisdiction. 

The District Court of Appeals, which was composed of 
three Circuit Court Judges, elected by the people under re- 
stricted franchise, which had appellate jurisdiction over both 
civil and criminal cases. 

The County Courts, composed of five Magistrates, were 
appointed by the Governor, and had general jurisdiction in 
civil cases, but in criminal cases acted as an examining board 
only. One of their number, selected by themselves, was ap- 
pointed to act as presiding magistrate. Under this system, 
one of their number, under the rule of seniority, was en- 

368 History of Prince Edward County 

titled to the office of Sheriff. These courts stood very high 
in popular esteem, being usually composed of educated men, 
some of whom had even studied law, as was rather customary 
amongst the "gentlemen" of that day and period. 

We have thus seen, that prior to the Civil War, the 
Judges were elected under a qualified white franchise, w^hich 
resulted in the election of men of substance and standing, 
whose decisions stood high in the esteem of the superior 
courts. At this time, in order to be entitled to vote, the 
citizen was required to be a landowner, who could vote 
wherever he owned land. 

Amongst the Judges thus selected were such men as 
Judge K. L. E. Mohcure; Judge William DanieJ; Judge 
William J. Kobertson; of the Court of Appeals; and Judge 
William Leigh; Judge Lucius P. Thompson; Judge Hunter 
Marshall; Judge — Nash; Judge — Meredith; and Judge 
William Crump, of the Circuit Court. 

During the war the Judges thus elected continued to dis- 
charge their duties. The above named Judges were in office 
during this period. 

After the war these officers were removed, and others; 
in many cases disreputable men, were appointed by the mili- 
tary authorities who took supervision of the courts of justice. 
Virginia was made into Military District Number One, for 
this, and other purposes. 

One of these military appointees, was one, Philip A. 
Bowling, a native of Buckingham, who presided over nine 
counties which included Amelia, Buckingham, and Prince Ed- 
ward counties. He belonged to one of the most prominent 
families of Virginia. During a debate between him and 
John Randolph of Roanoke, noted for the "edge" of his 
tongue when aroused, the latter referred to Bowling as "the 
degenerate son of a worthy sire." As a young man he gave 

History of Prince Edward County 369 

every promise of a brilliant and useful career, possessing a 
fine mind and an imposing presence. He was elected to the 
Legislature while still in his early twenties, and supported a 
proposition to abolish slavery in Virginia, which was lost 
by a very narrow margin, said to be one vote. His vote is 
said to have been influenced by the fact that one, Arthur 
Tappen of Matesachusetts, an ardent abolitionist, came to Rich- 
mond in order to advocate abolition, bringing with him his 
young daughter, a most attractive young woman, between 
whom and young Bowling an affection sprung up that re- 
sulted in their becoming engaged to be married. About this 
time a great agitation was made by the advocates of slavery, 
so that his vote in favor of abolition made him very unpopu- 
lar in certain influential quarters. He made desperate efforts 
to regain his popularity, but was ever afterwards unable 
to regain his former position, and gradually became a politi- 
cal pariah. 

His family bitterly opposed his marriage to Miss Tappen 
and finally induced him to marry a Miss Eppes, a most ex- 
cellent young lady of North Carolina. Miss Tappen also 
married shortly afterwards. 

Disappointed both matrimonially and politically, Bow- 
ling gradually sank until he became a drunkard and a gam- 
bler. His wife dying, he moved to Farmville, where he 
rented a small office, in which he slept and lived. While 
here, his very bedding was sold from under him for debt. 

In the meantime the husband of the former Miss Tappen 
died, and hearing of it. Bowling wrote to her something after 
this fashion: "I am bankrupt in morals and in pursej; I 
gamble and I drink whiskey; and if you will marry me 
I will come and see you at once;" to which she replied: "I 
will be glad to see you." He went to Boston and saw her 
and they became engaged. Though her father was so bit- 
terly opposed to the marriage that he threatened to shoot 

370 History of Prince Edward County 

Bowling, they were married and returned to Virginia to 

It was this man whom General Canby, in charge of Mili- 
tary District No. 1, appointed as Judge over the district 
which included Prince Edward county. In order to qualify, 
Bowling took the "Iron Clad Oath" declaring therein that 
he had never sympathized with, or aided the South in the 
War between the States ! 

His Wife, for whom he entertained a genuine affection, 
had a very salutary influence over him, so that he became 
somewhat less dissipated, but still remained far from a 
model of sobriety. Mrs. Bowling accompanied her husband 
on his circuit of the counties in his district and was much 
chagrined at his dissolute conduct, for she was a most ex- 
cellent woman. They lived on a farm near to Amelia Court 
House. Bowling continued to serve until the civil govern- 
ment was rehabilitated. After he was set aside upon that 
occurrence, he went back to his old life of dissipation. 

The military supervision ended, the Underwood Con- 
vention; better known as the "Black and Tan Convention;" 
a convention make up of negroes, carpetbaggers, and scalawags 
(these "scalawags" were southerners who had turned rene- 
gades for money, or plunder reasons) assumed control and 
the "Keconstruction" days proper, began. This Convention, 
thus composed, proceeded to change the entire judicial sys- 
tem. It introduced the northern system, entailing a vast 
increase in the number of officers and in the amount of ex- 
pense for judicial purposes. They proceeded to disfranchise 
all the leading southerners who had participated in the war 
on behalf of the South, either in the Government or in the 
Army, so that they could neither vote nor hold office. Every 
man now elected to office, including the judiciary in all its 
branches, had to take what was known as the "Iron Clad 
Oath," thereby swearing that he had neither participated in. 

History of Prince Edward County 371 

nor sympathized with, what was called "The Rebellion." The 
same oath was required of the voters. After this arrange- 
ment had been agreed to, a general election was ordered. 
Under the limited franchise thus achieved, vast numbers of 
the white men of the South were shut out from the polls, 
and every male negro of twenty-one years of age was per- 
mitted to vote. As one result of this plan many negroes were 
elected as Magistrates, Constables, etc., and some were sent 
to both Houses of Congress, and to both Houses of the State 
Legislature. They were also elected as County Clerks, Treas- 
urers, Commonwealth's Attorneys, etc. Amongst those sent 
to represent Prince Edward county in the State Legislature 
and Senate appear the names of James D. Bland (negro) 
John Robinson (negro) N. M. Griggs (negro). The Conven- 
tion generally was made up of negroes, carpetbaggers, and 
scalawags. The representatives of the South to both Houses 
of Congress were generalh'^ of the same type 

When the native white southerners again secured con- 
trol in the Convention of 1901, the work of the Underwood 
Convention was set aside almost in its entirety, save that the 
system of County Judges in a modified form was retained, 
and the Magistrates Courts finally ceased to exist as form- 
erly. Duiftng 4:he interim of the Underwood Convention 
Judge F. N. Watkins, Judge J. M. Crute, and Judge Asa D. 
Watkins, served as Judges in Prince Edward county. The 
Convention of 1901 did away with the purely county courts, 
as the Underwood Convention had done away with the purely 
magisterial courts. ITnder the Underwood Constitution the 
Circuit of the Fourth Judicial District, which included Prince 
Edward county, consisted of nine counties, in which court 
was held but twice in the year. Under the Constitution of 
1901 the number of the counties were reduced to five, in each 
one of which court was held much more frequently. 

The Circuit Judges, sitting in Prince Edward county 

372 History of Prince Edward County 

under this Circuit arrangement, have been Judge Asa D. 
Dickinson, Judge Francis D. Irving, Judge Samuel F. Cole- 
man, and Judge George Jefferson Hundley, the present in- 

As previously stated, an orderly and exhaustive review 
of the judicial system as affecting Prince Edward county, is 
practically impossible within the scope of this work, but 
the foregoing will perhaps serve to give a general survey 
of the system. 

The following are the present officers of the Court: 

Horace Adams, Clerk. 

Gordon E. West, Deputy Clerk. 

John A. Clark, Sheriff. 

Judge Asa D. Watkins, Commonwealth's Attorney. 

(Hljapter Sixteen 

Agrtrwlturf in l^t'mtt ©»marli dauntg 

History of Prince Edward County 375 


The soil of the county is much like that generally pre- 
vailing in this part of the State. It is generally good, though 
in places somewhat "run down" through over-cultivation with- 
out adequate fertilization. It is varied, sandy, red and choco- 
late loams, or gray loam. It is generally rather highly pro- 
ductive and well adapted to the production of the various 
farm crops of this part of State. Tobacco, wheat, and corn, 
are the chief farm products of the county. 

All forage crops, especially the legumes, are easily 
grown; and the grasses, — clover, timothy, red top, — fehow 
good profits. 

This is not a natural grazing section, except for sheep, 
in which case, however, it ranks well, but its adaptability to 
forage crops and grasses, has given it some prominence as 
a dairying section. Cattle and hogs are profitably raised. 

All fruits and vegetables, common to the State, do well. 
Potatoes frequently yield phenomenally well. 

Marl, coal, and copper ore, are found in the county, 
with some evidence of the presence of other minerals. 

The forest products are poplar, pine, and oak for the 
main part. In recent years there has been some considerable 
cutting of this timber. At the present time two flourishing 
lumber concerns are in operation in Farmville, besides sev- 
eral temporary concerns in other parts of the county. 

The major part of the county is in a state of good cul- 
tivation. The surface of the land is rolling. 

The land is watered by the Appomattox River and its 
man}' branches. 

Agricultural statistics for the county will be found under 
the head of "Statistics" in chapter seventeen. 

Pntta Ebmari (Eouttlg ^tntxBtuB 

1. Population. 

2. Marriage and Divorce. 

3. Vital Statistics. 

4. Agriculture. 

History of Prince Edward County 379 



Total, 1920 14,767. 

Male „ 7,410. 

Female • 7,357. 

White „ 6,584. 

Negro -8,183. 

Negro majority 2,401. 

Increase in white population over census of 1910, 772. 
Decrease in negro population from census of 1910, 275. 

Per cent of negro population 55.4. 

Population per square mile, 41.5. 

Number of dwellings in county, 2,910. 
Number of families in county, 3,055. 

380 History of Prince Edward County 


White couples, 47. Black couples, 95. 

Total, 142. 


Total for the county, 20. 

Adultery, 3; Desertion, 15; Cruelty, 1; Imprisonment, 1. 
White Male Plaintiff: Adultery, 1; Desertion, 1. 
White Female Plaintiff: Adultery, 1; Desertion, 1. 
Black Male Plaintiff: Adultery, 1; Desertion, 7. 
Black Female Plaintiff: Desertion, 6. 

It will be noted that the color of those alleging "Cruelty" 
and "Imprisonment" is not given. 

History of Prince Edioard County 381 


Total births 381 

Illegitimate 35 

Legitimate _. ' 346 


Infants under one year 24 

Typhoid 2 

Whooping cough 3 

Diphtheria 1 

Influenza „ 11 

Tuberculosis of lungs .31 

Meningitis 1 

Bronchitis 1 

Pneumonia 17 

Congenital debility „ 8 

Other causes of early infancy 1 

Cancer 4 

Puerperal _ _ 2 

Accidents 4 

Burns „ 1 

All other causes 83 

Total 194 

Excess of births over deaths 152 


History of Prince Edward County 





Released July 14, 1921. 

The director announces, subject to correction, the follow- 
ing preliminary figures from the Census of Agriculture, for 
Prince Edward county, Va. 

Farms and Jan 1, 
Farm Acreage. 1920 

FARMS 1,843 

Operated by 
White farmers 859 
Col'd farmers 984 
Operated by 
Owners and 

managers 1,263 

Tenants 580 

Land in farms, 
Total, acres 177,522 

acres 71.373 

Apr 15 



924; +6.5 

1,216 +3.9 



66,177; +7.9 Per cent 


Value of land and 

January 1, 1920 

April 15, 1910 

Increase, 1920 over 




Farms reporting 
domestic animals 
Animals reported: 






Jan. 1 

Apr. 15 



















Corn .-1919 




Wheat 1919 




Hay _1919 








6,444 1, 


230,909, bu. 
218,660, bu. 

65,049, bu. 

49,457, bu. 

4,769, tons 

4,845, tons 

3,531,579 lbs. 
5,107.637, lbs. 

*The figures for domestic animals in 1910 are not very 
closely comparable with those for 1920, since the present 

History of Prince Edward County 383 

census was taken in January, before the breeding season 
had begun, while the 1910 census was taken in April, or 
about the middle of the breeding season, and included many 
spring calves, colts, etc. 

1. Social and Economic Conditions. 

2. A Pathetic Letter. 

3. An Old Court Order. 

4. Wonder Booker and the Negro of his day. 

5. Crown Deed from George the Second, Signed by 
Governor Gooch. 

History of Prince Edward County 387 



In the early days of the Colony, almost as a matter oi 
necessity, rather than of choice, the simple life was the 
general rule, for both the rich and the poor alike. What 
was true of the Colony generally was true of Prince Edward 

In the modern acceptation of the term there was but 
very little comfort or luxury. 

For the most part the houses were quite rude and gen- 
eially small. Glazed windows were still somewhat of a curi- 
osity. All the lumber was sawn by hand and the nails were 
wrought by the blacksmith. Practically all articles of do- 
mestic use were made at home. 

On nearly every plantation there were negro smiths, 
carpenters, masons, shoemakers, etc., and generally speak- 
ing, all implements of agriculture, few and very primitive, 
were homemade. The same was true of all house furnishings. 

Koads were but little better than bridle-paths so that 
horseback was the usual mode of travel. A "bridal tour" 
usually meant that the bride went to the home of the groom, 
riding behind him on the same horse. Books were few, but 
that mattered little to most of the folk because they were 
for the most part, very busy during the daytime and there 
was little light for night-reading. 

The well-to-do got their clothes, and their wines, and 
some of their furnishings from England, but the poorer peo- 
ple wore home-spun. The "ladies" had their imported linens 
and silks, which, because they were most excellently made 
and because there were but few occasions for them being 
worn, were handed down to their daughters who were not 
ashamed to wear them. The planters wore broadcloth on 

388 History of Prince Edward County 

public occasions, with short breeches, knee buckles, and silk 
stockings. Pewter, even amongst the well-to-do, was much 
commoner than china, or than silver. 

The negro women were taught to card, spin, and weave, 
and to cut and make the clothes of the children and ser- 
vants. The negro men were taught to make the rude utensils 
of the farm or of the household, and to raise the farm crops. 

Far more attention was paid to the morals of the peo- 
ple then than is given today. The Church wardens kept 
a sharp eye for sinners, bound out orphans, and the children 
of parents who did not take proper care of them, kept down 
immorality as well as they could, and appear to have taken 
their responsibilities in these respects rather seriously. Men 
were taken before the Grand Jury for Sabbath-breaking; were 
prosecuted at law for not attending Church; were publicly 
whipped for cheating at cards and were severely punished 
for swearing. 

Educational facilities in those days were few and very 
simple, but so far as it went, education was of a practical and 
very thorough character. Ordinarily the "three K's" would 
constitute the curriculum, but Latin was taught to all who 
wished, or were required by their parents, to learn it. Many 
of the rich had private tutors and both in these private 
schools, and in the more public institutions of learning, the 
birch and the ferrule were more or less generously adminis- 
tered. For the most part the boys received a better educa- 
tion than fell to the lot of the girls. The girls were usually 
taught music and the old fashioned "spinnet," a sort of 
primitive piano, was the instrument played. 

The chief agricultural products of these early days in 
Prince Edward county, were cereals, hay, and tobacco, which 
were carried, either by ox-cart to Richmond, or by batteau 
down the Appomattox to Petersburg. 

The earlier records are somewhat prolix in the number 

History of Prince Edward County 389 

of the crimes and their punishments that they contain. 
Many of these punishments would today be called excessive 
and barbarous, but they were identical with those inflicted 
in England itself. A crime of a servant against his master; 
or of a wife against her husband, when of a grave nature, 
was c^led "petty treason'' with correspondingly severe pun- 
ishment; most often death. Hog stealing appears to have 
been so persistent that special penalties were provided for it. 
That punishment came at last to take the form of death. 
Then, as now, hogs seemed to have a special fascination for 
the negro and many of them suffered the extreme penalty. 

The crime against women, though of much rarer occur- 
rence than today, was by no means unknown as has been 

One of the most unique laws, at least to us of these lax 
days, was that prescribed for habitual absence from Church; 
50 pounds of tobacco or its equivalent in cash, defaulting 
which, the penalty was to be "Ten lashes on the bare back." 
That was the law for about forty years, 1680-1720! 

Though the severity of the punishment was somewhat 
abated, it was still a misdemeanor for many years later, as 
evidenced by the fact that the Grand Jury at the May 
Court, 1755, amongst others, made a presentment against 
one "John Conneson for not going to any Place of Worship 
in one Month." All of which is suggestive of the close watch 
set by the officials over the morals of the community life 
of Prince Edward county in those "good old days." One 
can scarce refrain from wondering what would be the meas- 
ure of official duty if the same care were to be undertaken 

390 History of Prince Edward County 


The following most interesting letter is on file at the 
Court House in Farmville. It is exceedingly illuminating as 
showing the conditions under which our progenitors lived 
in those now far distant days. Taken in connection with 
the court proceedings which are appended, it is very sugges- 
tive of the severity of our fathers. 

The manuscript is as follows: 


"My Dear Wife— 

The hand of Justice has arrested me in Virginia, at 
a great distance from you and my other dear friends, whom 
I never more expect to see; I do, therefore, write this to 
acquaint you with my lamentable fate, and to convey a 
wretched father's last request and charge to the children 
whom my bleeding heart cherishes with a fondness that 
only death can destroy. — On the 3rd of August, I was taken 
up, together with my companion, M'Elheney, in Nottowa} 
County, charged with carrying off the horses of a Mr. Spen- 
cer, in Charlotte, about fifty miles from the place of our 
capture. From the jail of Nottoway, we were sent, on the 
13th of the same month, for trial, to Charlotte county ; where 
we were detained in prison till the 30th, and then, by the 
examining court, were sent down to Prince Edward, to be 

History of Prince Edward County 391 

tried before the District Court; on the 1st of September, our 
trial came on, and the jury having brought us in GUILTY, 
on the 9th, we received the awful sentence of DEATH! 

AVhat a melancholy scene does the history of a few days 
present to your view! Surely I must have been infatuated 
to have brought myself into a situation where every day's 
anguish of mind would more than balance the follies and 
fancied pleasures of all my past days of dissipation; and, 
yet these distressful days are the prelude to the tremendous 
day of my execution, and the most tremendous day of stand- 
ing at the bar of the eternal God, in judgment. 

Oh! my dear, what shall I do? My soul shudders at 
the Catastrophe to which I am reduced, and which I am un- 
able now to prevent. O! that I had contented myself at 
home in industrious labor, with you and my dear, DEAR 
children — then I might have em joyed peace, with the most 
homely fare; whereas, now, I am torn violently from you all, 
forever ! and have brought distressing ignominy and reproach 
upon myself and family. But this regret is useless now — I 
have no prospect of any redief , but from the God of mercy 
and compassion. To Him, I have been attempting to turn 
my distressed thoughts, and to seek His mercy and grace, 
ever since my confinement in Charlotte. But the thought 
of you and my poor deiar children, so overwhelms and over- 
burdens my distressed mind, that I scarce can command one 
calm reflection. 

My dear creature; as I never more expect to see you in 
this world, I beseech and charge you to take care of our poor 
children as well as you can — let me entreat you, by the love 
and affection that always subsisted between us, not to suf- 
fer any person to use them ill, if you can help it. I hope 
that the dying words of a husband that loves you, will pre- 
vail with you to keep the children out of the way of bad com- 
pany, lest the untimely wretched fate of their poor father 

392 History of Prince Edward County 

should be their's. Let me also beseech you, to take more care 
of their precious immortal souls, than we both have done; 
and that you may the better succeed in this, be engaged for 
your own salvation — for death may be as near you as it is 
me; it may seize you, at home and in selcurity, as well as it 
has unexpectedly approached me — and I am sure, if you saw 
the grim messenger, as plain as I now view him, ready to 
grasp you in his dreadful arms, you would feel your need 
of a change of heart, and an interest in Jesus Christ, who, 
only, can save the lost. O ! fly, fly from the wrath to come, 
and warn our beloved children, also, to escape the terrors of 
the law. Bring them up in the fear of God, and keep them 
from the vile practices of a sinful world; so may you look 
for a blessing from that merciful God, who is the widow's 
guardian and the orphan's friend. Oh; if I were a faith- 
ful servant of that God, how easily I might leave you under 
His protection and fatherly care; for He hath promised, in 
Jeremiah, 49 ch. 11 v., ''Leave thy fatherless children, I will 
preserve them alive, and let thy widow trust in me." Now, 
my dear, let my entreaties prevail with you to seek the Lord 
for yourself and for your children; and when I am dead and 
forgotten, as I soon shall be, let me be considered as yet 
speaking in this mournful letter. Call my dear fatherless 
children around you, to hear what their miserable father has 
to say to them: 

Come, my fatherless, unfortunate little ones: come, listen 
to your dying parent's last request and charge. I have been 
too negligent of your precious perishing souls, while I was 
with you — I now confess it, before God and you, and would 
try to make one feeble attempt, before I die, to say some- 
thing to you for your good. I beseech, I conjure, I command 
you all, to seek the Lord in the days of your youth ; quit the 
follies of the idle and thoughtless, and try to give your- 
selves up to God in time, lest His wrath burn fiercely against 
you forever. Don't give way to frolicking and company- 

History of Prince Edward County 393 

keeping; these ruin and destroy many a soul. Be resolved 
to seek God's mercy, let others do what they will ; pray much, 
avoid the wicked, and all of you carefully associate with 
people of good characters. Be industrious, for idleness leads 
into bad company, extravagance and wickedness of every 
kind; it often leads into dishonesty and RUIN. My dear 
daughter, by beloved Nancy Goodrich, I think I see you 
weeping by your mama's side, while she reads; let me ad- 
dress you particularly; you are grown up to be a woman; 
remember that virtue and religion will be your greatest orna- 
ments. If you behave well and shun bad company, you 
may be happy and esteemed, though your unfortunate father 
is not. Assist your dear distressed mother; obey her, and try 
to comfort her in her afflictions — may the almighty God bless 
you, my dear child, and make us meet in a better world. How 
can I support under the grief that wrings my heart while 
I bid you a long farewell. My poor Howell and Edward, 
will you remember your poor father's words ; my heart bleeds 
for you, my poor dear fellows, lest you should live wickedly 
and die miserably — resolve to be good boys, and obey your 
poor dear mother in all things; do your best to help her, in 
an honest way. If you behave well, and be industrious, you 
will always be encouraged by good people. Never associate 
with idle, wicked company, lest you come to the unhappy 
end of your unfortunate father — my poor boys, seek and 
serve the Lord, and He will bless you. Oh! that He will 
pity your youth and teach you His ways — farewell, my 
dear fellows, farewell! Clerimon and Dolly, little Tommy 
and Queen Polly ; dear babes and children, how I could press 
you to my bosom, if you were here; but, oh no, my rough 
irons would hurt your tender limbs. Oh, for one parting 
kiss from my dear children, but that cannot be; I am to die 
without seeing you; then, remember what your dear daddy 
says to you — be good children, pray to God every day, do 
what your mama bids you, and as you grow up, help her 

394 History of Prince Edward County 

with all your might to provide and maintain you all in an 
industrious way. My sweet little children, I am not fit to 
bless you, but I hope the God of Mercy will. 

My blessed wife, if you have had another child since I 
left home, let it also know my fate when it gets old enough, 
and warn it thus to avoid an end like mine. Tell my poor 
mother, that her hapless son is just about to be hurried out 
of this world — I expect she will be shocked and distressed, 
but I hope God will support her. I hope my brothers and 
sisters will have compassion on my distressed family, and 
not grudge to do them every kindness in their power — ^the 
Lord will reward their kind hearts, if they act thus and also 
serve Him. I here bid them all an affectionate farewell. 
My dear soul; it is but justice that, with my dying hands, I 
record how I regard you, and declare, that I never saw a 
woman on whom I could better depend. May God reward 

Let Howell be bound apprentice, when about nineteen, 
to some trade; let him have his choice. If you ever marry 
again, bind out all the boys; but if you live a widow, you 
cannot do without them — keep what little there is together, 
for your needy rising family. And now, as it appears prob- 
able that we shall never see each other in the face again in 
this world, let us try to cast ourselves into the arms of God's 
mercy, and seek His favor, that we may be allowed to 
meet in a happier world hereafter. And now, my dearest 
love, how shall I take my last leave of you on earth! Oh, 
how shall I say that we must meet no more, until the Heavens 
and the Earth pass away — ^there must we meet before the 
JUDGMENT SEAT ! How can I bear to think that I am 
dead to you forever! My God, support my wife — and, oh, 
have mercy upon her wretched, but most affectionate hus- 

"P. S. The time appointed for our execution, is the 

History of Prince Edward County 395 

16th October. Keep this letter to show to the children as 
they grow up, and take a copy of it, which I wish you, for 
my sake, to read often to them. Farewell, my dearest wife, 
farewell! F. Briggs." 

The first Order in this case stands under date of Tues- 
day, September 1, 1789, as follows: "William Mackelhany 
and Frederick Briggs, late of the Parish of Cornwall, in the 
County of Charlotte, labourers, who stand jointly indicted 
for felony, were led to the Bar in the custody of the Jailor, 
and thereof arraigned and severally pleaded not guilty to the 
indictment, and for their trial put themselves upon God 
and their country, whereupon an jury,'' etc. 

They were then remanded to jail, and on the 9th, Sep- 
tember, at the same court, the following entry occurs : "Wil- 
liam Mackelhany and Frederick Briggs, late of the Parish 
of Cornwall, in the County of Charlotte, labourers, who stand 
jointly convicted of Horse Stealing, were again led to the 
Bar, and, being asked what they had to say why sentence 
of Death should not be pronounced against them according 
to law, severally answered they had nothing to say further 
than they had already said. Therefore it is considered by 
the Court that the said William Mackelhaney and Frederick 
Briggs, for their offense aforesaid, be severally hanged by 
the neck until they be dead, and command is given to the 
Sheriff of Prince Edward County, that he do execution of 
this judgment at the public gallows on Friday the Sixteenth 
Day of October next, between the hours of ten o'clock in the 
forenoon, and four o'clock in the afternoon." 

And it was done accordingly. 

396 History of Prince Edward County 


The following page of an old Court Order, is interesting, 
as illustrative of the method of doing the county business 
at that time in vogue: 

"At a Court in the County of Prince Edward, the Twen- 
ty-ninth Day of November, 1754, for laying County levy. 

PRESENT: John Nash, James Wimbish, David Flour- 
noy, James Erwin, and Thomas Haskins, Gentlemen, Justices. 

lbs. Tobacco. 

To the Clerk, for his Ex Officio 1248 

To the Sheriff's for Ditto 1248 

To Mr. Clement Read, King's Attorney 936 

To John LeNeve, for laying off Ten acres Land, 

Prison bounds 350 

To Honourable, the Secretary for Commission 
Peace and Dedimus and writ of election of 
Burgesses „ _. 357 


To John Le Neve for two Record Books at 43s 

To John Le Neve for one Record Book at 26s 

To Honourable, the Secretary for the second 

Commission of the Peace and Dedimus 112 

To John LeNeve for sending for a Commission 

of the Peace, etc _ £1.10.0 

To Richard Washburn for one old Wolf's Head 

certified by George Walker - 100 

To Abraham Baker for one old Wolf's Head 

certified by James AVimbish - 100 

History of Prince Edward County 397 

To William Searcey for one young Wolf's Head 

certified by George Walker „ .~. 50 


To the Sheriff for Sundry Services, Gross, 300 240 

To the Clerk for Sundry Services, Gross, 90 63 

To Captain Anderson, for Guarding Abraham 

Womack 25 days, 750 

To Captain Anderson for Guarding Timothy 

SuUivant 19 days, _ - 570 


To William King, 17 days Guard over Womack 

To William King, 6 Days Guard over Chapman 690 

To Joel Stubblefield, 29 Days a Guard 870 

To Alexander LeGrand, 6 Days a Guard 180 

To John Philips, 6 Days a Guard - 180 


To Captain Anderson, for the use of his kitchen 

as a Prison, 49 Days - ,....jB4.0.0 

To Captain Anderson for changing for Court 

House 300 

To Mr. Nash, for paid John Bentley, Sending 

for Books £2.10.0 

To Eichard Perryman, for Prison Chimney 

£1 .6.0 
To Captain Anderson, for Labouring Diet 
and Time £1.15.0 


398 History of Prince Edward County 

To Tobacco to be sold for Discharge Money Debts .-22593 
To Sheriff's Commission at six per cent on 33040 1982 


To the County Credit by 826 Tithes at 40 lbs. per 

Pole „ „ 33040 

Ordered that the Sheriffs of this County Collect of 
every tithable person in this County, 40 pounds Tobacco per 
Pole, and in case of non-payment, to Distrain. 

And it is ordered that the Sheriff enter into Bond next 
Court. Mr. John Nash is appointed to receive of the Sheriff 
of this County 22593 lbs. of Tobacco as Collected and Dispose 
of the Same at the Best Price he can get, and that he account 
with this Court for the same when required. — 
Jho. Nash." 

It will be observed that Tobacco served as a common 
medium of exchange, doubtless because of the shortage of 
money, in "those good old days," hence we have no monopoly 
of that distressing ailment. 

History of Prince Edward County 399 


WONDER BOOKER, celebrated negro character, living 
in the County, attained the advanced age of 126 years, 
dying within the County in 1819. 

He was a slave and belonged to Mr. George Booker. 
He received the name "WONDER" "from the circumstance 
that his mother was in her 58th year at he time of his 
birth. He was of great strength of body, and his natural 
powers, which were far superior to those of color in gen- 
eral, he retained in surprising degree. He was a constant 
laborer in his master's garden until within eight or ten years 
of his death." 

A notable feature of the minutes of the early days of 
the County, contained in the Order Books of the County 
Court, is the large space given to cases respecting property 
rights in negro slaves, and many cases of felony and mis- 
demeanors committed by negroes. That all was not an un- 
clouded Paradise in the days of slavery, is thus made very 
manifest, for then, as now, a disproportionate part of the 
time of the Court was taken up with cases arising from the 
colored element of the population. 

400 History of Prince Edward County 


Doubtless there are very few families in Prince Edward 
County in position to boast of continuous residence upon 
land devised directly from the British Crown in the days 
of the Georges, Second and Third. There are fewer still 
who have retained, and can produce, the original Sheep- 
skin Deed. 

Numbered amongst these few are the Elams of the western 
section of the county. Mr. William Carter Elam holds title 
to a part of such a grant, with possession of the original 
Crown Deed, written on genuine "sheep-skin." He is a 
direct descendant of the Lodwick Elam to whom the grant 
was made and the property so devised has never wanted one 
of that descent and bearing that honorable name, to own 
and reside upon the land. He owns, lives upon, and works, 
a part of the original grant which has never been out of the 
family. Mr. Elam's post office address is Prospect, Virginia. 
A married sister, Mrs. Robert H. Reynolds, also resides upon 
another section of the original grant. 

Two parcels of land were devised to Lodwick Elam; 
the first, containing four hundred acres, under date of March 
20, 1745, in the nineteenth year of the reign of the Second 
George; the second, for three hundred and ninety-five acres, 
bearing date of May 23, 1763, in the third year of the reign 
of the Third George ; the king of the Revolutionary period. 

Believing that the student of history will be interested 
in these rare documents, we have vettitured to re-prod,uce 
the earlier one of the two deeds. 

"GEORGE THE SECOND, by the Grace of God, of 
Great Britain, France, and Ireland, King, Defender of the 
Faith, &c.. 

History of Prince Edioard County 401 

COME, Greetings: 

KNOW YE, that for divers good causes and considera- 
tions, but more especially for and in consideration of the 
sum of FORTY SHILLINGS, of good and lawful money 
for our use Paid to our Receiver General of our Revenues 
in this our Colony and Dominion of Virginia. 

WE HAVE Given, Granted, and Confirmed, and by 
these Presents, for us, our heirs and successors, Do Give, 
Grant, and Confirm unto Lodwick Elam, one certain Tract 
or Parcel of Land containing Four Hundred Acres, lying 
and being in the County of Amelia on the Head Branches 
of the North Fork of Falling Creek and bounded as fol- 
lows, to wit: 

BEGINNING at a corner white oak on the north side 
of the said fork; thence South eight Degreesi, West one 
hundred and sixty-nine Poles, crossing the fork to a corner 
red oak. Thence West eight Degrees, North three hundred 
and eighty Poles to a comer large white oak in a Branch 
of Vaughans Creek, Thence North eight Degrees East one 
hundred and sixty-nine Poles to a Corner white oak, Thence 
East eight Degrees south three hundred and eighty Poles to 
the beginning. 

WITH ALL Woods, Underwoods, Swamps, Marshes, 
Low Grounds, Meadows, Feedings, and his due share of all 
Veins, Mines and Quarries, as well discovered as not dis- 
covered, within the bounds aforesaid and being Part of the 
said Quantity of four hundred Acres of Land, and the 
Rivers, Waters, and Water Courses therein contained, to- 
gether with the Privileges of Hunting, Hawking, Fishing, 
Fowling, and all other Profits, Commodities, Hereditaments 
whatsoever to the Same or any Part thereof, belonging, or 
in any wise appertaining. 

402 History of Prince Edward County 

TO HAVE, HOLD, Possess and Enjoy the said Tract 
or Parcel of Land and all other, the before-granted Premises 
and every Part thereof with their and every of their Appur- 
tenances unto the said Lodwick Elam, and to his Heirs and 
Assigns forever. To the only use and behalf of his, the said 
Lodwick Elam, his Heirs and Assigns forever, 

TO BE HELD of us, our Heirs and Successors as of 
our Mannor of East Greenwich in the County of Kent, in 
free and common Soccage and not in Capite or by Knights 

YIELDING AND PAYING unto us, our Heirs and 
Successors for every fifty Acres of Land and so proportion- 
ately for a lesser or greater Quantity than fifty Acres, the 
Fee Rent of one Shilling Yearly, to be paid upon the Feast 
of Saint Michael the Arch Angel and also Cultivating and 
Improving three Acres Part of every fifty of the Tract 
above-mentioned within three Years after the Date of these 

PROVIDED always that if three Years of the said Fee 
Rent shall at any time be in Arrears and Unpaid, or if the 
said Lodwick Elam, his Heirs or Assigns do not within the 
Space of Three Years next coming after the Date of these 
Presents, Cultivate and Improve three Acres Part of every 
fifty of the Tract above-mentioned, Then the Estate hereby 
Granted shall Cease and be Utterly Determined and there- 
after it shall and may be Lawful to and for us, our Heirs 
and Successors to Grant the same Lands and Premises with 
the Appurtenances unto such other Person or Persons as 
we, our Heirs, and Successors shall think fit, 

IN WITNESS whereof we have Caused these our Let- 
ters Patent to be WITNESS our Trusty and well-beloved Wil- 
liam Gooch, Esquire, our Lieutenant Governor and Command- 
er-in-Chief of our said Colony and Dominion at Williams- 

History of Prince Edward County 403 

burgh, Under the Seal of our said Colony, the twentieth 
Day of March, one thousand seven hundred and forty-five, 
In the nineteenth Year of our Reign. — 

William Gooch." 

(Endorsed on the back, "Lodwick Elam's Patent for 400 
acres, Amelia") 

The reader will, of course, bear in mind the fact that 
Prince Edward County was not yet divided from Amelia 
county; that was done by act of 1753; the property above- 
described was, however, situated in that part of Amelia 
County afterwards cut off to constitute Prince Edward 

But little punctuation was done in this original docu- 
ment, laboriously transcribed by hand, most of what appears 
has been done by the author where thought necessary to 
make clearer the intent of the patent. 

The writing was done in splendid penmanship style and 
remains in a condition of remarkable legibility despite the 
many intervening years. 

History of Prince Edward County 407 


The following books, papers, and magazines have been 
called into requisition in preparation of this work: 

Howes' "Historical Collections of Virginia." 

Chandler and Thames' "Colonial Virginia." 

McDonald's "Life in Old Virginia." 

Kidpath's History of the United States. 

Henning's "Acts of the Legislature." 

State Library Papers on the House of Burgesses and 

State Library List of Revolutionary Soldiers of Vir- 
ginia, 1912. 

Virginia State Library, Ninth Annual Report of the 
Library Board and State Librarian, 1911, 1912. 

McAllister's "Virginia Militia of the Revolutionary 

Virginia Historical Magazine. 

Captain John Smith's History of Virginia. Two vol- 

Meade's "Old Churches and old Families of Virginia." 

Foote's "Sketches of Virginia." 

John Randolph's Address. The war of 1812. 

McGuire and Christian, "The Confederate Cause and 
Conduct in the War Between the States." 

"The Rebellion: Official Records of the Union and Con- 
federate Armies." 

"William and Mary College." 

Adams' "Thomas Jefferson and the University of Vir- 

408 History of Prince Edward County 

"The Virginian." Normal School, Farmvidle, 1909. 
Sarah Dorsey's, "Recollections of Henry Watkins Allen." 
Tyler's "Life of Patrick Henry." 
"The Life of General Joseph E. Johnston." — 
"A Sketch of Dr. John Peter Mettauer of Virginia." 
Dr. G. B. Johnson. 

Jeter's "Life of Daniel Witt, D. D." 
Bennett's "History of Methodism." 
Semple's "Baptists in Virginia." 

Unitel State Census reports; Department of Agriculture 
"Handbook of Virginia"; Files of the "Farmville Herald"; 
"Manual of West Hanover Presbytery;" etc. etc. 

And, in addition, I am gratefully indebted to generous 
help received from Dr. H. R. Mcllwaine, State Librarian of 
Virginia; Dr. W. A. Harris of Richmond University; Judge 
G. J. Hundley, Farmville; Judge J. M. Crute, Farmville; 
Mrs. Roberta H. Large; Senator Robert K. Brock; Dr. J. 
D. Eggleston, President of Hampden-Sidney College; Mrs. 
George Ben Johnson, Richmond; Dr. J. L. Jarman, State 
Female Normal School, Farmville; to the State Officers, and 
to a kindly host of friends, who in various ways have as- 
sTsted in the compilation of this work. 

The County Records and Deed Books, which were found 
to be in a remarkably good state of preservation, have been 
most diligently searched, in which arduous labor most cheer- 
ful and timely assistance was rendered by Mr. Horace Adams, 
County Clerk, and Mr. Gordon E. West, Deputy County 






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